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THE J 

STANDARD 

BOOK 
OF 

KNOWLEDGE 

CARY 



/7l 




luusTiwm) 



AG 

105 
I .C332 
I 1904 



I HBF 



PROGRESS. 

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THE ' 

Standard Book of Knowledge 



AN 



AMERICAN HOME EDUCATOR 

TEN GREAT BOOKS IN ONE'VOLUME 

THE CULMINATION OF CENTURIES OF HUMAN EFFORT 

Showing the Newest Conditions of Industry, Commerce, Invention, 
Science, Art, Literature, Philosophy, Etc., Etc. 



INCLUDING ALSO 

SELF-INSTRUCTION IX BOOKKEEPING, COMPUTATION, CORRESPONDENCE, POINTS 

op J j aw and Legal Forms, Penmanship and Shorthand 
supplemented by 
Review Questions eor students 

editor-in-chief 
FERDINAND ELLSWORTH CARY, A. M. 

HISTORIAN AND BIOGRAPHER 

ASSISTED BY 

MORTON MacCORMAC, A. M. EDWARD J. DAHMS 

President of MacCormac School of Correspondence Attorney and Counsellor at Law 

A. N. PALMER 

Editor of the Western Penman 

AND A CORPS OF SELECTED SPECIALISTS 

Superbly Embellished with Hundreds of Phototype Engravings, 
Adding- Beauty and Value to the Work 

ADVENTtSl 
HBVmOE CENTER 
J«nM White Library 
ANDREWS UNtVEHSHY 



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CpPYHIGMT 1904 
BY 

FERDINAND ELLSWORTH GARY 



All rights reserved. 



we 
itetL 



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INTRODUCTION 



THIS volume might well be entitled, "THE WORLD UP-TO-DATE," for such is 
the true scope of its contents. It sets before the reader in a nutshell all important 
things which have been achieved by various nations for the social, moral, material 
and intellectual uplifting of mankind. 

No field of modern research has been left untouched ; no arena of activity has been 
neglected ; no portion of the globe has been overlooked or forgotten when gathering facts 
for this, the most concise and yet comprehensive work ever offered the public. 

For brevity, it is much like the History of America which one of our great historians 
was recently asked to write. Upon asking the size required, the publishers, with a keen 
knowledge of the wants and needs of the American people in this busy age, replied i 
"Give us a history in ten thousand words and we will pay you one hundred thousand 
dollars." 

In the shop, on the railroad, in the store, on the farm, in the factory, the counting 
ro«m, the society meeting, in casual contact on the bustling street, in the seclusion of 
the fireside and amid the whirl of mighty mechanism, interrogations— subjective or 
objective — constantly confront the individual, all of which are correctly answered here. 

New conditions in every sphere of effort have superseded the old; hew problems 
have arisen requiring new solutions in order to assure success. New ideas, new plans- 
all must be worked out, and herein are found ways and means to this end. This volume, 
therefore, comprehending as it does all branches of knowledge, appeals directly to the 
actual and vital needs of every class of men and women. It can, in fact, be called a 
complete modern library, available to transform the home, at will, into a veritable school 
for practical instruction. 

The publishers have embellished these pages with photographs secured at an expense 
Of thousands of dollars, and in some cases even at the risk of human life. The interior 
of the factory, the scientist at work in his laboratory, the different processes of manu- 
facturing, splendid views of nature in her sublimest moods, new methods of mining, 
and, in fact, every subject susceptible of being photographed are here presented to the 
eye, with the aid of the camera, and grandly supplement the text matter. 

I confidently believe that this volume will prove of practical use in everyday life to 
all who study its pages. 

THE AUTHOR. 



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THE OPEN AIR CURE FOR CONSUM PTION — LEYSBN, SWITZERLAND 
Night quarters for men. EacU person is a applied with a hot water bottle for ihe feet. 

6 



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TEN GREAT BOOKS IN ONE VOLUME 



Book I 

MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 

Achievements of the world's most ingenious minds — wondrous ad- 
vance in every department of universal knowledge - - - 23 to 132 



Book II 

' WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 

Manifesting prodigious strides in all lines of human endeavor — A 
century's accomplishment in a decade 133 to 256 

Book III 

VIVID ARRAY OF FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 

Objects famous the world over — Impressive scenes far and near — 
Peculiarities and products distinguishing widely separated localities — 
257 to 374 

Book IV 

A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 

Information that enriches the mind and enlivens the heart - 375 to 450 



Book V 

SOLID FOOD FOR SOUND MINDS 

Reading that makes one wiser and happier - - - 451 to 511 

7 

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8 



TEN GREAT BOOKS IN ONE VOLUME 



Book VI 

FACTS FOR THE CURIOUS 

Pages pithy with useful information 5 11 to 53 6 

Book VII 

HOW TO DO BUSINESS 

Self-instruction in Book-keeping — Short Methods of Computation— 
Points of Law and Legal Forms — Business and Social Correspondence 
— Spelling and Punctuation 537 to 628 



Book VIII 

COMPLETE SCHOOL OF PENMANSHIP AT HOME 

Self-instruction in Modern Writing — The Successful Plan — How to 
Develop Muscular Action — Preparatory Motions, Drills, etc., 629 to 650 



Book IX 

COMPLETE SCHOOL OF SHORTHAND AT HOME 

Lessons for mastering the most modern system— Future Prospects of 
Shorthand — Typewriting -------- 652 to 664 



Book X 

ONE HUNDRED WAYS TO MAKE MONEY 

Getting on in the world— The cause of failure— If not a success, 
why?— How to be promoted— The secret of material success, etc, 

« etc, * r » , - , , „ . . . - 665 to 673 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 5 

Illustrations 699 

Review Questions foe Students ..... 675 

BOOK 1.— MODERN" INVENTIONS AND 
DISCOVERIES. 

Achievements of the World's Host Ingenious 
Minds— Wondrous Advance in Every 
Department of Universal 
Knowledge. 

SHIPS OF THE AIR 23 

Dumont Rounds the Eiffel Toweb . . 23 

Monstrous Balloon 24 

Lianglet Flying Machine 27 

AUTOMOBILES AND THEIR DEVELOP- 
MENT 28 

Electric IIotob 28 

Gasoline Motor 29 

Steam Motor 30 

MESSAGES WITHOUT WIRES 32 

The Coherer 33 

The Hertzian Wave 33 

ROENTGEN X-RAY 35 

The Geissler Tube 35 

The Induction Con, 35 

The Crookes Tube 37 

The Shadowgraph 38 

Production of X-Ray 38 

NEW WONDERS OP THE ELECTRICAL 

WORLD 43 

The Dynamo 44 

The Trolley Cab Motob 44 

The Telephone 44 

The Incandescent Light 46 

The Arc Light . - . 45 

Positive and Negative Carbons ... 46 

Nikola Tesla 51 

Sending Pictures Over Wire .... 51 

Transmitting Speech by Light Beams 51 

LATEST MACHINES OF MODERN WAR- 
FARE 52 

Lyddite 53 

Smokeless Powdeb 63 

Nitbo-Glycerine ......... 53 

The "Dum-Dum" Bullet ...... 54 

Torpedoes and Mines 55 

The Gatling and Hotchkiss Guns . . 56 

The Armstrong and Maxim Guns . . 56 

The Searchlioht 57 

Making of Armor Plate 58 

Six New Battleships 63 

A SLOT MACHINE THAT ■ TAKES PHO- 
TOGRAPHS . , , , 63 



pagb 

NEW DISCOVERIES IN THE FIELD OP 

MEDICINE AND SURGERY ... 64 

Microbes 64 

Consumption . . 65 

Violet Light 65" 

Liquid Air in the Treatment of Ulcers 

and Erysipelas 66 

The X-Ray in Surgery 66 

Hydrophobia 67 

Appendicitis 68 

Diphtheria 68 

SUPRARENALIN 70 

ACETYLENE GAS 70 

WONDERFUL MOVING PICTURES ... 72 
THE LARGEST AND FASTEST TROLLEY 

CAR 74 

A Speed of 110 Miles an Houe ... 74 

Edison's Swift Trolley Cab .... 75 

Trackless Trolleys .75 

BREAD SUPPLIED FROM THE ATMOS- 
PHERE 77 

Nitrates Essential to Wheat-Growth 77 

Science Will Give Bread to All . . 77 

NIAGARA WATER-POWER 78 

LIQUID AIR— ITS WONDERFUL POWER 81 

Method of Making It 81 

Vastly More Powerful Than Com- 
pressed Air 81 

Temperature, 312 Degrees Below Zero 81 
May Be Used fob Fuel and Motive 

Power 81 

NEW PROCESS OF MAKING STAINED 

GLASS WINDOWS 85 

A Mosaic of Colored Glass .... 86 

Staining 86, 87 

A Very Dirty Process 87 

NEW METHODS OF MAKING PORCELAIN 88 
The Locality of Its Highest Develop- 
ment 89 

Kaolin, or Porcelain Clay . .... 88 

The Process of Manufacture .... 88 

Temperature in the Kilns 89 

The Painting and Gilding 89 

The Pottery Districts of America . . 90 
A NEW PROCESS FOR MAKING WHITE 

LEAD 91 

An Old Industry 91 

The Dutch Process 91 

The Electrolytic Method 91 

MARVELOUS METALS RECENTLY DIS- 
COVERED 92 

Radium and Polonium Throw Out 

Light that Shines Through Iron 93 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE! 

MARVELOUS METALS RECENTLY DIS- 
COVERED.— Continued. 

Radium's Utilities 93, 

Woman Scientist's Achievement . . 93 

Radium's Mighty Explosive Powek . . 93 
But Two Pounds of Radium in the 

"World 93 

Value $1,000,000 Per Pound .... 93 

Radiograph of a Mouse 93 

The Properties and Possible Uses of 

Polonium . . 93 

SNAP-SHOTS OF THE HUMAN VOICE . 94 

Chbonophotogbaphy 94 

M. Marage's Scheme 94 

Photographing Aib Currents .... 94 

THE SOLAR FURNACE— POWER FROM 

THE SUN 95 

Fob Steam Engines 95 

Fob Pumping Plants 95 

Fob Smelting Ores and Minerals . . 95 

Fob Household Use 96 

Fob Stobing Heat and Power ... 96 

A TELEGRAPH MACHINE THAT PRINTS 96 
The Page-Printing Telegeafh .... 97 
Manneb and Rapidity of Its Opebation 97 

TIN MAKING IN THE TWENTIETH CEN- 
TURY 98 

The Old Method 98 

How the Tinning Machine Works . . 98 

The Bbanner 99 

The Coating Process 101 

SUBMARINE NAVIGATION SCORES NEW 

TRIUMPHS 102 

The "Gymnote" 103 

The "Holland" . 103 

"The Argonaut" 104 

Torpedo Boats 104 

SAVING SHIPS AND LIVES AT SEA . . 105 

The Hydrogbaphic Office 106 

The Lighthouse 106 

The Iceberg 107 

The Thermopile 107 

The Life Buoy 108 

The Breeches Buoy 109 

The Minot's Ledge Beacon .... llo 

THE PHONOGRAPH HO 

Philosophy of Its Operation .... Ill 

DlSCOVEBY AND INVENTION ..... Ill 

THE HORSELESS VEHICLE 113 

Different Kinds of Motive Poweb . . 112 
Recobd Speed of a Steam Automobile . 113 
The Buksew Burner . 113 

INVENTIONS MINIMIZING FARM LABOR 117 

The Binder 119 

The Husker and Sheeddeb 119 

THE SEWING MACHINE 121 

Inventobs of Sewing Machines . . . 121 

THE KNITTING MACHINE 122 

Construction and Operation of the 
Modern Upright Rotary Knitter . 123 

THE SEMI-AUTOMATIC PIANO PLAYER 124 

THE SPYGMOGRAPH 125 

How the Pulse Keeps a Record of Its 
Own Beatings , . 125 



MOB 

THE SPIROGRAPH .125 

How the Action of the Lungs Record 

Respiration 125 

PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE USE OF THE 

CAMERA 127 

The Telephotograph 127 

Taking Pictures of the Heavens . . 128 

The Spectbum 129 

Electbogbaph .......... 129 

BOOK II. — WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL 
PROGRESS. 

Manifesting- Prodigious Strides in All Lines 
of Human Endeavor — A Century's 
Accomplishment in a 
Decade. 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST MEAT MART . 133 

600 Acres of Business 133 

200 Miles of Railroad Tracks . . . 134 

GOVERNMENT InSPECTOBS OF MEATS . . 136 

Pork Tested by the Microscope . . . 136 
Process of Slaughtering and Dressing 138 

Nothing Wasted 140 

Refrigeration 144 

hog-kllling and dressing 144 

Sheep-Killing 147 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE SKYSCRAPER 150 
Building Walls from the Uppep Stories 

Downward 15 0 

Old and New Style Foundations . . 152 
The Architectural Iron Worker . . 152 
FntEPRoOFiNG 157 

MARVELOUS DEVELOPMENT OF PRINT- 
ING APPARATUS 158 

First Use of Movable Types .... 158 

Blaew's Improved Press 158 

Fibst Cast-Iron Printing Press and 
Fibst Levees Used ....... 158 

First Press Without a Screw . . . 158 
First Flat-Bed Cylinder Press . . . 160 
Screw and Levers Replaced by Toggle 

Joint in Peter Smith's Invention 160 
Rust's Important Improvement . . . 160 
Hoe's Improvements 160 

RAILROAD ENCIRCLING THE GLOBE . 161 
$400,000,000 on the Siberian Railway 161 
On the Russian Side ....... 162 

Tunnel Under the Sea 163 

On the American Side 163 

UP-TO-DATE DREDGING MACHINES . . 164 

The Dipper Dredge 165 

The Clam-Shell Dredge '. 165 

MAMMOTH CATERING ENTERPRISES . 166 
Cooking and Canning fob the Mabket . 166 
Fifty Acres of Floor Space Used by 

One Concebn igg 

AUSTRALIA'S GREAT RAILWAY PROJ- 

320 T «»•••-. ]_7 2 

Bonus of 90,000,000 Acres of Land" .' ' 172 
Difficulties of Building Railroad 
Across Australia . . 170 

BIGGEST SHIPS AFLOAT ..!*'" 173 
The "Celtic" . . . . . . . * 173 

The Steam Turbine t 173 



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TABLE OF. CONTENTS 



BIGGEST SHIPS AFLOAT. — Continued. 

The "Viper" and "Cobra" .... 174 

The "Arrow" 174 

The ''Minnesota" 174 

Largest Vessel Ever Built in America 174 

EGG CANDLING BY MACHINERY . . .176 
EVOLVING NEW KINDS OP WHEAT . . 177 
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DAILY 

NEWSPAPER 179 

How Made Up 179 

How Sent Out 179 

The Associated Press 180 

Local News and the Reporters . . . 181 
Essential Qualities in the Newspaper 

Man 181 

Reporting a Fire 182 

"Scoop" on a Suicide 182 

The City Editor 182 

The Copy Reader and Proofreaders . 183 

The Composing Room 183 

The Linotype 183 

Stereotyping 185 

The Press Room ....... 185 

The Presses 186 

Feeding Paper From Great Rolls . . 186 
From the Press Room to the Reader . 186 
Making the Illustrations .... 187 
The Advertising Department the Only 

Source of Profit 188 

THE "SOO'S" GREAT POWER CANAL . . 189 
Lake Superior Gives the "Soo" Canal 

200,000 Horse-Power 189 

Construction op the Canal .... 189 
Large Tract of New Land Made 
Through Excavation 190 

THE WORLD'S STUPENDOUS GRANARY 190 
Great Increase in Capacity of Manu- 
facture 190 

Mechanical Processes op a Great Flour 

Mill 191 

Decrease in Price of Flour . . .' . . 192 
The New Monster Elevators .... 193 
The Modern Terminal Elevator . . . 193 

Outside Storage Tanks 194 

State Supervision of Terminal Grain 

Markets 195 

Grain Production of the United States, 
in Bushels, for Certain Years . 196 

RAILWAYS THE ARTERIES OF COM- 
MERCE 197 

Improvement in Theib Construction and 

Operation 197 

Modern Train Equipment 197 

Railways Abroad 198 

GREAT TUNNELS OF THE WORLD . . 199 

The Hoosac Tunnel 199 

Boston and New York Tunnels . . . 199 
The Chicago Tunnel for Conduits . . 200 
The Paris Metropolitan Railway Tun- 
nel . . 200 

The St. Gothard Tunnel 200 

Railroad 31 Miles Long Costing 

152,000,000 200 

The Arlberg Tunnel 201 



PAGE 



GREAT TUNNELS OF THE WORLD. — 
Continued. 

Mt. Cenis Tunnel 202 

The Simplon Tunnel 202 

SCIENCE THE BENEFACTOR OF THE 

FARMER 203 

Protein an Essential in Cattle Feed . 203 
Patent Medicinal Stock Foods . . . 204 
The Iowa Agricultural College Ex- 
periment 204 

By-Products of Corn 205 

POULTRY KILLING BY MACHINERY . . 206 

The Fattening Room 206 

The Killing Floor 207 

The Scalding Process 207 

HOW GLASS IS MADE TO-DAY .... 208 

Melting the Silicates 208 

Finishing Lenses 208 

Making Thermometer Tubes .... 208 
IRRIGATION OF THE NILE REGION . . 209 
Monumental Dam at Assouan . . . 209 
Barrage at Assiout — 2,750 Feet Long — 

111 Arched Openings 210 

Army of Workers 212 

Old System of Irrigation 212 

The Dam at Siut, with 100 Sluice 

Gates 213 

OLIVE CULTURE ON AN EXTENSIVE 

SCALE 213 

Resources of the United States in Cli- 
mate and Soil 213 

Origin of the Olive in California . . 213 
The Olive Tree More Valuable When 

Old 214 

The World's Biggest Olive Orchard — 

120,000 Trees 214 

Ten Times Larger Than Spain's Great- 
est 214 

Mammoth Sicilian Olive Tree . . . 214 
Gathering the Crop ....... 215 

Billowy Expanse of Silver Gray . . 214 
HOW RUBBER IS MADE TO-DAY . . .216 

The Process op Kneading 216 

The Process of Mixing 216 

The Process of Compressing .... 216 
The Process of Vulcanizing .... 216 
Old Method of Vulcanizing Rubber 

Belts 217 

Rubber Hose 217 

HOW SALT IS PRODUCED 218 

The Manistee (Michigan) Salt Well . 218 
Pumpinq 2,400 Barrels of Brine in 24 

Hours 218 

The "Grainer" 218 

The Vacuum Method 219 

Compressed Air Drills Breaking 

Packed Salt . . 219 

Steam Plow Turns Up Salt Crust 

Eight Inches Thick 220 

HIGH-GRADE TOBACCO GROWN UNDER 

MAMMOTH TENTS 220 

Extra Fine Quality Brings 43 Cents 

Per Pound Extra 220 

One Hundred and Ninety-six Tent 

Posts to the Acre 220 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 



HIGH-GRADE TOBACCO GROWN UNDER 
MAMMOTH TENTS.^Continued. 
Two Thousand Pounds of Tobacco 
Peb Acre Price 68 Cents Per 

Pound 221 

The Ordinary Method of Cultivating 

Tobacco 222 

MONSTER SHIP CANALS 223 

The Panama Canal Pboject .... 223 

The Nicaraguan Route 223 

The Suez Canal — 100 Miles Long — 

Cost $100,000,000 223 

The Chicago Drainage Canal .... 225 
The Kile Canal — 125 Miles of Exca- 
vation—Cost $120,000,000 .... 226 

GREAT STRIDES IN THE OIL INDUSTRY 227 
Texas Oil Discoveries Stimulate the 

Use of On. for Fuel 227 

Story of the Texas On. Jeveb . . . 228 
The Newspaper Man's Speculation . . 229 
Poor People Made Rich in a Night . . 230 
A Storage Tank Holding 500,000 Gal- 
lons 230 

Drilling for On. 230 

THE MODERN PIANO 231 

MAKING LEAD PENCILS 233 

Composition of the "Leads" 233 

Graphite 233 

German Pipe Clay 233 

Process of Mixing 234 

Different Kinds of Wood fob Pencils 234 

Cutting Cedar Strips 234 

Filling the Strips with Lead .... 234 

The Finishing Process 234 

ARTIFICIAL ICE 235 

The Principle of Refrigeration . . . 235 
Warmth Taken from the Water by 

Anhydrous Ammonia 236 

The Can System 236 

The Holden System — Ice Made for 50 

Cents Per Ton 236 

The Still, the Absorber, the Condens- 
er AND THE INTERCHANGER .... 236 

Process of Making Anhydrous Am- 
monia 236 

The Ice Machine and Its Operation . 237 

CEMENT AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR IRON 

IN BUILDING 237 

COMPRESSED AIR — WHAT IT MEANS TO 

THE WORLD 237 

Pneumatic Tubes 237 

Its Service in Great Hotels and Stores 238 
Its Relation to Newspaper Work . . 238 
Useful in the. Post Office Department 238 
Cleaning Furniture Carpets and Rail- 
way Coaches 239 

Fob Motive Power 239 

SUGAR CANE IN SUGAR MAKING AND 

PAPER MAKING 239 

Abea of Cane Growth in Louisiana anb 
Method of Planting 239 

Process of Making Sugar 240 

Separating the Sugar from the Mo- 
lasses 240 

Paper from the Suoab Cane .... 241 



fAGK 

MINING COAL AND MAKING COKE . - 241 

Fatalities in Coal Mining 241 

Coal Indispensable 241 

The World's Supply of Coal . . - - 242 
Output of Coal in Gbeat Britain and 

in the United States 243 

The Two Deepest Coal Mines .... 243 
Pennsylvania's Coal Pboduction . . 243 

The Discoveby of Coal 243 

Abea of Anthracite and Bituminous 

Coal 243 

The Process of Mining Coal .... 243 
Guabding Against Fibe-Damp .... 244 

Sorting Coal 244 

The "Breaker" 244 

Coal Tran sport ation 244 

The Manufacture of Coke 245 

NEW METHOD OF FATTENING POULTRY 245 
Poultry Feeding 2,000 Years Ago . . 245 

Fattening Geese 245 

Machine and Trough Feeding . . . 246 
Profit in Fattening Fowls .... 246 

IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING . .247 

The Cupola Man 247 

The Cupola 247 

The "Tuyere" 247 

Charging the Cupola 248 

Chemically Pure Ibon Valueless . . 249 
Making Pig Ibon Direct from the Ibon 

Ore 249 - 

Steel Rolling 249 

SILK COCOONS AND THE SILK IN- 
DUSTRY 250 

The Silk Moth and the Silk Worm . 250 

The Silk Cocoon 250 

Reeling the Cocoon Into Raw Silk . 251 
Spinning in the Factory — 10,000 Revo- 
lutions Per Minute 253 ■ 

Dyeing and Spooling the Skeins . . 253 
BEET SUGAR AND ITS COMMERCIAL 

VALUE 254 

Annual Import of Sugab Into the 

United States 254 

Great Gain fob the Farmers Possible 254 
Cost of a Beet Sugar Factory and Ex- 
pense of Running 254 

Distribution of Wealth Through the 

Beet Stjgab Industry 254 

Sugar Beets, a Profitable Crop . . . 254 
NEW INVENTIONS IN FLOOR COVER- 
ING 255 

Matting 255 

Linoleum 255 

Papyrolith 255 

Carpets from New Rags and Remnants 255 

Oriental Carpeting 255 

ELEVATED RAILROADS 256 



BOOK III. — VIVID ARRAY OF FACTS CON- 
CERNING- DIFFERENT NATIONS. 

Objects Famous the World Over — Impressive 
Scenes Far and Near — Peculiarities 
and Products Distinguishing 
Widely Separated 
Localities. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



13 



A CENTURY OP EXPLORATION .... 257 
Volcanoes in Central America . . . 257 

South America 258 

The Amazon and La Plata 258 

Ecuador 258 

Argentina 258 

The Baldwtn-Ziegler Exploration . . 259 
The Polar Regions 259 

RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES . 260 
Gross Receipts of All the Systems . 260 

Opebating Expenses 260 

Number of Passengers Carried . . . 260 

CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OP 

THE UNITED STATES .... 261 
Formation of the Constitution . . . 262 

Congress 263 

The President 265 

The Judiciary 265 

Home Rule 267 

State Sovereignty 268 

Constitutional Guarantees .... 269 

Legislation 269 

Qualifications for Office 269 

Treason 270 

Impeachment 270 

PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES 270 
Patents and Their Conditions . . . 270 
Applications for Patents . . . . . 270 

Assignment of Patents 272 

Caveats ..... 272 

Patent Fees 272 

THE INTER-STATE COMMERCE LAW . 272 
Inter-State Commerce Commission . . 272 

Discrimination in Rates 273 

Legal Actions Against Railroads . . 273 
Rebates and Pooling 273 

CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS . . . .274 
Civil Service Examinations .... 275 
The Illinois Civil Service Law . . . 275 

THE UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE 277 
Number of Post Offices and Employes 277 
Receipts, Expenses and Amount of Mail 277 
Postmaster General's Office .... 277 

Salaries of Postmasters 278 

City Mail Delivery 278 

The Marine Postal Service .... 278 

Rural Delivery Service 278 

Railway Mail Service 278 

The "Fast Mail" 279 

Mail Bags 279 

Forwarding Mail in Alaska .... 280 

Money Orders 281 

Dead Letter Office 282 

■Mail Packages 282 

Ocean Post Offices 282 

UNDESIRABLE IMMIGRANTS, AND STA- 
TISTICS OF IMMIGRATION . . 283 
Penalty of Undue Hospitality . . . 283 
One Thousand Immigrants Daily . . 284 

Not Proud of Counthymen 284 

Greatest Immigration on Record . . 284 
Over-Supply in the Great Cities . . 284 
Undeb-Supply on the Farms .... 284 
Statistics of Immigration 285 



PAGE 

RECLAIMING OP ARID AMERICA . . .285 

Alkali Plains of Colorado 285 

Artificial Canal 286 

Tapping the Colorado River .... 286 
Congress Promotes Irrigation .... 287 

"UNCLE SAM" AND NUT CULTURE . . 287 

The Government's Farm 287 

The Pecan and Persian Walnut . .287 

The Jordan Almond 288 

The English Walnut 288 

Profit in Pecans 288 

The Cocoanux Palm 288 

WHAT THE WEATHER MAN DOES . . 289 

A Science of Tendencies 289 

Storm Conditions 289 

Area Covered by the Signal Service . 290 
Millions of Dollars Saved Yearly . . 290 

The Galveston Hurricane 292 

Warning of Cold Wave Prevents Loss . 292 

Frost Warnings 292 

Great Floods of 1897 292 

The Thermometer 292 

The Barometer 292 

The Barograph 292 

The Anemometer 292 

The Telethermometer 292 

The Hygrometer 292 

The Anemoscope .292 

POSTAGE STAMP PRINTING 293 

Number Printed Daily 293 

Number Lost 293 

The Gumming Process 294 

Stamps Used in the Philippines . . . 294 



Stamps Used in Hawaii and Porto Rico 294 
Legislation Touching Postage . . . 294 

HOW THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES TRAVELS OVER THE 



COUNTRY 295 

Extreme Precautions 295 

President's Private Secretary . . . 296 
Instructions to Railroad Men . . . 296 

The Right of Way 296 

The Railroad Telegraph Operator and 

Lineman 296 

Provisioning the Train 296 

The Whitehouse Messengers .... 297 

HOW AND WHERE THE WORLD GETS 

ITS MEAT 297 

Number of Cattle in the World . . . 297 
Number of Sheep and Swine in the 

World 297 

Cattle in Texas, Kansas, Nebraska 

and Illinois 297 

Sheep in Wyoming, Montana and New 

Mexico 298 

Hogs in Iowa, Illinois, Missouri and 

Nebraska 298 

Killing and Packing Centers .... 298 
Chicago Unton Stock Yards .... 298 
Greatest Single Business in the World 298 

Largest Ranch in America 299 

The Famous Cattle Woman .... 299 

WESTERN FARMS OF GREAT EXTENT . 299 
Average Size of Farms in the United 
States 299 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

WESTERN FARMS OF GREAT EXTENT. 
— Continued. 
A Farm Ranch Larger than the State 

of Connecticut 300 

The "X. I. T." Farm Employs 200 Cow- 
boys and 50 Farm-hands .... 300 
Largest Farm in the Southwest . . 301 
Fifty Binders and 100 Men at Work in 

One Field 301 

Finest Farm in the United States . . 301 
Conducted Largely by Telephone . . 301 

Alfalfa in One Tract 301 

Farm of Rockefeller 302 

Extensive Ranches in the Great Grain 

Belts 302 

BIG TREES OF CALIFORNIA 303 

The Calaveras Grove 303 

The Redwood Forests 304 

Ten Separate Giakt Forests — Area 260 

Miles Long • • 304 

Five Hundred Trees Towering Skyward 304 

A Tree 4,000 Years Old 304 

The Big Trees' Enemy 304 

The Mariposa Grove 304 

WHERE VARIOUS AMERICAN INDUS- 
TRIES ARE MAINLY CARRIED 
ON 305 

Collars and Cuffs 305 

Oyster Canning 305 

Gloves 305 

Coke 305 

Brasswabe 305 

Carpets 305 

Jewelry 305 

Silverware 305 

The Slaughtering Industry .... 305 
Plated and Britannia Wake .... 305 

Agricultural Implements 305 

Silk Making 305 

Iron and Steel 305 

Pottery 305 

Fur-Hat Industry 306 

Glass 306 

Cotton Goods 306 

Boots and Shoes 306 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED 

STATES— AT HOME and ABROAD 306 

Number of Pupils 306 

Value of Public School Property . . 306 
Expenditures for Common Schools . . 306 
Expense of Schools Per Capita . . . 306 
Schools in the New Island Possessions 306 

Army of Teachers 306 

Under Spanish Rule 307 

School Attendance Compulsory in the 

Philippines 307 

Schools in the Archipelago .... 307 

Filipino Teachers 307 

American School Books Sent tp the 

Philippines 307 

Filipinos' Desire fob Knowledge . . . 307 
Games of the Young Filipinos . . . 308 

First Filipino Grammar 308 

The Tangalog Alphabet 308 

HOW THE UNITED STATES GOVERN- 
MENT EDUCATES THE INDIAN 309 
Method Likely to Spoil the Indian . . 309 



HOW THE UNITED STATES GOVERN- 
MENT EDUCATES THE INDIAN. 
— Continued. 
Wretched Conditions oh Some Reserva- 
tion b • 309 

An Anomalous State of Things . . . 309 

Capable of Self-Support 310 

CHOCOLATE MAKING IN AMERICA . . 310 
Introduction of Nut in Spain .... 310 
Chocolate Spreads through Europe . 310 
Puritans Bring It to Massachusetts 

Bay . . . • 310 

First Chocolate Mill in America . . 311 
Consumption of Chocolate and Cocoa 

in the United States 311 

Chocolate Mill at Milton, Massachu- 
setts 311 

The Cocoa Tree and Nuts 311 

Process of Manufacturing Cocoa . . 311 

Cocoa Shells 311 

Grinding the Cracked Cocoa .... 312 

Molding the Cakes 312 

Sweetening and Flavoring 312 

THE CINNAMON TREE AND ITS CUL- 
TURE 312 

The Most Suitable Son- 312 

Appearance of the Tree 312 

ALASKA 313 

The Yukon River 313 

Vast Extent of Ar.AtucA 313 

Trade of Alaska 313 

The Island of Kadiak 314 

Temperature and Products 314 

SEAL AND WALRUS HUNTING .... 314 
Breeding Grounds of the Seal . . . 314 

Illegal Hunting 315 

Joint Agreement with Great Britain . 315 

Pelagic Sealing 315 

Walrus Hunting ry the Eskimos . . 315 
FLORIDA'S PRODUCTS AND PLEASURE 

RESORTS 316 

Four Hundred Mules of Ocean Beach . 316 
Northern Capital Makes Improvement. 316 
St. Augustine and the "Ponce de Leon" 316 
Palatial Houses of Entertainment . 316 

The "Royal Poinciana" 31$ 

Palm Beach \ 319 

Prodigal Expenditure [ 319 

Orange Groves and Pineapple Fields . 319 
The Florida Truck-Gardens .... 319 
Sponge Factory at Key West .... 319 

MAKING MONEY AT THE MINT .... 322 
Copper Cents First Money Coined . . 322 
Silver Dollars and Gold Eagles . . , 322 
No Gold Eagles Coined for 33 Years . 322 
Periods of Cessation in Certain Coin- 
ages 32a 

San Francisco, Denver and Carson 

City Mints 322 

The Weighing Room 322 
The Deposit Melting Room . . '. 322 

Assaying » . . . 323 

The Rolling Room . . , * * * * " 323 
The Adjusting Room ...*!!! 323 
The Cleaning Room . . . . 323 



The Presses 



323 



The Counting " ^3 



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PAGE 

NINE GREAT WONDERS OF AMERICA . 324 

SALARIES PAID BY THE UNITED 

STATES GOVERNMENT . . . .325 
President, Vice-Pbesident and Cabinet 325 

Members of Congress 325 

Heads of Minor Departments . . . .325 

Treasury Department 325 

Supreme Court 325 

Post Office Department 325 

Diplomatic Appointees 325 

Army Officers 325 

Navy Officers 326 

THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

FISHERIES 329 

Cruise of the "Albatross" 329 

Cruise of the "Gorgon" 329 

The Sigsbee Trawling Device .... 329 
Species of Fish 330 

GERMANY— THE GOVERNMENT OF . . 326 
Organization of the German Confed- 
eracy 326 

The Imperial Government 326 

The Imperial Council 327 

The Imperial Crown 327 

The Imperial Chancellor 328 

Laws of the Empire 328 

Judiciary of the Empire 328 

MOVING BOATS BY CABLE ON THE 

ELBE 328 

Facts About the Elbe 328 

Its Estuary 328 

Navigability 328 

BUYING HUMAN HAIR IN GERMANY . 330 
Methods of the Hair Buyers .... 330 
Price of a Head of Hair 330 

MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN SWITZERLAND 331 
Nationality of Those Killed .... 331 
Causes of Accidents 332 

GREAT BRITAIN— GOVERNMENT OF . . 332 

A Liberal Rule 332 

Fate of Certain Early Monarchs . . 333 

The Cabinet . . 333 

Parliament 334 

The Judiciary 334 

IN A KING'S KITCHEN AND PLATE 

ROOMS 335 

Kitchen's Costly Finish 335 

The Clerk and the Chef 335 

Management 335 

Kitchen Knives, Forks, Pots and Pans 335 
Forks and Spoons of Massive Silver . 335 
Money in Plate, Coffer and Iron Uten- 
sils • 335 

Plate Equal in Value to 18 Tons of 
Sovereigns .......... 335 

Solid Gold Set of George IV . . . .335 

Gold Dish of Alexander the Great . . 335 

A FAMOUS ENGLISH LOCOMOTIVE . . .336 
Twenty-One Years on the Road . . . 336 

Two Million Miles Run 336 

Number of Round Trips 336 

Speed Per Hour 336 

Consumption of Coal and Water . . . 336 

WHAT FOGS COST LONDON 337 

Amount of Smoke Daily 337 



PAGE 

MATRIMONY IN ENGLAND 337 

What the Wife Knows and Does . . 337 
How the Husband and Wife Work . . 338 
A Bond of Common Interest .... 338 

SCOTLAND'S MODEL TOWN 338 

CANADA AND ITS GOVERNMINT . . .339 

The Dominion of Canada 339 

Its Extent and Population .... 339 

Manitoba 339 

Religious Creeds 339 

The Canadian Government 339 

The Canadian Senate and House of 

Commons 340 

The Provincial Governments . . , . 340 
The Supreme and Exchequer Courts . 340 

The Provincial Courts 340 

The Governor General 340 

The Judiciary 340 

CANADA'S LONG BRIDGE-SPAN .... 341 

The Great St. Lawrence 341 

Sinking of the Caisson 341 

FRANCE! — GOVERNMENT OF 342 

The National Assembly 342 

Methods of Election 343 

The President and His Cabinet . . . 343 
The Senate and Chamber of Deputies 344 

Mode of Legislation 344 

The Council of State 344 

Favoritism and Subsidy 344 

The Judiciary 344 

Centralization of Power 345 

The Canton and the Commune . . . 345 

RUSSIA^GOVERNMENT OF 346 

The "Mir" 346 

Serfdom 346 

Peter the Gbeat 347 

A One-Man Power 347 

The Committee of Ministers .... 347 

The Council of State 347 

The Senate 347 

Regulation of Domestic Affairs in the 

"Mir" 348 

Dire Penalties 348 

MARRIAGES IN RUSSIA 348 

RUSSIA'S SUPPLY OF PLATINUM DI- 
MINISHING 349 

FACTS ABOUT NEW GUINEA 350 

The Largest Island on the Globe . . 350 

THE CINCHONA TREE IN PERU . . .351 

PRODUCTION OF OPIUM IN CHINA, 

INDIA AND PERSIA 351 

A Problem in the Politics of Eastern 

Asia 351 

The Poppy 351 

Extraction of Raw Opium ..... 353 
The Finished Product ...... 353 

Boiling Opium Balls 353 

The Market Price 353 

A CUSTOM PECULIAR TO NEW ZEALAND 354 
Sheep Cleaned According to Law . . 354 

THE WOOL INDUSTRY IN AUSTRALIA . 354 

Feeding in Dry Seasons 354 

The Sheep Stations 354 

Shearing by Machinery - ■ . ■ 354 



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PAGE 

THE CANNIBAL TREE OF AUSTRALIA 356 
Wobshiped as the "Devil Tree" . . - 356 
LACE-MAKING IN PARAGUAY .... 357 
Designs Taken from Spiders' Webs . . 357 

CHINESE RICE PAPER 357 

CHINESE WEDDINGS 359 

ELEPHANTS USED FOR PLOWING IN 

INDIA 361 

WHERE CERTAIN THINGS COME 

FROM 362-363 

THE DELHI DURBAR OF 1903 .... 365 

THE GREAT PYRAMIDS 367 

The Pyramid of "Cheops" 367 

Height and Age of the Pyramids . . 368 
Travelers Climb to the Top of 

"Cheops" 368 

SCENES OF GREAT FINANCIAL PANICS 368 

SCENES OF GREAT FLOODS 369 

SCENES OF TEN TERRIBLE PLAGUES . 370 
THE GREAT FAMINES OF HISTORY . . 370 

THE CULTURE OF TAPIOCA 371 

COTTON CULTURE 372 

Self-Perpetuated in Ancient Times . 372 
Varieties of Cotton in America . . .372 

Brazilian Cotton 372 

A Thread 160 Miles Long 373 

Cotton Picking 373 

Great Value in Cotton Seed .... 874 

BOOK IV. — A THOUSAND THINGS WELL 
WORTH KNOWING. 

Information That Enriches the Mind and 
Enlivens the Heart. 

FIRE FIGHTING TO-DAY 375 

Frequency of Fibes in American Cities 375 
Glasgow's Superb Fire-Engine House . 378 
Value of Time in Fire Fighting . . . 378 
Chicago's Fire Department .... 378 
The Electric Fire Alarm Service . . 378 

Fire Fighting in London 379 

Start in Ten Seconds After the Alarm 379 

The Fire-Horses 379 

Electricity for Fire Engines .... 380 
Equipment for Fire Fighting .... 380 

The Scaling Ladders 380 

Compressed-Air Extension Ladders . . 380 
The Water Tower, Searchlight and 

Rope Gun . , 380 

WHAT A POUND OF COAL CAN DO . . 381 
Its Wonderful Potential Energy . . 381 
Things Almost Incredible 381 

THE CYCLONE 382 

Its Pathway , . 382 

Its Edge .382 

Its Center . 382 

Enlargement .of the Storm Space . . 382 

The Horn Card 382 

How the Cyclone Forms, Develops and 

Advances 383 

Two Clouds Unite 383 

Houses, Barns, Haystacks and Trees 
Swept Up 383 



past 

HOW MUSIC IS PRINTED 3F 

Woman in Music Printing 3 

Different Methods in Printing . . . 384 
The Music Printer's "Case" .... 384 

The Notes 384 

Music Type 385 

Engraving Music 385 

The Process of Printing 385 

HOW THE MODERN THEATER IS CON- 
DUCTED 386 

The Theater a Workhouse 386 ■ 

Selection of a Play 386 

Stage Preparation 386 

The Scenic Artist, Property Man, 
Electrician and Stage Carpenteb 387 

The Orchestra Leader 388 

Assignment of Parts 388 

Up in the "Flies" 389 

Stage Production 389 

HOW LIQUORS ARE DISTILLED . . . 390 
The Manufacture of Whisky .... 390 

The Mashing Process 391 

"Wort" 391 

Fermentation 391 

Distillation 391 

The Old Still 392 

The Modern Still 392 

Adulteration and Imposition .... 393 

A TINY TYPEWRITER 393 

Its Simplicity of Design 394 

Its Mechanical Operation 394 

MAKING DIAMONDS BY ELECTRICITY . 394 
CHEWING GUM AND ITS MANUFAC- 
TURE 394 

The Zapote Tree — "Chicle" .... 395 

TEA AND COFFEE CULTURE 396 

England a Nation of Tea-Drinkers . . 396 

France Prefers Coffee 396 

Tea the Favorite of Russia .... 396 
The Coffee Tree in Brazil and Java . 396 

How Coffee is Grown 397 

Coffee Picking 397 

Principal Tea-Producing Countries . . 399 

Tea Picking 400 

The Curing and Firing Process . . . 401 

Sorting ■ . 402 

HOW TO PRESERVE NATURAL FLOWERS 402 
Preparation of Air-Tight Box .... 402 
Selection and Arrangement of the 

Flowers 402 

Sulphur Fumes 402 

Retention of Form and Color .... 402 

GATHERING CORK 403 

Peeling for Industrial Purposes . . 403 

Pressing into Plates 403 

ARTIFICIAL HATCHING OF CHICKENS 404 
Antiquity of This Mode of Incubation 404 
Method of Heating Incubator .... 404 
Temperature for Incubation .... 404 
Turning of Eggs and Altering Their 

Location 405 

The Brooder 4Q5 

HOW CELLULOID IS MADE ..... 405 

Grinding Gun Cotton 405 

A Substitute fob Ivoby and Porcelain 406 



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\3BASHING WATERMELONS FOR 

SEEDS 406 

The Thrashing Machine 406 

Selling the Seeds 406 

EFFECT OF ELECTRICITY ON MILK 

AND MEAT 407 

The Foece of Induction 407 

Electrical Tension 407 

Headache Due to Meteorological Dis- 
turbances 408 

ATHLETIC SPORTS OF TO-DAY .... 408 

Foot Ball . . . . , 408 

Base Ball 410 

Golf 410 

Basket Ball 412 

Wateb Sports 412 

UNCLE SAM'S "SPECIAL DELIVERY" 

BOYS 413 

Wages 413 

Ages 413 

Rules Governing Theib Work .... 413 
Number op Boys, and Theib Deliveries 

Monthly 413 

Area Covered, and Method of Work . 414 
Number Delivered Per Day 414 

BATHING FOR HEALTH AND BEAUTY . 415 
Hot Bath for Cleanliness, Cold Bath 

for Tonic 415 

Temperature of Bath 415 

Shower Bath 415 

Hor Baths 415 

Children's Baths 415 

Cold Pack 416 

Tepid Bath 416 

OUR SCHOOLBOY SOLDIERS 416 

Numbeb of Military Institutes . . . 416 

Miniature Military Posts 416 

The Cadet's Fibst Lesson 416 

The Manual of Asms 417 

HEALTH AND MUSCLE 417 

The Abdominal Muscles 417 

Exercise I 418 

Exercise II 418 

Exercise III 418 

Exercise IV .... > 418 

A General Exerciser 419 

LIME IN AGRICULTURE 419 

Eradicates Disease 419 

Pboduces Carbonic Acid Gas .... 419 
Fatal to Worms, Slugs and Dangerous 

Larvae . 419 

' Destroys the Seeds of Weeds .... 420 

IN THE MINE WITH THE MINER . . .420 

. A Hazardous Occupation 420 

, Wages . , . 420 

Amount Mined by Each Miner . . . 420 
The Miner's Home, Clothing and Food 420 

The "Beeakebboy" 421 

Ai DAY ON THE FARM WITH THE 

FARMER 421 

Average Size of Farms in the United 

States 422 

New Method of Farm and Ranch 

Management 422 

Farms Belonging xo Indians .... 422 



CONTENTS 17, 

PAGE 

A DAY ON THE FARM WITH THE 
FARMER.— Continued. 

Wages of Farm Labobebs 423 

Up-to-Date Methods of Farming . . .423 

Improvement in Roads 423 

Improvement in Mail and Telephone 

Facilities 423 

BUGS COSTLIER THAN BATTLESHIPS . 423 
Cause a Yearly Loss to Crops . . .423 
A DAY WITH THE STOKER, ON SHIP- 
BOARD .... 424 

How Summoned to His Task .... 424 
A Slave of the Towering Boilers . . 424 
Feeding the Roabing Furnace .... 424 

"Cleaning" the Fires 424 

A Double Relief and Extra Ration . . 424 
The Coal Bunkers and the "Trimmer" 425 
Coal Consumed on a Single Voyage . 425 
A DAY WITH THE BRAKEMAN ON THE 

TRAIN 425 

Freight Brakeman 425 

The Red Flag 425 

Coupling the Cabs 425 

Assembling and Changing Cabs . . . 425 

The Passenger Brakeman 425 

Flagging 425 

A DAY IN THE CIGAR FACTORY . . .426 
Beginning and Development of the 

Manufacture 426 

Machines fob Cigar Making .... 426 
Process of Making Cigars by Hand . 426 

The Cigab Maker's Tools 426 

A DAY WITH THE CHAUFFEUR . . . .428 
Qualifications fob the Work .... 428 
Promotions in Automobile Factobies . 428 

A Wholesome Outdoor Life 428 

Good Chauffeurs Scaece — Salaries 

Ample 429 

Demand fob "Autos" Exceeds Supply . 429 
A DAY IN THE TELEGRAPH OFFICE 

WITH THE OPERATOR .... 430 
The Farm Boy's Fond Ambition . . . 430 
As a Student in the Operator's Office 430 

A Quick Ear Essential 430 

The Beginner's Progress in Study . . 430 
Expert Operators Boen, Not Made . . 430 
A Full-Fledged Telegrapher .... 431 
Telegraphy and Typewriting .... 431 
Salaries of Operators and Train Dis- 
patchers 431 

A DAY ON AN OCEAN LINER WITH THE 

STEWARD 432 

The Crew and Passengeb List . . . 432 

Number of Assistants 432 

Flour Consumed 432 

Meat, Fish and Game Consumed . . . 432 
A DAY ON THE TROLLEY CAR WITH ITS 

CREW 433 

Long Hours and "Split" Runs . . . 433 

-• The Conductor 434 

Salary . 434 

Work and Length of Service .... 434 

The Motoeman's Task 434 

An Apprenticeship in the Shops — The 

Phot , 434 

Wages of Motormen 434 



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PAGE 



A DAY IN THE FIELD WITH "WOMEN 

WORKERS 435 

Scene at Evening Time 435 

Long Island's Women Faem Hands . . 435 
Planting and Picking Period .... 435 

Farm Women's Wages 435 

A DAY AT THE THROTTLE WITH THE 

ENGINEER 436 

The Engineer's Apprenticeship . . . 436 
Firing Engines in the "Yard" . . . 436 
The Fireman's Duty on the "Run" . 436 
Promoted to be Engineer of a Switch 

Engine 437 

First Trips as Road Engineer, with a 

Pilot 437 

Becomes Freight Encineer 437 

Finally Runs a Passenger Engine . . 437 
A DAY ON THE LOCOMOTIVE WITH THE 

FIREMAN 437 

How the Fireman Begins 437 

A Preliminary Examination .... 437 
Details of the Fireman's Work . . . 437 

Two Systems of Firing 438 

Sees That the Coal Is Well Ignited 438 
Approaching a Stopping Point . . . 438 

The Engineer's Assistant 438 

TRAVEL BY NIGHT 438 

The Old-Time Inn 438 

A Journey from Edinburgh to London . 439 
Introduction of the Mail Coach . . 439 

Exit of the Mail Coach 439 

The Night Express 439 

Advent of Sleeping Cars 440 

A NEW TYPE OF PASSENGER LOCOMO- 
TIVE . . 441 

Effect of Adopting the Trailer . . . 441 
CANADA— HER LUMBER INDUSTRY . . 442 
Lumbering Next to Agriculture . . . 442 

A "Wooden Country" 442 

The Gigantic Douglas Fir Tree . . . 444 
Flumes Shooting Logs from Mountain 

Tops 444 

Sawmills 444 

Five Kinds of Hands 445 

Handling Saw-Logs 445 

The Canadian Maple 445 

AGRICULTURE IN CANADA 445 

Soil in Upper Canada 445 

General Practice ........ 445 

Indian Corn 445 

Lower Canada 446 

Along the St. Lawrence 446 

Swamp Lands 446 

Wheat Crop 446 

Percentage of Farmers to Population . 446 
New Application of the Grain Product 446 

"Experimental Farms" 446 

The Dairy Product 446 

A Double Advantage 447 

Distribution of Seed-Grain 447 

OSTRICHES AND OSTRICH FARMING . 447 

A Native of Africa 447 

An Omnivorous Bird , 447 

Polygamous \ 44g 

The Incubation ] 448 

The Eggshell 443 



PAGE 

OSTRICHES AND OSTRICH FARMING. — 



Continued. 

Ostrich Farming 448 

Value of the Feathers 448 

Yield of Feathers 448 

Nature and Speed of the Ostrich . . 448 
LOGGING IN THE NORTHWEST .... 449 

In the Early Days 449 

The Old-Time Lumbering Camp . . . 449 

The Sleeping Quarters 449 

The Modern Logging Outfit .... 449 

Icing the Road Ruts 449 

Felling with the Saw 450 



BOOK V.— SOLID FOOD FOB SOUND MINDS. 
Reading That Makes One Wiser and 
Happier. 

THE COUNTRY BOY'S CHANCES IN A 



LARGE CITY 451 

Yearning for City Life 451 

Growing Need of "Help" on the Farm . 451 
Causes of Over-Supply of City "Help" 451 
Farming Regions Supply Republic's 
Great Men 452 

THE VALUE AND CHARM OF A GOOD 

LETTER 452 

Scribbling Letters Common .... 452 
The Letter a Messenger of Its Writer 452 
The Heart Speaks in It ..... , 452 
Spontaneity in Letter-Writing . . . 453 

THE COURTESIES OF LIFE 453 

Amenities of Home Life 453 

Famu.y Training 453 

Sincerity and Kindliness 454 

THE HIGH SCHOOL'S PART IN EDUCA- 
TION 455 

Attendance at the Schools .... 455 

THOUGHTS ABOUT HOME 456 

What Home Means 456 

The Word "Home" 456 

Mother 456 

What Makes an Ideal Home .... 457 
Duty of Father and Mother .... 457 

Order 457 

Books 457 

Music ! 458 

Nature's Melodious Sounds 458 

MODERN METHODS OF COMMERCIAL 

EDUCATION 458 

The Public Business School .... 458 

The Term of Study 455 

A Model Office 45jj 

Aids to Progress in Study . . . \ 459 
The School Correspondence . . . . 459 

SPARKS OF SCIENCE 460 

Solar Light " 450 

A Beam op Sun Waves ...... 460 

The Color, Red . . ! 460 



Leaves of a Tree or Blades of Grass 460 

The Pansy " acq 

OCEAN CABLES IN WAR TIME 461 
Twelve Cables Under the Atlantic . .' 461 

The German Cable 461 

The Fbench Cable from Brest . 462 



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19 



OCEAN CABLES IN WAR TIME. — Con- 
tinued. 

Beitish Cables Landing at Cornwall 
and Connaught 462 

Cutting Cables in the Spanish-Ameri- 
can War 462 

POINTS OF LAW 462 

Civil Law 462 

Criminal Law 462 

Police Arrests 463 

Forcible Entrance on Waeeants . . .463 

Felony 463 

Grand and Petit Larceny 463 

Arson 463 

Drunkenness No Excuse for Crime . . 463 
Assistance Compulsory on Policeman's 

Appeal 463 

Forgery 463 

Murder 463 

Perjury 463 

THE HABIT OF BEING LATE 463 

A Punctual Prince 463 

UTILIZATION OF THE EARTH'S INTE- 
RIOR HEAT 465 

Intense Heat in Deep Holes .... 465 
Average Temperature 1,000 Feet Down 465 
Earth-Heat Universal Source of Power 466 

SAVING THE FORESTS 466 

Distribution of Moisture Dependent 

on Forests 466 

Forests Prevent Floods and Drought . 466 
Lessen the Necessity for Irrigation . 466 
Destruction of Forests by Fire . . . 467 
The Rainfall and Distribution of For- 
ests 467 

THE WORLD'S WATER POWER .... 468 

Niagara Falls 46S 

A Great Power House 468 

Various Uses for the Power Thus De- 
veloped 468 

A New City 469 

■ Sending Water Power over Long Dis- 
tances . . 469 

Power Generated by Canon Water . .470 
Power from the American River . . . 470 
Electricity for San Francisco Gener- 
ated 152 Miles Distant .... 470 
THE STUDY OF OTHER WORLDS . . .470 

Immeasurable Space 470 

Problems Not Yet Solved 471 

Planets Visible to the Naked Eye . . 471 

The Copernican System 471 

Kepler and the Tides 472 

Galileo and the Telescope 472 

Newton and Gravitation 473 

Astronomical Instruments 473 

Greatest Telescope in the World . . 473 

Workings of the Telescope 475 

The Solas System 475 

The Sun 475 

Size and Distance of the Sun from 

the Earth . . . . , 476 

Light of the Sun 476 

Number of Planets 476 

Mercury 476 

Venus 477 

The Eabth 477 



PACE 



THE STUDY OF OTHER WORLDS.— Con- 
tinued. 

The Moon 477 

The Moon — Diameter and Distance 

from the Earth 478 

Eclipses 478 

Ebb and Flow of Tides 478 

Mars . . 479 

Jupiter . . ". . . 480 

Saturn 480 

Uranus 480 

Neptune 481 

The Asteroids 481 

Meteors 481 

Comets 481 

The Fixed Stars . 481 

The Nebulae Theory 482 

The Milky Way 482 

LABOR UNIONS AND ARBITRATION . . 482 

Strength of the Unions 482 

Demand for Recognition of the Union 482 
The Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902 . 482 
President Roosevelt's Arbitration 

Plan 482 

Conservative Labor Leaders Avekse to 

Strikes 482 

Local Boards of Arbitration .... 483 
Essential Qualities of the Safe Labor 

Leader of To-Day 483 

Statistics of the Department of Labor 483 
Proportion of Successful and Unsuc- 
cessful Strikes 483 

Labor's Gains 484 

TRUSTS AND TRUST METHODS .... 484 

An Illegal Trust 484 

Big Corporations 484 

Special Privileges Granted by Enact- 
ment 484 

Power of the Monopoly 484 

Venal Legislation 485 

The Standard Oil Company 485 

The Beef Trust 485 

A Good Trust 485 

Trusts Widely Powerful 485 

THE SPECULATOR'S TRAITS AND 

METHODS 486 

Hard Work Alone Brings Success . . 486 
The Greatest Speculator in Wall 

Street ■ . . 486 

Speculators Who Have Fallen . . .487 
Speculation Sometimes a Disease . . 487 

TWO GREAT BUSINESS BODIES . . .487 
The New York Stock Exchange . . . 487 
Originally a Convenient Market foe 

Securities 487 

Stock-Gambling Agency 488 

Margins 489 

Selling "Short" 489 

"Bulls" and "Bears" — Slumps . . . 489 
"Purs" anu "Calls" ....... 489-491 

The "Pool" 491 

The "Curb" 491 

The "Room Trader" 491 

A "Corner" 491 

Canards 491 

Other Stock Exchanges 491 

The Chicago Board of Trade .... 491 



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PAGE 

TWO GREAT BUSINESS BODIES.— Con- 



tinued. 

"Futures" . 491 

The Months Commonly Used foe Op- 
tions 492 

Odd Motions and Signals 494 

Scenes in the "Pit" 494 

INTERNATIONAL LAW 494 

Confederations, Republics and Empires 494 
Flag of Truce, Red Cross, Treatment 

of Prisoners 495 

Tribunals for Enforcement of Trea- 
ties 496 

Ambassadors and Consuls 496 

Arbitration, Mediation and Interven- 
tion 496 

International Convention at The 
Hague 497 

POLITICAL ECONOMY 497 

Foundation of the Science 497 

Wealth 498 

Value and Price 498 

Production and Distribution .... 498 
"Protection," and the "Balance of 

Trade" 498 

Free Trade 499 

Nations Like Individuals in Trade . . 499 

Imports and Exports 499 

A Diversity of Occupations .... 500 

Prosperity 501 

Tariff foe Revenue Only 502 

The Proper Circulating Medium . . 502 

Intrinsic Value — Credit 503 

Panics 503 

DARWIN'S THEORY OF EVOLUTION . . 504 

"Natural Selection" 504 

Survival of the Fittest ...... 504 

No Two Beings Alike 504 

Toes and Teeth 505 

Atavic Forms . . . . _ 505 

Evolution Not Atheistic 505 

COMMUNISM AND SOCIALISM .... 506 

Two Classes of Socialists 506 

Causes of Socialism 506 

Single Tax 507 

Land the Only Source of Wealth . . 507 

TAMMANY HALL 508 

An Association fob Illicit Gain . . . 508 

Collections . . 508 

The Tax Fund . 509 



BOOK VI. — FACTS FOB THE CURIOUS. 

Pages Gleaming with Gems of Instruction and 
Imparting to the Inquiring Mind that 



Knowledge Which Is Power. 
BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR .... 511 

SLEEPING FLOWERS 512 

The Lilac . 512 

Exposed to Fumes of Ether .... 512 

THE CLEANEST CITY IN THE WORLD . 512 

Cost of Cleaning 512 

Cleaning the Alleys ....... 512 

_ Total Amount of Garbage 513 



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES - 513 



As Compared with Russia 513 

Spread of the English Language . . 513 
"CUP DEFENDERS" WORTHLESS FOR 

CRUISING 513 

Racing Machines Costly 514 

Lack of Space Below Deck .... 514 

The Old-Fashioned Yacht 514 

OWNERSHIP OF LAND IN AMERICA . . 514 
NEW YORK'S MOVING STAIRWAYS . . 515 
A FARM WORKED BY CRAZY FOLK . . 515 

Strait Jackets 515 

Reason Returns 515 

Restraints 516 

A Unique Report 516 

COINS OF THE BIBLE 516 

The Shekel 516 

Money of Egypt and Canaan .... 517 

Rings as Money 517 

The Beka 517 

PEANUTS 517 

Where Grown 517 

Peanut Factories in Norfolk .... 517 

Cleaning 517 

Sorting 518 

"Ships," "Eagles" and "Chips" , . . 518 
A Peculiar Oil 518 

LARGEST APARTMENT HOUSE IN THE 

WORLD 518 

CHRONOLOGY OF ELECTRICAL DISCOV- 
ERIES 519 

The Electric Current 519 

Arc Light . 519 

Induction 519 

First Electric Road 519 

Invention of the Automobile .... 519 

A System of Telegraphy 519 

Zinc-Copper Battery ....... 519 

Short Submarine Cable 519 

First Morse Telegraph Line .... 519 
Method of Printing by Telegraph . . 519 

Automatic Repeaters 519 

First Long Submarine Cable .... 519 
First Successful Atlantic Cable . . 519 
System of Electrolytic Copper Refin- 
ing 519 

Steakn's Duplex Telegraph System . 519 
Edison's Quadruplex System .... 519 
First Modern Electric Road .... 519 
Continuous-Current Dynamo .... 519 

First Telephone Exchange 519 

Edison's Incandescent Lamp .... 519 
First Central Lighting Station . . 519 
Invention of Storage Battery . . . 519 
First Practicable Trolley Line . . . 519 
First European Electric Road . . * 519 
First Electric Cars on Elevated Roads 519 
First Long-Distance, High-Voltage 

Power-Transmission Plant . . 519 
Invention of the Telautograph . . . 519 
Heavy Trains First Moved by Electric 

Locomotive 5^9 

Discovery of X-Ray 5^9 

General Use of Road Automobile . 519 
■ Wireless Telegraphy . 519 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



21 



CHRONOLOGY OF ELECTRICAL DIS- 



COVERIES. — Continued. 

Transatlantic Telephony 619 

Edison's Improved Storage Battery . . 520 
DERIVATION OF WORDS STANDING 

FOR MONET 520 

Pecuniary 520 

Money 520 

Named from Weight 520 

Com 520 

The Pound 520 

The Rupee 520 

The Sovereign .......... 520 

The- Dollar . 620 

The Shilling . 520 

Sterling 520 

HOW SPECTACLES ARE MADE 520 

The White Lens ......... 520 

The Process or Grinding 521 

The Process of Shaping 521 

Beveling 521 

Focusing 521 

Numbering 521 

THE OLDEST NEWSPAPER IN THE 

WORLD 521 

Peking Gazette 521 

THE OLDEST MANUSCRIPT IN EXIST- 
ENCE 522 

FAMILIAR MAXIMS AND THEIR OR- 
IGIN ... 622 

Shakespeare .......... 622 

Washington Irving ....... 522 

General Henry Lee 523 

Dryden . 523 

Nathaniel Lee and Matthew 

Pryor 523 

Cowper and Thomas & Kempis .... 523 

Milton 523 

Benjamin Franklin 523 

ABOUT WATER 523 

Found in Four Distinct Forms . . . 523 

In the Form of Vapor 623 

Thames Water on Shipboard Becomes 

Putrid, Then Pure 524 

Water from the Rhone 524 

Croton Water 524 

Spring Waters in Portugal 524 

Well Water in Edinburgh ..... 524 
Odd Effect of Iron in Water .... 524 
Water Contaminated by Lead , . . .524 

THE DEADLY SNAKES OF INDIA 524 

Annual Amount Paid fob Snake-Kill- 
ing 524 

The Chain Viper 524 

The Carpet Snake, Whip Snake and 

Eye Snake 525 

The Cobra 525 

Fatal Snake-Bites of a Single Year . 525 

OLD CLOCKS AND WATCHES 525 

The Man in the Custom House . . . 525 
A Remarkable Clock in Prague . . . 525 
A Wonderful Clock in Venice .... 525 
An Old Japanese Timekeeper .... 526 



The Clock at Geneva That Excelled 
j IVt-t. Others ......... 526 



PAGE 



OLD CLOCKS AND WATCHES.—Con- 
tinued. 

The Water Clock . 526 

The Saladin of Egypt to the Emperor 

Frederic 526 

The Strasshubg and Padua Clocks • . 527 
Eli Terry's Wooden Clock ..... 527 

Watches 527 

WHAT CRIME COSTS THE PEOPLE . . 528 
HISTORY OF THE WEEPING WILLOW , 528 
THE BEGINNING OF CERTAIN THINGS . 528 
THE TAHITIANS' FIRST GLIMPSE OF 

NAILS 529 

THE RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD . . .530 
A Thousand Forms of Religious Wor- 
ship . . 530 

Four Great Divisions ....... 530 

Numerical Strength of Christianity 
Compared With Paganism .... 530 

CURIOSITIES OF THE BIBLE 530 

Shortest and Longest Verses .... 530 
Number of Chapters, Words and Let- 
ters 530 

THE WORLD'S NEWSPAPERS 530 

Oldest Newspaper in the United 

States . 530 

LARGEST BELL IN THE WORLD . . .531 
LARGEST THEATER IN THE WORLD . 531 
HIGHEST VOLCANO IN THE WORLD . . 531 
LARGEST CAVERN IN THE WORLD . . 531 
GROWTH OF THE GREAT POWERS . . 531 

English-Speaking Races 532 

LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, LOCOMOTIVES 

AND CARS 532 

Number of Locomotives Built in 1902 . 532 
Increased Cost of Construction . . . 532 
Total Number of Locomotives and Cars 

in 1902 532 

Total Mileage of Track 532 

TOLD IN FIGURES 532 

The New York Rapid Transit Tunnel . 532 

Agriculture in Colorado 532 

Hundreds of Millions Eat No Meat . 533 
The North American Indians .... 533 

Victims of Electric Cars 533 

Percentage of Shots That Hit . . . 533 
High Wages 533 

THE WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF PRE- 
CIOUS METALS . 533 

United States 533 

Only Countries Showing Loss . . . 533 

North America 533 

Africa and Australia 533 

Europe 533 

South America 533 

Central America 533 

Asia 533 

Total Number of Fine Ounces of 

Gold and Silver 534 

Gold and Silver Exports and Imports 

of Principal Countries 534 

Increase in the Gold Stocks of Va- 
bious Countries 634 



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22 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

BOOK VII. — HOW TO DO BUSINESS 

Self-Instruction in Bookkeeping . . 539 

Single Entry 539 

Double Entry 553 

How to Close a Ledger 563 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC 568 

Farmers' Short Rules in Arithmetic 573 

Discount 580 

Simple Partnership 580 

LAW WITHOUT A LAWYER 581 

Every Man His Own Lawyer .... 581 
How to Settle Difficulties Without 

Going to Law 581 

Agreements and Contracts 582 

Who May Make Contracts ..... 583 
Law Governing the Legality of Con- 
tracts 584 

Corporations 585 

How to Write Notes, Checks and 

Drafts 586 

Endorsements 591 

Wills — How Made 595 

Marriage Laws and Contract .... 597 

Breach of Promise 597 

Ante-Nuptial Contracts 597 

Divorce 597 

The Right of Married Women to Own 

Property 597 

Law Governing Lost Notes 598 

Short Form of Mortgage 599 

Chattel Mortgage 600 

Warranty Deed ; 602 

Lease: for Property 603 

Law Reoabding Hired Help .... 604 
Law Regarding Farm Animals . . . 604 

Law About Dogs 605 

Law Regarding Overhanging Trees . . 605 



PASS 

SELF-INSTRUCTION IN LETTER-WRIT- 
ING 607 

A Silent Witness 607 

Business Letters 608 

The Address .......... 609 

Body of Letter 610 

Ordering Goods on Credit 614 

Letter Requesting Payment .... 615 
Placing the Account for Collection . 616 

Miscellaneous Letters 617 

Letters of Recommendation .... 618 

Letters of Introduction 6iy 

Wedding Invitations 621 

SPELLING AND PUNCTUATION .... 623 
Good English for Polite Society . . . 623 
Capital Letters — When to Use Them 624 

Rules of Punctuation 625 

BOOK VI1T.— A COMPLETE SCHOOL OF 
PENMANSHIP AT HOME 
Self-Instruction in Modern Writing . 631 

Muscular Movement 631 

Preparatory Motion 636 

Drills 635-650 

BOOK IX. — A COMPLETE SCHOOL OF 
SHORTHAND AT HOME 
Self-Instruction in Shorthand Writ- 
ing 653 

Drills 653-664 

BOOK X.— ONE HUNDRED WATS TO 
MAKE MONEY 

Miscellaneous Methods . < . . 665-667 

Woman's Work 667-670 

Money in Inventions and Discoveries . 670 
Miscellaneous Ways to Gain Riches . 671 
Salaried Positions 673 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



BOOK I 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE WORLD'S MOST INGENIOUS MINDS— WONDROUS 
ADVANCE IN EVERY DEPARTMENT OP UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE. 



SHIPS OF THE AIR 




THE name of M. Alberto Santos-Du- 
mont, the son of a Brazilian coffee 
planter, will go 
down in history as 
that of the man who 
solved the riddle 
that for eenturies 
perplexed scientists 
— that of success- 
fully navigating the 
skies. In the past 
ten years more ad- 
vance has been 
made in the solution 
of the problem of 
aerial navigation 
than in the whole 
century since the 
Montgolfier brothers 
invented the bal- 
loon. With the ex- 
periments of San- 
tos -Dumont, in 
which he showed 
the dirigibility of 
his airship, it is be- 
lieved that the prob- 
lem has passed the guesswork stage and 
now needs only further development along 
lines laid down by him to establish the 
commercial value of this great invention. 
For years students of aeronautics studied 



1: 

*?L. . 



SANTOS- 
Inventor of 



kite flying, aeroplanes, balloons with wings 
and balloons with propellers. Some few in- 

ventors were able to 

make flights of 
short distances by 
means of a series of 
planes which al- 
lowed them to soar 
after the fashion of 
birds. Prominent 
among these inven- 
tors was Lilienthal, 
who lost his life in 
one of his experi- 
ments. The true 
story of the airship 
up to the present 
time lies in that of 
Alberto Santos-Du- 
mont, although 
somewhat success- 
ful flights have been 
made over London 
and New York by 
Leo Stevens in a 
dirigible balloon. 
Santos-Dumont was 
born in Brazil in 1873, and as a very young 
man became interested in aerial navigation. 
His first experiments were with spherical 
balloons, but he soon abandoned these for 
those of a cylindrical or cigar-shape, and 



DUMONT, 
the Airship. 



23 



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24 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




his triumphant 
success was 
gained with the 
fifth one which 
he constructed. 
He won his first 
large prize for 
successfully di- 
recting a ship 
ahout the Eiffel 
tower, in Paris, 
from St. Cloud 
and return. The 
balloon was 111 
feet long by 20 
feet in diameter. 
Paris has al- 
ways been the center of activity in aerial 
navigation, and a large club of aeronauts 
has helped to promote interest in tbte con- 
quest of the air. One of the members, M. 
Deutsch, in order to stimulate invention, 
offered a prize of 100,000 francs ($20,000) 
for a successful balloon trip over the 
above-mentioned course in 40 minutes. 
The daring navigator rounded the great 




SANTOS DUMONT'S FIRST BALLOON (SPHERICAL.). 



SANTOS DUMONT'S WORKSHOP. 

structure at a distance of not more than 
300 feet from it, and at a height of some 
500 feet above the ground. Since this 
achievement the aeronaut has constructed 
other machines with which he has had only 
moderate success. One ship lodged on the 
chimney tops of Paris, while another fell 
into the sea in the Bay of Monaea. Never- 
theless, so great has been his success that 
his work so far eclipses all that of other 
experimenters. 

A BALLOON 419 FEET LONG. 

Count Von Zeppelin, of Berlin, is also 
an inventor of some note, and has within 
the past two years constructed several air- 
ships, among which was one of gigantic 
dimensions. This balloon, which was con- 
structed near Berlin, has a length of 419 
feet, while that of Tissandier was only 91 
feet in length, that of Dupuy de Lome, 118 
feet, that of Haenlein, 132 feet, that of 
Giffard 144 feet, that of Schwarz, 154 feet, 
and that of Renard 165, feet. It will be 
seen that the airship of Count Yon Zeppe- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



25 



lin is, therefore, nearly two and a half 
times as large as any previously con- 
structed. 

A cylinder, 37 feet in diameter, forms 
the main body of the balloon, the ends be- 
ing slightly elongated ogives in shape. The 
framework of this airship was made of 
aluminum and consists of 26 polygons of 
24 sides each, placed 26 feet 
from each other, and held in 
position, perpendicular to 
the long axis of the balloon, 
by cross strips of aluminum. 
Each polygon is strength- 
ened by a network of alumi- 
num wire, which extends 
from a small central circle, 
in all directions, to the inner 
side of the polygon, just as 
spokes of a bicycle wheel ex- 
tend from the hub to the rim. 

Seven separate ' compart- 
ments are thus formed, and 
inside of each of these com- 
partments, as well as over 
the outside of the entire 
framework, is a net of 
strong but light-weight hemp 
cord. Into each . of these 
compartments, inside the 
nets of aluminum wire and 
hempen cord, is placed a bal- 
loon, which is in no wise 
connected with any one of 
its fellows. Each of these seventeen bal- 
loons is filled separately, and if by any ac- 
cident any of them burst or leak, the carry- 
ing power and utility of the balloon as a 
whole are not endangered or sacrificed. 

Under the balloon and attached firmly 
to it by strong aluminum bar3 are two 
gondolas, also of aluminum. These gon- 



dolas are each 21 feet long, five feet wide, 
and three feet deep, and have under each 
of them large spiral springs, which pre- 
vent jarring the entire machine when land- 
ing after an ascension. The gondolas are 
connected by a bridge one foot wide, which 
is also firmly bound to the balloon by means 
of aluminum bars and ropes. 




By courtesy of the "Scientific American." 
"SANTOS DUMONT'S NO. 1." 

In each gondola is a motor of 15 horse- 
power. Benzine is used as fuel, as, despite 
its great inflammability and the danger 
from fire which its use engenders, it is 
found to be the most practicable. Con- 
nected with tbe motors are four large 
aluminum screws, similar to those of 
steamships, which serve to propel the bal- 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




By courtesy of the "SeientiSc American 
BASKET OF "SANTOS DUMONT, NO. 1." 
Showing Propeller and Motor. 



loon through the air. Two of these are 
placed at the forward end, at a point where 
the straight sides of the cylinder begin to 
converge toward the ogival and how of the 
airship, and the other two are at a corre- 
sponding point at the rear. 

The balloon, or airship, is steered by a 
sort of rudder consist- 
ing of a framework 
covered with balloon 
cloth, and which can 
be moved to the right 
or left, or up and 
down. One of these is 
at either end of the 
balloon, and changes 
its course in the same 
way and on the same 
principle as does the 
rudder of a ship. A 
weight which slides 
along a rope is at- 
tached to the under- 
side of the gondolas 



and the bridge which connects 
them. If this weight be placed 
under the rear gondola the rear 
half of the balloon, being heavier 
than the fore, remains lower in 
the air, and the propelling screws 
being set in motion, the balloon 
moves forward, and, of course, rises. 
If the weight be moved forward 
the angle is changed until, when the 
weight reaches the center, the bal- 
loon moves in a straight line, and 
then, as the weight advances more 
and more the front becomes heavier 
than the baek and the balloon de- 
scends. A rope reaching from the 
bow to the stern of the balloon, and 
hanging slack under it, combines with the 
weight in accomplishing the directing of 
the airship. 

The ship of Santos-Dumont, while not 
quite as long as that of Count Von Zeppe- 
lin, is constructed with as much care and 
of nearly the same material. 




SANTOS DCMONT'S NO. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



27 



THE LANG-LEY PLYING 
MACHINE. 

A balloon styled the 
"Langley flying machine" 
was constructed in the 
summer of 1903 under 
the supervision of experts 
in the employ of the 
United States government, 
who pronounced the basic 
theory on which it was 
planned infallible. The 
cost of designing and mak- 
ing it> together with the 
expense attending several 
experimental trips under 
disastrous conditions, was 
$72,000. The final test, 
September 12, 1903, re- 
sulted in a complete col- 
lapse of the airship, on 
account of a lack of rig- 
idity in its frame, and 
by reason of weakness in 
its propelling apparatus, in 
which strength had been 
sacrificed for the sake of 
lightness. 

THIRD SERIOUS 
DISASTER. 

The final wrecking was 
the third and most serious 
disaster which befell the 
inventor. Three propellers had been pre- 
viously broken during experiments, and 
other parts were disabled while the secret 
tests in the Smithsonian Institute were 
being conducted. 

GATHMANN'S DESIGN. 

Louis Gathmann, who invented the gun 




By courtesy of the "Scientific American. 
THE INTERIOR OF THE AERODOME. 
Showing Its Construction 



the Inflated Balloon, and the Pennant with 
Mystic Letters. 



bearing his name, is planning a flying ma- 
chine weighing 15,000 pounds, constructed 
of nickel steel, with two 500-horse-power 
engines. The lifting power of this machine 
is centered in a heavy, revolving horizontal 
fan, the blades being shaped like a Maltese 
cross. The cost is estimated at $136,000. 



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28 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



AUTOMOBILES AND 

The age has arrived when the horse as 
a means 'of power for general traction is 
well on the wane. While it is not intended 
by this statement to convey the idea that 
the time will come when horses will no 
longer be used to draw vehicles, neverthe- 
less the development in the past decade of 
the automobile, or automatic vehicle, has 
attained such success that it is no longer a 
mere experiment. Today, upon the streets 
of any of our cities may be seen horseless 
carriages, trucks, wagons and fire engines, 
while in the country the traction engine 
and the automatic plow are gradually com- 
ing into use. 

Industrial science affords no more com- 
plex problem than the construction of a 
carriage which contains within itself all the 
elements of swift and safe transit for per- 
sons and goods. The development of the 
automobile has been slow until a compara- 
tively recent date. Briefly, and to avoid 
ancient history, let us take up the story 
of the horseless vehicle in its nearly perfect 
form. 

The principal motive powers for the 
motor vehicle to-day are electricity, gaso- 
line and steam, although there are several 
chemical and other agents, such as com- 
pressed air, which are in occasional use. 
In general, however, it may be stated that 
the last named have been dropped. 

The relative merits of the three systems 
now generally in use may be summarized 
as follows : 

THE ELECTRIC MOTOR. 

The greatest difficulty that is presented in 
the problem of driving a carriage by elec- 
tricity is that of the storage battery. For 



THEIR DEVELOPMENT 

many years a great number of scientists 
have busied themselves striving after im- 
provements in the method of storing elec- 
tricity. The result of these experiments 
has shown that weight is a serious handicap. 
Nevertheless, so convenient is the electrical 
method that the electric motor probably is 




A. FASHIONABLE AUTOMOBILE. 



the most successful, in its particular sphere, 
now in use on automobiles. 

The mechanical arrangement of the aver- 
age electric automobile consists of a bat- 
tery, or series of batteries, in which is 
stored sufficient electrical fluid to serve for 
a several hours' run. These storage bat- 
teries must be filled at some power station 
when run down, an operation that takes 
some time. It is customary in the large 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



29 



cities, on automatic "bus" lines, to have a 
wire connection at the regular station of the 
"bus," whereby the batteries may be kept 
constantly supplied. From the storage bat- 
teries run connecting wires to a motor usu- 
ally located on the rear axle of the vehicle, 
or in the hubs of the rear wheels. 

By the ordinary method of levers, the 
power is imparted to the motor, or thrown 
off at will. Very effective brakes, of neces- 
sity, make up a part of the complete auto- 
mobile. The best equipped ma- 
chines can come to a full stop 
from a high rate of speed in a 
very few feet. The steering gear 
is usually attached to the front 
wheels, and is operated by a hori- 
zontal lever Jiear the front seat. 
However, some cabs steer by the 
rear wheels. The most up-to-date 
machines are equipped with elec- 
tric lights and bells. 

GASOLINE MOTOB. 

The motive power of the gaso- 
line automobile is derived through 
the constant explosion of gasoline 
and air combined in proper quan- 
tities, which in turn operates a 
piston and a fly wheel, and finally 
the wheels of the carriage. The 
greatest advance in this style of 
pleasure automobiles has been 
made in France, and from that 
country some of the best machines 
in present use in this country 
have been imported. The mechanical 
arrangement of the gasoline motor em- 
braces a tank for gasoline, a device for 
admitting air to the gasoline, a mixer or 
carburettor, an electric "sparker" which 
ignites the mixture under pressure, by 
means of which the explosion which drives 



the piston is produced. The usual method 
consists of four cycles. The spark first 
ignites the gasoline, and this explodes, driv- 
ing forth the piston, which, in turn, re- 
cedes, driving out the spent gases, thus pre- 
paring the cylinder for exploding the next 
intake of gasoline and air. A correspond- 
ing operation is in process in the other 
cylinder, both being connected with same 
crank shaft. A water jacket -is one of the 
essentials of this machine, to prevent too 




courtesy of the International Harvester Company o£ America. 



AUTOMOBILE MOWING MACHINE. 
At Work in a Field. 

high a temperature resulting from the 
constant explosions. Tremendous speed has 
been attained with this style of machine, a 
record of over eighty miles per hour having 
been made. 

Some of the difficulties attached to this 
method are the seeming impossibility of 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



30 MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 

readily regulating the speed from high to 
low gear ; the constant jar and racket due to 
the exploding gasoline; the disagreeable 
odor that follows the machine; the serious 
difficulties arising from the delicate adjust- 
ment of the sparking apparatus, and acci- 
dents occurring from starting the fly wheel 




By courtesy of the Chicago Motor Vehicle Co. 
BACKING THE WHEEL OFF A TWELVE-INOH BLOCK ONTO AN EGG, CRACKING THE SHELL 
WITHOUT SPILLING THE CONTENTS, AND THEN MOUNTING THE BLOCK. 
A Demonstration of Perfect Control. 



by hand. All of these defects, however, operation, and the universal knowledge of 

have been obviated in the latest improve- its propelling power. 

ments. Some of these machines cost as high This vehicle is equipped with a burner, 

as $10,000. a boiler, cylinders and a ch»in connecting 



THE STEAM MOTOB. 

The steam machine is operated hy a 
simple steam engine, the steam for which is 
generated by heat from oil or gasoline. 
Among the chief points in favor of this 
method are its comparative freedom from 
vibration or jar, its comparatively noiseless 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



31 



tlie fly wheel with one of the axles of the 
wagon. As in the gasoline method, fuel for 
trips of over a hundred miles can be carried 



Self-propelling vehicles are built in 
scores of patterns. Some of the heavier 
drays use compressed air for motive power. 
In Paris the fire department is equipped 
with an electric automobile, and in other 
cities the chiefs use light vehicles in run- 
ning to fires. The Chicago Motor Vehicle 
Company is operat- 
ing a very successful 
gasoline street car. 
Ambulances, ammu- 
nition wagons, bi- 
cycles and light Tail- 
way hand cars are 
driven by light gaso- 
line engines. Many 
feats of cross-country 
riding, mountain- 
climbing and the like 
have tested the aston- 
ishing capabilities of 
the automobile. 

Motive power for 
farm purposes is 
receiving more and 
more attention. The 
latest departure is an 
automobile mower which is just being put 
on the market by the Deering Harvester 
Company of Chicago, or, to be more accu- 
rate, the International Harvester Company, 
of which the Deering is now a part. Their 
experiments began in 1894 and they suc- 
ceeded in getting one of the machines ready 
for exhibition at the Paris Exposition, 
where it attracted much attention. In com- 
petition it worked perfectly, running at any 



speed and turning even more easily than a 
team of horses. 

The mower is equipped with ball and 
roller bearings and is propelled by a motor 
which consists of two six-horse power gaso- 
line engines mounted tandem on a large 
pipe six inches in diameter and five feet 
long. The rear end of this pipe is secured 
to the mower frame in the place of the or- 
dinary draft tongue and the front end is 
supported by a steering wheel. The ma- 




By courtesy of the Chicago Motor Vehicle Co. 
CLIMBING A 25-PER-CENT GRADE LOADED. 



chine is guided by the wheel which the 
operator holds in his left hand. The levers 
at his right are for operating the cutting 
bar. 

Although this motor is designed for the 
mowing machine it can be used for other 
purposes. By taking off the cutting appar- 
atus it can be made to draw loads, grind 
feed, pump water and do many other useful 
things. 



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32 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




GUGLIELMO MARCONI. 
The Genius Who Developed Wireless Telegraphy. 



MESSAGES WITHOUT WIRES 

Possibly the most conspicuous of all the 
recent discoveries in science, and farthest 
reaching in its ultimate effect upon our ma- 
terial affairs, is that of the successful sys- 
tem of wireless telegraphy developed and 
established by the genius of the young in- 
ventor, Guglielmo Marconi. His first ex- 
periments resulted in communication at 
will without wires, over a distance of over 
250 miles. The public had hardly become 
accustomed to this fact when the announce- 
ment was made upon the authority of the 
young inventor himself, verified by unmis- 
takable evidence, that on December 12, 
1901, he had received signals across the At- 
lantic by the same system. The far reach- 
ing results of a system by which messages 
are transmitted without the preliminary 
stringing of wires or cables, by which ships 
may be spoken to in mid-ocean, far from 
sight, by which distress signals can be 
sounded from sea to shore, and by means of 



which continents can be connected without the aid 
of cables, is almost too stupendous for realization. 

' Let us consider the methods by which the sender 
of the wireless message operates. Those of us who 
are unfamiliar with electrical apparatus are accus- 
tomed to consider only such electrical streams as take 
their way along wires. But there are a great many 
other electrical streams unconfined by wires, which 
can be quite as telegraphic as if they were kept on 
paths of copper and steel. 

Discoveries of this nature were made as long ago 
as 1842, and others looking in the same direction 
followed. Marconi makes no claim to being the 
first to experiment along the lines which led to wire- 
less telegraphy, or the first to signal for distances, 
without wires. But in spite of his prompt ac- 
knowledgment to other workers in his field, it has 
remained for Marconi to perfect a commercial 




A. B. SALIGER, WITH RFCEIVINO 
APPARATUS. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



33 



system, and put it into practical working 
order over great distances. 

THE COHERER. 

The first two essentials in wireless teleg- 
raphy are the vertical wire and the "co- 
herer," which by its exqui- 
site sensitiveness makes it 
possible to register mes- 
sages as received. Before 
the development of the re- 
ceiving apparatus of Mar- 
coni, electricians learned how 
, to develop electrical waves. 
These waves have long been 
utilized for sending mes- 
\ sages through wires. Mar- 
coni started with the as- 
sumption that inasmuch as 
electrical waves may pass 
through the ether, which fills 
all space, as readily as 
through wires, if these 
waves could be controlled 
they would convey mes- 
sages as easily as the wires. 
Then he undertook to make 
an instrument that would 
produce a peculiar kind of 
wave, and another apparatus 
which would receive and 
register this wave at a distance from the 
first. 

GENERATING THE HERTZIAN WAVE. 

. This wave is called the Hertzian. It is 
generated by a battery, and passing in bril- 
liant sparks between two brass balls, is radi- 
ated to space from a wire suspended on a 
tall pole. By the shutting off and turning 
of this peculiar current, the waves are so 
divided as to represent the dots and dashes 
of the ordinary Morse alphabet of teleg- 



raphy. The waves which come from the 
transmitter are received on a suspended 
wire elevated either by a mast, kite or bal- 
loon. This wire is exactly similar to the 
one used in the transmitter, but by the time 
the waves have passed over a long distance, 



they are so weak that they could not of 
themselves operate an ordinary telegraph 
instrument. For the necessity thus arising, 
Marconi found a remedy in his coherer. 
This instrument is a little tube of glass, 
about two inches long, and as large as a 
small lead pencil, in diameter. The ends 
are plugged with silver and nearly meet 
within the tube. In the space between the 
plugs there is a small quantityof nickel and 
silver filings, finely powdered. The filings 




INTERIOR OF EXPERIMENTAL. STATION AT THE FOOT OF 
OAK STREET. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




MARCONI STATION. 
The Great "Wireless Telegraphy Station at Glace Bay, Canada: 
Towers each 215 feet high, from which Mr, Marconi 
flashed the first wireless sentences. 



are jumbled together like tlie particles of a 
sand heap, and in that state they form a 
very poor conductor. When they receive 
an electrical wave, however, they cling to- 
gether as tightly as a solid conducting 
bridge that carries a current from a local 
battery to a receiving telegraphic sounder 
of common pattern. If it is connected at 
one end with the suspended wire and at the 
other end with the Morse instrument, there 
is a dot or dash printed, according to the 
signal that has been sent by the transmitter, 
miles away. Then a little tapper, actuated 
by the same current, strikes against the co- 
herer, and the particles of metal are jarred 
apart, or de-cohered, becoming instantly a 
poor conductor, and thus stopping the 
strong current from the home battery. 
Then another wave comes through space, 
down the suspended- wire, into the coherer, 
drawing the particles together again, with 
the result that another dot or dash is 
printed. After these processes have con- 
tinued for some time, a complete message 
may be picked out upon the tape. 



In his early experiments Marconi 
believed that in order to cover great 
distances, very high masts must be 
used; the greater the distance, the 
taller the mast. He thought the 
waves were hindered by the curvature 
of the earth, but his experiments have 
proven that very tall masts are not 
necessary. 
■ 2fow that the sensational and 
"nine days' wonder"' period follow- 
ing the invention of the wireless 
telegraph has passed, and the period 
of practical development and exten- 
sion has set in, we shall probably 
hear much less through the public 
prints about this really marvelous 
device, although, before we are fairly 




TEMPORARY EXPERIMENTAL STATION, 
Showing Pole and Air Wires. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



35 



aware of it, it will be in general and 
familiar use throughout the world. That 
wireless telegaphy has already been brought 
well within the realm of practical useful- 
ness is evidenced by the fact that the 
United States government is establishing a 
system for its own use in Alaska, and that 
nearly all the ocean steamship companies 
are equipping their vessels with wireless 



apparatus. That it is being taken up also 
as a new and promising field for the in- 
vestment of capital is evident from reports 
from the financial world, which state that 
already scores of companies have been 
organized for the purpose of operating an 
extensive system of both wireless telegraph 
and telephones throughout the United 
States, Canada and the old world. 



THE ROENTGEN X-RAY 



Science has recently discovered a "new 
thing under the sun" in the X-ray, or 
Roentgen ray, or cathode light, as it is 
sometimes called. This is a weird property 
of electricity, which enables one to see 
partly through solid objects, and has been 
of great service to science in locating dislo- 
cations, breaks in bones and bullets in 
human bodies, besides being put to other 
uses since its great power was discovered. 

As long ago as 1S57, Dr. Heinrich Geiss- 
ler, a celebrated German scientist, who 
learned the trade of glassblower, made some 
glass tubes from which the air had been 
exhausted. The tubes were made of thin 
glass and in each end platinum wires passed 
through to the inside of the tube. These 
tubes are still known as Geissler's tubes, 
and for years have been used to illustrate 
the phenomenon which accompanies the dis- 
charge through them of highly rarefied 
gases and vapors. 

THE GEISSLEB TUBES. 

These tubes vary in size from a small 
quarter-inch cylinder, three or four inches 
long, to tubes two inches in diameter and 
ten inches long. They are made in several 
shapes, to meet ths needs or whims of the 



user. The platinum wires which lead into 
the tube are usually tipped with small 
spears or disks of platinum or aluminum. 
These tubes contain air in various degrees 
of rarefaction ; that is, the air in some tubes 
is more completely exhausted than in oth- 
ers, and thus the tubes approach more 
nearly a perfect vacuum. When the ter- 
minals^ — the wires leading from the posi- 
tive and negative poles — of the secondary 
coil of an ordinary induction coil are con- 
nected with these "electrodes" — the plati- 
num wires in the ends of the tube — and an 
electric current is sent over the wires, vari- 
ous colored light effects take place inside of 
the tube. These depend upon the degree of 
air rarefaction, and also of the kind of 
gas that is put into the tubes; for, some- 
times, after the air has been exhausted, the 
tube' is filled with hydrogen, nitrogen, car- 
bonic acid gas and other gases. 

THE INDTTCTIOH' COIL. 

The induction coil is an apparatus which 
has two coils of wires. The inside coil is 
made of thick, heavy wire, and the other 
coil, which entirely surrounds the inside 
coil, is made of thin wire. The inside coil 
is called the "primary" coil and has but 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



few turns of the heavy wire. The outside 
coil is called the "secondary" coil, and is 
made with many hundred turns of very fine 
wire. The two coils are not connected with 
each other in any way, but if a current is 




By courtesy of W. Hcheidel & Co., Chicago. 
BONES OF THE FOOT A3 SEEN THROUGH A SHOE BY MEANS OF THE 
X-RAY. 



made to flow through the "primary" coil, it 
"induces" a current in the "secondary" 
coiL The battery connected with the prim- 
ary coil may produce a large current with 
little force. It will induce in the secondary 
coil a small current of very great force, or, 



as we say, "the electro-motive force of the 
induced current will be higher than that of 
the primary current." When this induced 
current is sent through a Geissler's tube, 
the tube is filled with different colored 
lights. If the degree 
of rarefaction is not 
very high, lustrous 
layers of light, sepa- 
rated by dark bands, 
are produced 
throughout the tube. 
If the tube is filled 
with rarefied air the 
color of the bands 
will be a rosy red ; if 
filled with nitrogen 
gas, an orange-yellow 
light will be pro- 
duced. Hydrogen gas 
will make a pale blu- 
ish color, and car- 
bonic acid gas will 
give a light that is a 
pale green. 

The bands of light 
that are seen in the 
tube are curved, and 
the concave surfaces 
are nearest the posi- 
tive electrode. These 
bands extend nearly 
the whole length of 
the tube, but between 
them and the negative 
electrode is a dark 
space, while immediately surrounding the 
negative electrode is a beautiful pale-blue 
glow. As the rarefaction in the tube is 
carried further and further, the light from 
the positive end of the tube tends more and 
more to fill the tube, although in general 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCO VERIES 



37 



receding from the negative end. At the 
same time the beautiful lavender glow from 
the negative end spreads more and more, 
filling more of the space around the nega- 
tive electrode. If the rarefaction is carried 
still higher, the positive light which now 
occupies a considerable part of the tube 
and takes more or less the shape- of the 
enclosing vessel, divides up into any num- 
ber of cup-shaped layers at right angles 
to a line drawn through the center of the 
tube, the long way. These layers are 
separated from each other by darker in- 
tervals, and their concave sides are turned 
toward the positive electrode. Although 
the positive light changes with the in- 
creased rarefaction of the air, the nega- 
tive light remains substantially constant. 
The lavender light around the negative 
electrode is still the same, being uniform, 
but is more intense and spreads over more 
space. These rays from the negative pole 
shoot across the tube in straight lines, and 
striking upon the glass walls of the oppo- 
site side, produce a most brilliant fluores- 
cence. If a screen of mica be put in the 
path of these negative rays, it stops them, 
and the shadow of the screen is outlined on 
the glass walls of the tube, surrounded by a 
bright fluorescence. The negative is called 
the "anode," and the negative electrode the 
"cathode." Thus the name of cathode ray 
is given to the negative light in the Geissler 
tube. 

THE CROOKES TUBE, 

The Crookes tube, in outward appear- 
ance, is not different from a Geissler, but 
the air in the former is always exhausted to 
a much higher degree than in the latter. 
The exhaustion has been carried as high as 
1-20,000,000 of an atmosphere. When it is 
remembered that one atmosphere will sus- 



tain a column of mercury thirty inches in 
height, and exerts a pressure of about fif- 
teen pounds to the square inch, one can but 
vaguely imagine the exceedingly small 

!Hf- : . ■ ■ " ~ " 




By courtesy of W. Scheidel & Co,, Chicago. 

THE BONES OF THE FOOT, AS SHOWN BY THE 
X-RAY. 

quantity of air that is left in a tube so ex- 
hausted. 

When a magnet is brought near a Crookes 
tube, the positive light is rotated by the 
magnetic influence, but the cathode rays act 
differently. If the negative (cathode) end 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



of the tube is placed over the space between 
the poles of a horse-shoe magnet, the lav- 
ender glow around the negative electrode, 
seemingly, will be drawn to one side, and 
an arch reaching from pole to pole in the 
tube will be made, with the concave face to- 
ward the two poles of the magnet. Now, 
the X-rays come from the cathode end of 
the tube, but they are not what we call 
cathode rays, for, it has been proved that a 
magnet has no influence on the X-rays, 
which pass straight through the magnetic 
field, even, though the cathode rays are de- 
flected by the magnet. The X-rays will 
pass through a book or a board and brighten 
a phosphorescent screen, or they will go 
through leather, flesh, wood, paper, cloth, 
and other things that cannot be penetrated 
by ordinary light, and act upon a sensi- 
tive photographic plate. Sometimes the 
Crookes tube is of bulbed or globular shape, 
and sometimes it is shaped like a Geissler 
tube. When it is used to make an X-ray 
"shadowgraph," the electric current is au- 
tomatically broken many times a second, 
and this increases the intensity of the light. 

THE SHADOWGRAPH. 

Since the discovery of the power of the 
X-rays' scientists have developed it greatly. 
Now } it is possible to watch a man's heart 
beat through his body and clothing, or to 
take photographs of interior organs of the 
body or substances lodged in them. Of 
course, these photographs are only dimly 
outlined as their name, "shadowgraph," 
would indicate. Yet they have been of 
great value in saving life and in directing 
surgical operations. When a shadowgraph 
is to be taken, the subject is stretched over a 
photographic plate holder containing a 
sensitive plate. Then the X-ray ma- 



chine is set to working, the rays pass 
through the body upon the plate within the 
holder and expose it after the fashion of 
picture taking. The rest of the process is 
just like that in finishing photographs. 

ADVANCES IN APPARATUS FOR THE 
PRODUCTION OP THE X-RAY. 

When the X-rays were discovered by 
Prof. Roentgen, of Wiirtzburg, there were 
very few pieces of apparatus suitable for 
the production of the rays. Since that time, 
manufacturers of both coils and static ma- 
chines have increased in number until now 
there are fully twenty reliable firms in this 
country alone. In Chicago, four or five 
good static machines are manufactured, 
and a larger number of good induction 
coils. 

Among the static machines those of C. IT. 
Birtman & Co., and X. O. Xelson & Co., 
are not only beautiful to look upon but are 
efficient as energizers of the X-ray tubes. 
These machines are of the same general 
type. The X-ray furnished by these ma- 
chines is excellent for fluoroscopic examina- 
tion. The patient is placed near the X-ray 
lube so that the rays will pass through the 
body. The fluoroscopic screen will be 
lighted up by the X-rays that pass through 
the body of the patient. The thicker parts 
obstruct the ray more than the less dense 
parts, and thus a shadow is cast upon the 
fluoroscopic screen. This screen is ordin- 
arily closed in a hood which has a sort of 
oval aperture. The margin of this aperture 
is covered with lamb's fleece, and will ac- 
commodate that part of the face surround- 
ing the eyes. When the rays are not in ac- 
tion, the operator will be looking into a 
perfectly black box, but as soon as the rays 
are generated, the screen is lighted up in 
the manner described above. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



39 



Of the good induction coils in this city 
we shall mention those of Scheidel & Co., 
and the Western X-ray. These coils when 
attached to a 110 volt circuit will give a 
continuous spark of deafening sound over a 
gap of twelve inches or more, depending 
upon the size of the coil. The circuit from 
the street is sent through a 
suitable resistance, so that the 
current will not he too strong. 
It then proceeds through an 
interrupter into the primary 
portion of the induction coil. 
This primary is composed of 
rather large wire, of a vari- 
able number of turns, depend- 
ing upon the size of the in- 
duction coil. In the center of 
this primary are a great num- 
ber of straight iron wires, all 
cemented together into a cyl- 
inder. The secondary coil is 
composed of a great number 
of turns of very fine wire, the 
full length of the wire being 
many thousands of feet. All 
these turns have to be very 
carefully insulated from each 
other so that the spark cannot 
leap from one wire to the 
other, thus short - circuiting 
the machine. !Nbne of the 
currents from the street gets 
into the secondary wire, be- 
cause the latter is entirely 
insulated from the primary, but when the 
current in the primary is broken a current 
of very high voltage is generated in the 
secondary coil. It is this high voltage cur- 
rent which is carried by connective wires 
through the Crookes tube and energizes 
this and thus produces the X-ray. 



A great improvement of coils was 
achieved when the rotary mercury-spray in- 
terrupter was invented. The voltage cur- 
rent passes through this instrument along 
a spray of mercury, and is thus very rap- 
idly interrupted. 

Another style of interrupter, called the 




By courtesy of W. Scheiflel & Co., Chicago. 
BONES OF A HAND AS SEEN BY THE X-RAY. 

electrolytic, is one of the most successful 
of . the devices invented in this con- 
nection. The interrupter consists of 
a glass jar about half full of diluted 
sulphuric acid. The positive pole of the 
street current is connected with a German 
silver wire, which drips down into the 



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40 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



liquid within the glass tube, as seen in the the letter "L." The current on passing 
cut. The wire rests upon a small porcelain through the sulphuric acid, is interrupted 




it 



w,„TTT,m By Courtes y o£ W. Scheidel & Co., Chicago. 

BULLET, AS DETECTED BY THE X-RAY. 



cup in the negative end of the cell. The by the formation of small bubbles of gas, 
negative pole is a rod of lead shaped like and this interruption, which is very rapid| 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



41 



produces a very high, voltage current in the 
secondary portion of the induction coil. 
This is the only interrupter which can be 
used on an alternating current, and is 
therefore of great service where only this 
current is available. 

Another great improvement was required 
in Crookes tubes before the medical profes- 
sion could use the X-ray to advantage. The 
early tubes would stand very little current, 
because the terminals were not strong 
enough to withstand the immense heat ef- 
fects of the cathode ray. 

As shown in a diagram of the inventor 
the cathode terminal is concave (hol- 
lowed), while the positive is a double ter- 
minal shaped like dick. The one near the 
center of the tube receives the bombard- 
ment of the cathode rays. These rays are 
sent out from the negative whenever the 
tube is in action, and because the cathode is 
Concave, they are brought to focus at one 
point, at which point is placed the anode. 
The theory is now pretty well established 
that the X-rays are produced by the sudden 
stopping of the cathode rays at the anode. 
The X-rays are therefore produced at this 
point of bombardment, and they spread out, 
passing through the walls of the tube into 
the room. They are themselves entirely in- 
visible, but they have the property of mak- 
ing a few chemicals give out light in a very 
remarkable manner. The most approved 
chemical is the double salt, platino-cyanide 
of barium, which is spread upon a cloth in 
a pulverized condition. 

It was early discovered that the X-rays 
could penetrate light proof paper and fog a 
photographic plate. If the hand is placed 
so that the X-rays can pass through it be- 
fore reaching the plate, the bones will ob- 
struct the rays more than the plate, and 



that part of the plate beneath the bones will 
be less affected than the part next to the tis- 
sue. Thus by proper development of the 
plate an image of the bones of the hand will 
be seen. The same holds good for all other 
parts of the body. The usual method is to 
place the patient on a suitable table in a re- 
clining position. The tube is so arranged 
that the rays will pass downward through 
the body of the patient. A photographic 
plate is then placed beneath that part which 
is to be photographed. ' With the earlier ap- 
paratus, a long exposure was required to 
take even a hand, but now very short expo- 
sures of the thickest parts of the body will 
be sufficient. The X-rays are used by the 
surgeon in detecting any fracture of the 
bones, dislocation of the joints, or the pres- 
ence of a foreign body. Formerly, it was a 
difficult operation to probe for a bullet, but 
'now the projectile can be exaetly located 
with the X-ray. Swallowed coins and pins, 
often a source of the greatest anxiety to 
parents, need not be so much feared. A 
metal object is readily located in any part 
of the child's alimentary canal, and its pro- 
gress can be kept track of as it moves 
through the system. Many deformities 
seen in the arm and wrist due to incorrect 
reduction of a fracture are now without ex- 
cuse, because the X-ray will show wherever 
a bone is misplaced. 

But, of even greater interest is the use of 
the X-ray in the treatment of certain dis- 
eases. The X-ray cannot be expected to 
cure all diseases, and it certainly should 
never be tried excepting by those who have 
had experience in its use, but the number 
of diseases in which benefit has been de- 
rived from its use is constantly increasing^ 
In no disease has it been more successful 
than in the treatment of Lupus. This is a 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



disease often affecting the face, producing a 
hideous raw surface on the cheek, and look- 
ing something like an ulcer, hut only af- 
fecting the outer skin. Hundreds of such 
cases involving other parts of the body, as 
well as the face, have already been reported 
cured. Another disease which is justly 
dreaded is cancer. This is not a simple 
disease, but has many varieties, some of 
which have yielded remarkably to the 
X-ray treatment, while in others the treat- 
ment has produced little effect "Smokers' 
Cancer" has yielded very well to the X-ray, 
and it is an interesting question whether 
the X-ray might not have prolonged the life 
of General Grant, had it been discovered 
and applied early in the progress of the 
disease. It has been applied to tumors in 
different parts of the body, and to swollen 
glands, but the treatment should always be 
under the direction of a competent sur-* 
geon, because in too many cases only an 
early operation will eradicate the dreaded 
growths. Rheumatism and cases of facial 
neuralgia have been benefitted by the 
rays. 

The most powerful X-ray tubes have 
been recently patented by R. Friedlander & 
Co., of Chicago. These tubes have the 
most powerful anodes, so that very strong 
currents can be sent through them without 
destroying them. The quantity of the 
X-rays v produced therefore is remarkably 
increased. Another point, of importance is 
the vacuum of the tube. The earliest tubes 
were non-adjustable in vacuum, and there- 
fore only one kind of X-ray could be gener- 
ated. In these improved tubes, however, 
the vacuum can be perfectly regulated, and 
as the kind of the X-ray depends upon this 



vacuum, the operator has at his disposal a 
great variety of rays. 

In the early stages of this new science, 
newspapers contained accounts of severe 
X-ray burns, and some of these accounts 
were not very much exaggerated, but as 
X-ray photographs are now taken with 
shorter exposures, this danger is overcome. 

A new danger, however, has appeared 
which affects more particularly the operator 
than the patient. It has been found that 
continued exposures to the X-ray will pro- 
duce a thickening and crusting of the skin 
which becomes at last very alarming. The 
finger nails are sloughed off, and large 
cracks in the skin will develop. When the 
patient is being treated- continuously for a 
cancer or some other disease, the surround- 
ing tissue must be protected from the 
X-ray. It is then necessary to use a screen, 
which will protect both the operator and the 
patient. A very successful shield just 
placed on the market is an invention 
which has suitable openings to allow any 
amount of the rays desired to come out of 
thte tube, according to the different sizes 
of the openings. The rays can be pro- 
jected into the mouth in treating a cancer 
of the tongue, or the back part of the 
mouth, while the patient's face is success- 
fully shielded. A great number of other 
skin diseases have been successfully treated ; 
even superfluous hair has been removed and 
pustules have yielded to the treatment 

It is thus apparent how a purely scien- 
tific discovery has led to important ad- 
vancements in several different lines of in- 
dustry, and has been utilized in medicine 
in the treatment of numerous diseases 
which had been pronounced incurable. 



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NEW WONDERS OF THE ELECTRICAL WORLD 




BELL'S FIRST TELEPHONE. 

Something over a century ago, Benjamin 
Franklin drew from the clouds by means of 
his kite and door key, a spark frum a cloud 
laden with electricity. Lightning, it was 
called then, and, in fact, that is what it was 
in miniature form, for lightning is simply 
one of the great phenomena of electricity. 
From the time of Franklin, to the present, 
the day of Edison, the Wizard, Gray, Bell, 
Tesla, Morse and Marconi, the development 
of this weird power has been marvelous. 
To-day one can ride in cars driven 130 
miles an hour by electricity, or girdle the 
globe with a telegraph message, or talk 
across the Atlantic ocean on an electrical 
wave without the aid of wires, to say noth- 
ing of being supplied with light, heat and 
all kinds of motive power from this un- 
known quantity. For, practically, un- 
known it is. Experts are only beginning 



to learn a little about it, and yet that little 
has produced wonders. 

If you rub rubber, resin, glass, vulcanite, 
amber, sealing wax or a number of other 
substances, it will be found that they will 
attract bits of paper. If you rub a cat's 
fur the wrong way briskly on a cold night, 
you will see sparks fly. If you shuffle your 
feet briskly along a Brussels carpet, and 
touch your finger to another person's skin 
or to a piece of metal, a spark will leap 
from you. These are the simplest methods 
of developing electricity. The power of this 




THOMAS A. EDISON. 



All the world knows his career as newsboy, telegrapher, 
Inventor of electrical machinery and organizer ol great 
business enterprises to utilize his discoveries and inven- 
tions. He is constantly working out new Ideas in bis 
laboratory at Orange, N, J, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



invisible force when properly developed is 
immeasurable. It can be produced by chem- 
icals, and the belief is growing that it is ele- 
mental with all nature. This power, when 
created and stored away, is the agent by 
which the marvels of electrical genius are 
worked out. 

The most common of the uses to which 
electricity is put, aside from that of carry- 
ing telephone and telegraph messages, is 
that of generating power for motion. The 
trolley car has come to be well nigh uni- 
versal, while more and more is steam, as a 
direct motive power, giving way to elec- 
tricity. To generate electricity in great 
quantities the dynamo or generator is used. 
For door bells, most telephones, and sev- 
eral other uses, the galvanic battery serves 
the purpose. This, in its simplest form, 
consists of a glass or earthenware vessel, in 
which vitriol, sal ammoniac and similar 
chemicals act upon zinc and copper. The 
dynamo, as well as the static electrical 
machine, works on the frictional method. 

THE DYNAMO. 

The dynamo is a device arranged with a 
central revolving pstrt which is generally 
operated by a belt driven by a steam engine. 
Pressing against the armature, or revolving 
part, are brushes of metal. The rapid revo- 
lution of the armature excites a flow of elec- 
tricity. This current may be controlled 
and sent in turn to trolley cars, to electric 
heating apparatus', to motors for running 
all sorts of electrical machinery, to electric 
light plants, or what not. 

THE TROLLEY-CAR MOTOR. 

The trolley car is one of the most com- 
mon agents of the public, which uses elec- 
tricity. The principle on which they are 



operated is very simple. Located on the 
car is a motor — more often two motors, 
quite similar to the dynamo which gener- 
ates the electricity in the power house. 
Just as the revolution of the armature of 
the dynamo generates electricity, electricity 
when applied to the armatures of the mo- 
tors on the car, will cause them to revolve. 
The electricity comes traveling down the 
trolley wire and on eontact with the trolley 
on the car, shoots down into the mechanism 
of the car. On the platforms of the car are 
the controllers — metal boxes with handles 
attached to them. These handles control the 
flow of the fluid into the motor, and allow it 
to flow at full speed, or direct its course 
forward or backward. Here the eireuit can 
be broken entirely. Now the motorman 
wants to start the car. The trolley pole, 
with its metal wheel in contact with the 
overhead wire, has brought the current to 
the controlling box. The motorman 
switches his handle around a bit, the cur- 
rent flows down to the brushes of the motor, 
and the armature which is attached to the 
axle of the car begins to revolve. The elec- 
tricity, having done its work, passes out 
through a wire attached to the wheels, and 
flows along the rails into the ground, or 
back to the negative brush of the generator. 
As more speed is desired, the motorman 
throws the controller over a little further, 
and the car goes merrily on its way. To 
facilitate the discharge of the electricity 
after being used in the motor, wires of cop- 
per are run from the rails into the ground 
or return. 

THE TELEPHONE. 

The philosophy of the telephone is very 
similar to that of the phonograph, in so far 
as sound waves, impinging upon a thin 
sheet of metal, will cause it to vibrate. If 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



45 



the metal vibrates near a magnet it causes 
its force to fluctuate, and thus generate 
electrical impulses through a telephone 
wire, according to the sounds which are di- 
rected against the metal. The electrical 
energy, therefore, is directed from the re- 
ceiving end of the device. Many things are 
good conductors of these sound waves, but 
for convenience, wire is the best at present. 

The telephone consists of an electro- 
magnet, or, let us say, a coil of copper wire 
attached to a steel bar charged with mag- 
netism. Close to the bar is a thin sheet of 
iron or ferrotype. This contrivance is 
connected with the wire to carry the mes- 
sage and acts with the electrical generating 
device. Now when sounds are directed 
against the ferrotype, it causes a break in 
the current of electricity which is imparted 
to the wire. At the other end of the wire, a 
similar device is receiving these impulses 
by the alternate attraction and cessation of 
attraction of the plate by the magnet, and 
the sound is produced. 

THE INCANDESCENT AND ABC LIGHTS. 

What should we do without the conven- 
ience of the modern electric lighting de- 
vices ? To-day, all that is necessary is to 
turn a key or switch to flood darkness with 
light. Two kinds of lights are in common 
use — the incandescent and the arc light. 
The former is used principally for offices 
and residences, while the latter is used 
more for streets, factories and big halls. 
The incandescent lamp has reached a 
nearly perfect stage through the efforts of 
Edison. It consists of a hollow glass bulb 
from which all air has been pumped, and 
which is then hermetically sealed. Within 
the globe is a filament of carbon attached 
to little vises of platinum wire, which in 



turn connect with the electric wires. The 
principle which produces the light is that 
carbon affords high resistance to the cur- 
rent of electricity as it passes over the fila- 
ment, and thus causes it to become incan- 
descent. The filament is made of the fiber 
of bamboo carbonized. The length of the 
wire is regulated by the resistance required. 
The life of the lamp depends upon the ab- 




FRANKLIN AND HIS KITE. 



sence of air in the bulb, and in order to 
exhaust the bulb thoroughly when it is be- 
ing manufactured, the exhausting process 
is carried on while the lamp is burning, A 
good lamp will last about 1,200 hours. 

When some substance shall be discovered 
that will not burn away when the electric 
current passes through it, and yet will give 
out as strong a light as carbon, then the 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



feeding mechanism of the arc light, with its 
clutches, magnets, coils and wires, will be 
dispensed with. The arc lamp, with its in- 
tricate machinery, is necessary because no 
substance has been found so cheap and ef- 
ficient as carbon. 

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CARBONS. 

When two pieces of carbon are held closely 
together, end to end, and a strong current 
of electricity is sent through them no light 
appears. But if the carbons are separated 
a short distance, an eighth of an inch, say, 
the current leaps across this space. Elec- 
tricity always chooses the easiest path. So 
long as the carbons are held closely to- 
gether, the current goes 
about its business, but 
the instant the carbon 
points are drawn from 
each other the current 




Courtesy of Gardner Electric Drill and Machinery Co., 
GARDNER ELECTRIC ROCK DRILL. 

meets resistance, and in seeking to overcome 
this resistance, it generates heat. The heat 
soon causes the carbon points to glow, and 
the glow increases in intensity until the 
points become highly incandescent. In addi- 
tion, the space between the heated points is 
filled with white, hot particles of carbon fly- 
ing from the positive carbon to the negative 
carbon, and thus the electric arc is formed. 
The light is not made by the current of 
electricity itself, but is produced by the 
great heat generated because of the resist- 
ance made by setting up the air-space ob- 
stacle in the path of the current. 



About 85 per cent of the light of an arc 
lamp comes from the positive carbon, 10 
per cent from the negative carbon, and 5 
per cent from the flame between the points. 
As the carbons are exposed to the air they 
gradually burn away and the distance be- . 
tween the points increases. In .time, this 
distance becomes too great for the electric 
current to leap over, and the lights would 
die out if the carbons were not readjusted. 
The positive carbon burns away twice as 
fast as the negative carbon. In fact, a cer- 
tain amount of the waste from the positive 
carbon is deposited on the negative point, 
and in this way the negative carbon be- 
comes slightly pointed, and a crater-like 
hole is formed in the end of 
the opposite carbon. The 
heat generated by the leap- 
ing current is intense. When 
viewed through a smoky or 
colored glass, the points seem 
to be covered with little glob- 
ular lumps, which appear 
and disappear as though the 
carbons were melting. The 

Cleveland, O. bea( . between ftg h 

great enough to melt platinum, clay, gran- 
ite and other substances, which can be 
melted only in the most intense heat, and 
in electric furnaces, by inclosing large car- 
bon rods in fire brick and "striking" an 
electric arc by means of a strong current. 

As the positive carbon wastes faster than 
the negative, it is placed above the negative 
carbon in the arc lamp and the clock work 
mechanism feeds it down, either continu- 
ously or at short intervals, so that the space 
between the points is always constant, and 
the lamp burns until the current is switched 
off or the carbons are consumed entirely. 
The regulating mechanism differs in the 



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, MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



17 



various kinds of are lamps, but all of them 
operate about as follows : 

The current, before it reaches the car- 
bons, passes through two electro-magnets, 
which control the feeding mechanism, and 
these two feeding or controlling mechan- 
isms oppose each other. The current which 
supplies the carbons passes through one 
of these magnets, while another current 
branches off, and, passing through the other 
magnet, joins the former current where it 
passes out of the lamp, but does not go 
through the carbons. Ordinarily, but a 
small portion of the current passes through 
the coil of the second magnet, for it has a 
higher resistance than the first. When the 
carbons burn away, the resistance caused by 
the increased distance between the points 
becomes greater. If the resistance becomes 
greater than the resistance in the coil of 
the second magnet, the electrical current, 
which always chooses the easiest path, 
switches itself into the second coil, and thus 
the total current through the lamp is un- 
changed. Were it not for this arrangement, 
a failure on the part of the feeding mechan- 
ism of one lamp to keep the carbons at the 
proper distance apart would give so much 
current to that lamp that the other lamps in 
the circuit would be affected materially. 
The arrangement, however, not only pre- 
vents one lamp from affecting the others in 
the same circuit, but by the opposite move- 
ments of the mechanisms controlled by the 
two magnets, the carbon points are read- 
justed and the arc is brought back to its 
proper length. 

The storage battery, whereby electricity 
is converted in such form that it may be 
carried about for use in automobiles, elec- 
tric launches, etc., serves as a great con- 
venience. The great objection to it is its 




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48 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



weight. To many people there seems to be 
much mystery as to the real character of a 
storage battery. Let us explain it away. 

When two lead strips or plates are 
put into a bath of diluted sulphuric acid, 
and a current of electricity is passed 
through the solution from one plate to the 
other, a chemical action takes place. This 



and the wire, but in an opposite direction 
to the original or "charging" current. 

This current, however, will be of short 
duration, even though the charging current 
be considerable, because the surface only of 
the lead plates is affected by the chemical 
action, the first film of peroxide formed 
protecting the lead underneath from further 




CENTRAL OFFICE, TELEPHONE EXCHANGE, CHICAGO. 



results in the formation of peroxide of lead 
on one plate, and spongy lead on the other. 
Peroxide of lead is one form of a combina- 
tion of oxygen and lead. If the electrical 
current is discontinued and a wire is made 
to connect the plates, a second chemical ac- 
tion will occur. And this chemical action 
will send a current of electricity through 
the solution of sulphuric acid and the water 



oxidation. By repeating the process of 
charging and discharging, a practical stor- 
age cell can be made. Each "forming" 
tends to make the storage battery of greater 
capacity, for the "forming" eats into the 
lead, thus exposing more surface to be oxi- 
dized. The man who invented the storage 
battery was Gaston Plants, a Frenchman. 
He made the first one in 1859, but too 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



49 



much time was required to "form" the lead 
plates, or electrodes, six months being neces- 
sary for the alternate chemical action which 
put the plates into what might be called 
good storage condition. By that time the 
lead was so badly corroded that it fell apart, 
and the six months' labor was lost. Twenty 
years later, Camille Faure, another Erench- 



tice-shaped plates, and red lead was placed 
in the square openings. The loaded "grids" 
are placed in diluted sulphuric acid, and 
the charging current changes the red lead 
on one plate into spongy masses of metallic 
lead, and on the other, into a like spongy 
mass of peroxide of lead. 

Still another kind of battery is made of a 




Copyright. 1902, by F. A. Miller. 
ELECTRIC HEADLIGHT USED ON THE 0., M. & ST. PAUL RY. TO DETECT OBJECTS EIGHT 

MILES DISTANT. 



man, discovered that by pasting the "ac- 
tive" coating on the sheets of lead in the 
shape of oxide of lead, a storage battery 
could be made in a few days instead of 
months. His discovery caused considerable 
commotion in the electrical world. 

A further improvement came when the 
lead plates were molded into "grids" or lat- 



series of horizontal strips of rolled lead a 
half inch wide, with grooves cut in them. 

The growth of electrical experiments has 
brought about many marvelous phenomena. 
Attempts have been made to make Nature 
turn out of her course and produce results 
in many phases of life before the time for 
maturity. Thus experiments on eggs to 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 




THE PHOTOPHQNK— THE LATEST SCIENTIFIC MIRACLE, 
Telephoning 0 n a Ray of Light Without Wires. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



51 



make them hatch quickly have resulted in 
fowls of abnormal size and monstrous 
shapes. In forcing vegetable growth the re- 
sult has been more favorable. Especially is 
this true in maturing seeds by electricity. 
By using glass cylinders covered with cop- 
per disks, through which the current will 
flow into moistened seeds within the cylin- 
ders, growth is stimulated. After this treat- 
ment the seeds are put in a germinating pan 
which consists of two plates, one within the 
other, the inner one being of porous clay. 
The seeds are placed in filter paper between 
these!, and are kept at a heat of 48 degrees 
by an electrical device. The result has been 
very profitable, the growth being 30 per 
cent quicker. 

NIKOLA TESXA. 

iNikola Tesla, one of the greatest of 
modern electricians, has succeeded in 
throwing waves across space and directing 
the movements of miniature war vessels in 
a tank of water without the aid of wires. 
He is working on a method of producing 
and conducting light without wires. 

SENDING PICTURES OVER WIRE. 

Sending pictures over wire has been 
achieved by a method called telepantog- 
raphy. By it fairly good pictures may be 
transmitted. ■ The process consists in mak- 
ing a metal plate similar to that in half- 
tone engravings so formed that they may be 
bsnt around a cylinder. The transmitting 
machine by means of a needle-like affair, 



somewhat similar to a phonograph, traces 
along the lines of the plate and imparts a 
stimulus to a similar machine miles away, 
which, equipped with an inked needle, 
traces out a picture in replica of the en- 
graving at the sending end. 

TRANSMITTING SPEECH BY LIGHT 
BEAMS. 

Experiments in the transmission of 
speech by means of light beams were first 
made by Professor Bell some time ago with 
an apparatus called the "Photophone." 
The transmitter consisted of a plain mirror 
so arranged as to reflect the light upon a 
selenium cell in circuit with an ordinary re 
ceiver at the opposite station. The mirror 
served as a telephone diaphragm, a resonat- 
ing chamber and mouthpiece being placed 
at the back. Speaking in the mouthpiece 
vibrated the mirror, the vibration altering 
the intensity of the beam of light. The 
changes in the light beam resulted in the 
selenium cell (acting with its well-known 
property of altering its electrical resistance 
under influence of light) setting up corre- 
sponding changes in the receiver circuit, 
and so producing vibrations in the receiver 
diaphragm like those communicated to the 
mirror of the transmitter. Professor Euh- 
men, of Berlin, has improved somewhat on 
Bell's device, but the same principle is re- 
tained and the system is successfully used 
on warships of the German navy. 

It would seem as though we now have the 
germ of a means of inter-planetary com- 
munication. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



LATEST MACHINES OF MODERN WARFARE 



Two great wars of recent date, the one 
between the United States and Spain and 
that between the Boers and Great Britain, 




ROMAN CATAPULT FOR THROWING STONES. 



have served one purpose, if nothing else, — 
that of showing how terrible can be the de- 
struction of modern inventions of war. The 
stride made in a century in the development 
of war vessels, guns, explosives and meth- 
ods of warfare has been marvelous. !No ! 
longer do we hear of the frequent hand to 
hand conflict, of grappling chain and cut- 
lass on war vessels, and the practical use of 
the bayonet. One would fain believe that 
with the awful examples set, universal 
peace, as proposed by the Czar of Russia 
several years ago, might not be mere illu- 
sion. 

In use for land forces some of the great- 
est improvements are the deadly machine 
guns, the rifle with great range, the high 
explosives, such as gun cotton, nitre-glycer- 
ine, smokeless powder, lyddite and cordite, 
and the cruel "dum-dum" bullet. These in- 
ventions almost preclude anything save long 




"VELOX," THE FASTEST DESTROYER AFLOAT. 
Speed, 33.61 knots. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



53 



distance firing and a rare gallant charge by 
the cavalry. On sea the changes have been 
even more marvelous. No longer do we see 
the old wooden hulls of vessels pierced by 
common round shot from the simple old 
cannon, of smooth bore. Nowadays, elec- 
tricity operates nearly everything on ship- 
board, from lighting of cabins and search- 
lights to the propelling of torpedo-boats and 
firing of mines, guns and other weapons. 
So nearly perfect had armor plate been de- 
vised against the assault of ordinary explo- 
sives and gun charges, and so thick were 
the coatings of heavy hardened steel, that 
new devices were necessary to pierce them, 
and pierce them they do, at great distances 
and with tremendous force. 

LYDDITE. 

The explosives of high power that serve 
for force to drive the monster projectiles 
from the throats of the gigantic cannons of 
to-day, are numerous and terrific. One of 
the principal new inventions is lyddite — an 
explosive of the same class as dynamite, 
cordite, maxinite, melinite, etc. . Lyddite is 
a mixture of picric brought to a state of 
dense fusion. This acid is given off by the 
action of nitric acid on carbolic acid. When 
a charge of this potent explosive goes off 
there is a deafening report, the outer cover- 
ings of the lyddite shells are ground into 
fine pieces and everything for a great dis- 
tance around it is destroyed. This was used 
with deadly effect in the Boer, Japanese- 
Chinese and Soudan wars. During General 
Kitchener's campaign in the Soudan, a 
shell was dropped upon a temple of Mahdist 
worshippers and only twelve out of 120 
there escaped alive. Cordite, discharged 
a twelve-inch shell into the Japanese flag- 
ship Matsushina, during the Chinese con- 



flict, hurled a large gun from its mount- 
ing, fired a quantity of ammunition, dis- 
abled two other guns, and killed and 
wounded ninety officers and men. 

SMOKELESS POWDER. 

Smokeless powder has for its main prin- 
ciple the quality of exploding without giv- 
ing off a smoke, save a slight violet vapor 
that is hardly noticeable. This powder is 
made in long cylindrical strings and cut up 
into little pieces. In order to keep this ex- 
plosive oily and to prevent its igniting by 
friction from rough handling, it is shaken 
in a receptacle containing powdered black 
lead, or plumbago, thus receiving a coat of 
the stuff. Some kinds of smokeless powder 
resemble strips of slippery-elm bark. This 
is made in slabs a foot or more in length, 
and about a quarter of an inch in thick- 
ness. This kind of powder is much more 
safely handled than ordinary black powder 
and will burn readily and without danger 
if a match is applied to it. The flame is 
steady and the powder does not flash off 
with a great splutter. Some of the stuff is 
cut up in chip shape. This will stand ham- 
mering ; in fact, it is loaded into shells with 
a great deal of hammering. Cordite, as its 
name signifies, is made in long stringy 
shapes. 

NITRO-GLYCEMNE. 

One of the best known of the terrible ex- 
plosives is nitro-glycerine. This is used 
frequently for deadly purposes, but is more 
often used in commerce, for blasting rocks, 
wells, etc. In color, this explosive is gen- 
erally a light yellow. It is odorless, has a 
sweet pungent taste, and when placed on 
the skin will cause a headache. Its method 
of manufacture is somewhat as follows: 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



Into a large tank called an "agitator" is 
stirred a quantity of nitric and sulphuric 
acids, in equal quantities. The stirring is 
done by means of automatic, revolving pad- 
dles. After there are 25 pounds of the 
mixture, 1,500 pounds of sweet glycerine 
are added. At once the mixture rises rap- 
idly in heat. Since it will explode at 90 
degrees I\, water pipes are provided about 




ONE OP NAPOLEON'S GUNS, IN THE KREMLIN, MOSCOW, RUSSIA. 

the' agitator to keep the mixture cool. In 
carrying the stuff, there is great danger of 
spilling it, which would at once cause a 
terrible explosion. The life of the nitro- 
glycerine maker is only about five years at 
his work. As in the factories of other 
powders and explosives, great care is taken 
that no metals are worn. The clothing and 
shoes of the employes must be changed 
frequently, so that gritting dust will not 
accumulate in them. Even canvas shoes 
must be worn, and the trousers of the work- 



ing men must not be turned up for feai 
gravel might be gathered in them. 

THE "DtTM-DTJM" BULJLET. 

Progress in the matter of projectiles has 
taken two distinct directions, one toward 
ferocity, the other, oddly enough, toward 
gentleness in warfare. The aim in battle 
generally is simply to disable the enemy. 

There is not a gen- 
eral desire to maim 
for life. Therefore, 
if a bullet cannot kill 
a man outright, it is 
better that it hurt 
him as little as pos- 
sible. This is the 
effect of some of the 
better smooth balls 
fired from the mod- 
ern small rifles. Men 
have even been 
known to be pierced 
by such bullets with- 
out serious injury. 
On the other hand, 
such affairs as the 
"duimdum" bullet are 
atrocities for cruel 
intent This bullet 
is driven by charges of cordite. The inner 
part of the bullet is made of soft lead, but 
it has a thin outer sheath of hard nickel or 
copper. Its end is cleft downward for a 
short distance. Thus, when this bullet 
strikes its victim, man or beast, the soft 
lead expands while the covering breaks 
jaggedly, inflicting terribly painful 
wounds. Another monstrous invention is 
known as the base shell. This is a con- 
trivance for firing from a big cannon, the 
ball having a base separate from the head. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



55 



This base is on ball bearings and is 
equipped with four scythe-like knives 
which fold up on the side of the ball until 
it is discharged. When the shell starts on 
its errand of carnage, the rifling of the gun 
starts the pointed part of the shell to re- 
volving, but the base stands stationary. 
The knives spring from their places and 
cover a diameter of 45 inches. It may he 
imagined what havoc these blades would 



built in the shape of a cigar, loaded with 
guncotton or dynamite in the point of the 
nose. Within the device is an electric 
storage battery attached to a propeller at 
the rear, which will drive the death-dealing 
machine boat through the water to the 
enemy's ship. When one of these torpedoes 
is to be discharged the electricity ig turned 
on, the rudders adjusted so that the ma- 
chine will go in a °-iv*en direction, and then 



SEA POWERS OF THE WORLD. 



work in a close line of infantry. And, even 
then, the work of the shell is not complete, 
for when it strikes it explodes. Other pro- 
jectiles for naval warfare, weighing thou- 
sands of pounds, are made of hardened 
steel and will pierce the immense armor 
plates of the battleships with apparent ease. 
Most of these explode after striking. 

TORPEDOES AND MINES. 

Torpedoes and mines are the dread of 
the navies of the world. The havoc they 
work is great &»d terrible, The former js 



1. Great Britain. 

2. France. 
S. Russia. 



7. Japan. 



4. United States. 
6. Germany. 
6. Italy. 



it is shot out of a compressed air device 
toward the enemy. It travels with little 
noise and great speed, and when it strikes 
an object its cap discharges its load of 
dynamite and wrecks everything within 
touch. During both peace and war im- 
portant harbors are dotted over with sub- 
marine mines or bombs of great explosive 
force. These are connected with the shore 
by electricity so that they may be fired off 
at will many miles from the man who oper- 
ates them. Some, also, float upon the sur- 
face and go off on contact. For those fired 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



by electricity charts are made, showing the 
exact location of every one. By looking 
through a telescope the operator, miles 
away, can tell just when the enemy's vessel 
is over a certain mine. A switch is then 
turned, and the ship is blown to atoms. 

THE GATLING AND HOTCHKISS GUNS. 

The machine gun works deadly havoc 
either from the crow's nest or fighting top 
of a ship, or on the battlefield. Among the ■ 
terrible engines of war those most promi- 
nent are the Gatling, Maxim and Hotchkiss 



grooves into their chambers, and are ejected 
automatically as soon as discharged. About 
1,200 shells a minute can be fired from a 
Gatling. The Maxim is entirely self-acting 
after the first discharge. The cartridges 
are loaded into the gun on a belt, and all 
the gunner has to do is to pull the trigger 
for the first shot, and keep aim. The recoil 
is sufficient to open the breech, throw out 
the empty shells, admit a fresh shell, cock 
the gun and fire it again. A belt with 600 
cartridges can run through the gun in a 
minute. 




STEAM YACHT 



"ARROW," FASTEST CRAFT IN THE WORLD. 
Speed, 39.13 knots. 



guns. The first-named is constructed of a 
number of barrels joined together side by 
side so that at a distance the whole con- 
trivance looks like a big, stubby gun. Gen- 
erally about ten barrels make up one gun, 
and all revolve upon one central pivot. 
Each chamber has a separate lock which 
discharges the cartridge when the barrel 
reaches its proper position. The affair 
works by a crank and the cartridges are 
allowed to slide from a rack down through 



THE ARMSTRONG GUN. 

The largest calibered rapid-fire gun ia the 
Armstrong, which uses 4y 2 pounds of 
smokeless powder at a discharge, and 
throws a six-inch shell weighing 100 
pounds with enough power to go through 
fifteen inches of wrought iron. Smaller 
guns of the same order throw forty-five- 
pound shells at the rate of fifteen a minute. 
The Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder rapid- 
fire guns were invented by Americans and 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



57 



were designed principally for the fighting- 
tops of war vessels. They are swung on 
pivote, so that they may he thrown in any 
direction. This gun is fired shot by shot, 
but 36 shells a minute can be sent off with 
great force. The gun- 
ner steadies the gun 
hy pressing a butt to 
his shoulder, like an 
ordinary fowling 
piece. He thus has 
bis arms and hands 
free to aim the gun, 
load and fire it. 
THE SEARCHLIGHT. 

Of great use in 
modern warfare as 
well as in commercial 
marine service, is the 
searchlight. Kowa- 
days, nearly every 
steam-driven vessel is 
equipped with one or 
more of the great 
lights. In war they 
are serviceable in lo- 
cating the enemy at 
night, in detecting the 
movement of torpedo 
boats, and in directing 
vessels by signals. In 
commerce they aid in 
signaling, in lighting 
the path of the vessel, 
and in rescuing people 
who fall overboard. 
They are used in light- 
houses, and even fire 
departments in the great cities use them to 
light up dark buildings where the firemen 
must go. Some of these lights 
beams many miles. Generally 



made of lenses and reflectors that will 
collect and send out the light of a 25,000- 
candle-power electric arc lamp. They are 
constructed in cylindrical shape about a 
yard deep, and nearly of the same diam- 




I,,,, * • ^^WsMaifM" " 



TYPICAL. AMERICAN WARSHIP OF EARLY TIMES. 

XJ. S. Frigate "Constitution" ("Old Ironsides"), built in 1809, reeling off 13% knots 
an hour— a speed greater than that of the racing yachts of today. 



eter. In the back are silver-back reflect- 
ing lenses of great power, and powerful 
reflecting lenses are placed in the focus 
of the beam of the enclosed electric light. 



throw 
they are 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



Both of these lenses collect and concentrate 
the light and throw it far out upon the 
night. The rays are kept so close together 
that nearly a mile away the width of the 
projected beam is only about fifty feet. The 
whole device is poised on a revolving ped- 




LAUNCHING OF THE ARMORED CRUISER "COLORADO." 



at sea.) 



estal and can be moved in any direction 
desired. One of the largest of these great 
searchlights was exhibited on the roof of the 
Manufacturers' Building at the World's 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. 



It has since been installed in the observa- 
tory on the summit of Mount Lowe, Cali- 
fornia. It has a power of 3,000,000 
candles, and throws a brilliant light 150 
miles. Its huge reflecting lens weighs 800 
pounds. This lens is three-quarters of an 
inch thick at the 
edges, and one - six- 
teenth in the center. 
The whole light weighs 
6,000 pounds, is 11 
feet high, and yet so 
delicately is it poised 
that a child can direct 
it at will. 

MAKING Or ARMOR 
PLATE. 

America makes by 
far the best armor 
plate in the world. 
The process of con- 
verting crude irpn ore 
into the monster hun- 
dred - ton plates of 
steel, two feet thick, 
for the sides of battle- 
ships, is very interest- 
ing. At South Beth- 
lehem, Pennsylvania, 
is located the great 
modern plate-making 
plant. Here have been 
mastered so perfectly 
the great forces of 
nature that masses of 
metal so great as to 
seem almost immov- 
able are handled with great simplicity. 
After the combination of pure iron and 
carbon which makes steel has been blasted 
free from impurities, and the metal has 
been shaped into glowing ingots, the open 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



59 



hearth system is resorted to to shape the 
great hot masses into proper form. The 
reason for using an open hearth is on 
account of the great heat generated for 
making the armor plates. Sometimes pig 
iron is brought to the 
furnace and there 
mixed with scrap steel 
or other ingredients, 
to turn it into steel. 
!N"o other enclosure for 
the steel is needed than 
the bare walls of the 
furnaces. Here the 
steel is subjected to 
about 4,000 degrees of 
heat. This intense 
heat is obtained by 
first treating coal with 
a great heat in air- 
tight ovens, where 
there is but a limited 
supply of oxygen. 
This causes an in- 
tensely hot gas. This 
fiery gas passes 
through firebrick chan- 
nels that open upon 
the hearth where the 
steel is waiting. When 
the supply of fresh 
oxygen in the air 
meets this gas it bursts 
into flames instantly. 
The combustion is ter- 
rific and the iron and 
carbon or scrap steel 
are converted instant- 
ly into a flaming mass, while a heat of sun- 
like force is thrown off. 

The spare gas from this furnace is car- 
ried off through another firebrick passage, 



together with the hot air of the hearth. 
This- passage opens upon another open 
hearth just opposite from the one in use. 
The spare heat thus keeps both warm, and 
in order to save the heat these passages are 




THE LARGEST CRUISER IN ACTIVE SERVICE. 

V. S. S. "Colorado" at full speed. 

Description— Length, 602 feet: beam, 59 feet 6 inches; speed, 22 knots; horse- 
power, 23,000; battery, four 8-inch R. P. rifles, fourteen 6-Inch, eighteen Impound- 
ers and twelve 3-pounders; cost, $3,780,000. 



used reversely every twenty minutes, each 
keeping warm for the other, when its turn 
comes. This method saves a great ex- 
pense. At South Bethlehem eight of these 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




THE U. S. CRUISER "GALVESTON." 

Only Type of New Style Naval Vessel, with Sails for Motive Power. 

Class of six ships designed for "police protection" to the rapidly ex- 
tending interests of this country. 

Vessel 1b officially termed "an improved model of the 'Raleigh' class of 
cruisers," which were built when the craze for speed at any price was 
at ita height, and is a "stayer" rather than a "flyer," having coal capac- 
ity to steam 12,000 miles. This, with her sail auxiliary power, renders 
her independent of many coaling stations and fits the ship for longer 
voyages than is possible with any other type of the new navy 

Description.— Speed, 16% knots per hour; length, 308 feet; beam 43 
feet; displacement. 3,400 tons; battery, ten 5-inch, eight 6-pounaers two 
1-pounders, and two Colt rapid-fire guns. Sail area, 6,000 square feet ot 



open-hearth furnaces are in 
use, four capable of handling 
forty tons of metal each, and 
the other four, half as much. 

When the proper heat has 
been secured and the melting 
and mixing of the steel has 
gone far enough, the fiery 
liquid is run off from the 
hearths into great caldrons 
which run on rails. Thence 
the metal is ladled off into 
molds that also run on tracks. 
When the steel is poured into 
the molds there is no splash- 
ing, for the metal runs gently 
through a tube into the mold, 
which fills up bottom first. 
This process is called bottom 
filling and prevents bubbles 
and other inequalities in the 
steel when finished. Further 
precautions against impurities 
from gas, etc., are taken by 
having the inner lining of the 
molds made of a sort of steel 
lath-work covered with sand. 
Thus the gas escapes from the 
hardening steel without mar- 
ring its grain. The hardening 
process differs from the old- 
style method of hammering by 
which many flaws were occa- 
sioned. At the Bethlehem 
works "fluid compression" is 
used — that is, a great weight 
from hydraulic presses is put 
upon the steel while it is yet- 
hot. Sometimes, this pressure 
equals 7,000 tons. 

Great ingots from which 
guns and crankshafts for ves- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



61. 



sels are to be constructed often weigh 120 
tons and take days to cool off. After 
they are cool enough to handle, great 
traveling cranes, with which the works are 
equipped, pick them up and transport them 
to other furnaces where they are heated 
over again in a temperature of over a 
thousand degrees . Fahrenheit These 



metal clear through, and not simply a few 
inches from the surface, as was the case 
with the hammering method. This is much 
better, for it gives the proper strength to 
withstand the great forces brought to bear 
upon armor plates, gun barrels and crank- 
shafts. After several treatments of ex- 
treme heat and pressure, the tempering is 




cranes are great heavy machines weighing 
about 175 tons, and needing 1,500-horse- 
power to operate them. In the reheating 
process, great care must be exerted not to 
crack the ingot. Then another pressure of 
about 28,000,000 pounds is brought to bear 
on the metal in a hydraulic shaping press. 
This method of tempering hardens the 



finished by annealing, or by suddenly 
plunging into oil to prevent crystallizing. 

After this hardening it might seem that 
the steel turned out would be so hard that 
it could not be altered in shape. Science, 
however, provides great shears, buzz saws 
and lathes which will turn the steel into 
desired shapes. The saws are 84 inches in 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



diameter and are equipped with 76 in- 
serted teeth. This saw can run through 
a steel plate 33 feet long and two feet 
thick. Lathes for turning guns and crank- 
shafts for ships will turn great blanks and 
pare them as desired. Armor plates are 
shaped by being put under great hydraulic 
presses which exert tremendous power and 



seemingly poorest plates and test them. 
The testing is done on a special ground, 
and consists of firing heavy shells at the 
new armor from a short distance. Some- v 
times, the armor is only slightly scratched; 
again, the balls go through cleanly. If the 
testing plate stands the ordeal, the whole 
batch is accepted for the armor of some' 




A NEW NAVAL NURSERY. 
The U. S. S. "Chesapeake." 
Her value to the U. S. Naval Academy proven, the Government authorizes three more of her class. 



will bend the plates to fit the ship for which 
they are intended. 

These plates must undergo severe tests 
before they will be accepted for service in 
the navy. Government officers supervise 
all the work of casting and tempering to see 
that it is done right. These men select the 



warship. If two plates fail all the casting 
is thrown out at the cost of the contractor, 
and a new set must be made. The best 
armor plates have been devised after plans 
by Harvey and by Krupp, the great gun 
makers. The surface of the plates is gen- 
erally full of little odd seams and lines, but 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



63 



this does not mar the impenetrability of 
them. 

SIX NEW BATTLESHIPS. 

Since the Spanish-American war there 
have been great advances in the building 
of warships. Many new craft have been 
added to our navy. Six new monster bat- 
tleships of the finest type have been pro- 
vided i the Alabama, Kearsarge, Kentucky, 
Illinois, Maine and Wisconsin. The meas- 
urements of the Kentucky and Kearsarge 
will serve to indicate the size of our new 
naval equipment. The water-line length is 
368 feet; displacement, 11,525 tons; horse- 
power, 10,000; speed, 16 knots an hour; 
water-line armor belt, 16% inches; side 
armor above the belt, 6 inches; turret 
armor, 17 and 15 inches; conning tower, 
10 inches; protective deck, 2% inches. 
The armament consists of a main battery 



of four 13-inch guns, a secondary battery 
of fourteen 5-inch, rapid-lire guns, and 
twenty 6-pound rapid-fire guns. The sub- 
main battery has four 8-inch guns. The 
main battery projectiles weigh 1,100 
pounds, leave the muzzle with almost in- 
calculable energy, and have the penetrating 
power of piercing 34i/*> inches of wrought 
iron. 

Experiments to disable a balloon in the 
air by rifle or field gun fire have been car- 
ried out by the Austrian army. A balloon 
7,000 feet high was held at anchor, and 
the gunners, kept ignorant of the range, 
were told to disable it. Twenty-two shots 
were fired before the approximate range 
was found, and it was only at the sixty- 
fourth round that the balloon was hit, and 
that slightly, but the small rupture of the 
gas bag made it slowly descend. 



A SLOT MACHINE THAT TAKES PHOTOGRAPHS 



The latest thing in slot machines is one 
that will fake your photograph, develop it, 
and present it to you in a frame, with a 
pin attached to the back affixing it to a 
garment — all in just two minutes, by the 
watch. This is just now being installed 
in every railroad station of importance and 
in other public places where a harvest of 
nickels ia to be gathered. 

In order to have your picture taken, you 
drop a nickel in the slot and then detach* 
from the machine a handle, which retains 
connection with the apparatus by a wire. 
Then you sit down in a chair, still holding 
the handle, and observe yourself in a small 
mirror placed for that purpose in front of 
the machine. When you have the proper 
attitude and expression you press a button 



in the handle, and immediately a brilliant 
electric light is flashed upon you. At the 
same time a bell rings, and continues to 
ring while the exposure lasts. 

The exposure is only about two seconds, 
during which, of course, you are expected 
to remain perfectly still. You may then 
get up from the chair and relinquish the 
handle, inasmuch as the machine will do 
the rest. The plate which has been ex- 
posed is automatically immersed in a de- 
veloping bath, where it remains for five 
seconds. Out of this it slides into a fixing 
bath, where it lies for 25 seconds. Then 
it goes into a chemical wash for a few 
more seconds, and, emerging therefrom, is 
almost instantly presented to you, framed 
as aforesaid, and with a pin at the back. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



Of course, the plate is developed not as 
a negative, but as a positive. Furthermore, 
it is already contained in its little frame, 
with a pin attached, when it is put into the 
machine. Hence no time is lost supplying 
the frame with the portrait, and the latter 



is produced complete inside of two minutes. 
The chemical wash which succeeds the fix- 
ing bath is, of necessity, a prompt drier. 
This novelty is the invention of a Cleve- 
land, Ohio, genius. The price of the pic- 
tures is a nickel each. 



NEW DISCOVERIES IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY 



While progress has been made in the 
realm of mechanical and commercial dis- 
coveries and inventions, means have been 
devised through the aid of science to heal 



scientific branches, have forged ahead 
steadily until to-day thousands of people 
owe their lives to the march of progress in 
these scientific efforts. 




ULTRA VIOLET RAYS OF LIGHT PERFORM WONDROUS CURES. 



the ailments of man and beast, long thought 
incurable. Men of medicine and surgery, 
spurred on by marvelous discoveries in the 
sphere of electricity, bacteriology and other 



MICROBES, 

It was comparatively only a few years, 
ago that science learned that the common 
source of many diseases before attributable 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



65 



to numerous causes was the existence of 
microbes or bacilli in the human system. 
These microbes are tiny animal creatures 
which feast on the healthy tissue of the 
body and waste it away. So far has science 
gone that bacteriologists have discovered 
that different kinds of microbes produce 
different kinds of diseases. They have even 
raised these aninialculaj, experimented with 
them, classified them, and by careful study 
have found treatment that in many cases 
will annihilate them. 

CONSUMPTION". 

The fight against tuberculosis or eon- 
sumption of the lungs has been a hard and 
discouraging 
task. Numerous 
methods have 
been used with 
scant success. 
One, of recent 
date, has been 
efficacious to 
some degree, and 
is the discovery 
of Dr. J. B. Mur- 
phy, of Chicago, 
who invented the 
Murphy button 
"for patching to- 
gether severed in- 
testines." Dr. 
Murphy pierces a 
diseased lung 
with a hollow 
needle, injects a gas which causes the lung 
to collapse, and then allows that portion, 
of the lung which is diseased to get to- 
gether. This makes the lung smaller, but 
through gradual use it will regain its for- 
mer size. 



DR. FIN-SEN'S TREATMENT — CONCEN- 
TRATED BAYS OP VIOLET LIGHT. 

Some diseases of the skin which are 
caused by bacteria are treated by light. 
Dr. Finsen, of Copenhagen, has perfected a 
method of concentrating violet rays of, 
light, which, when cast on diseased tissue, 
seemingly penetrate it with bactericidal 
effect. Some of the experiments along this 
line are interesting. Dr. Finsen exposed a 
bacillus culture to bright sunshine and 
found that the light killed it in an hour 
and a half. The same work could be done 
by electric light in eight hours. He discov- 
ered that when the skin was full of blood 
the light took a longer time to penetrate. 



He proved this by putting a piece of sen- 
sitized paper behind a man's ear and this, 
after a considerable exposure, was not 
affected by the light. "When the blood was 
pressed away from the ear an exposure of 
20 seconds turned the paper black. Fur- 




By courtesy of Dr. Zeigler. 
REDUCING LUXATION OF THE 11TH AND 12TH DORSAL VERTEBRAE. 



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66 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



ther experiments showed Dr. Finsen that 
blue rays of light would kill bacteria. In 
order, therefore, to concentrate these rays, 
he divided the lens, between the glasses of 
which he put a solution of bright blue, 
weak, ammoniacal copper sulphate. This 
served to absorb nearly all the rays except 
blue and violet, which were allowed to pass. 
These lenses are attached to the skin by 
rubber bands. Cool water is run over the 
glasses to prevent the heat of the rays from 
blistering the skin. The weight of the 
glass presses the blood away from the sur- 
face, and the violet rays quickly penetrate 
the skin and kill "the germs. Smallpox, 
lupus or tuberculosis of the skin, and many 
other skin diseases have thus been cured. 

LIQUID AIR. 

We have described in another section of 
this book some of the marvelous attributes 
of liquid air. Its intense cold has the same 
property as great heat without causing a 
blister. Thus, naturally, the use of liquid 
air in some sorts of diseases where cauteriz- 
ing or burning away is necessary has shown 
marked success. Putrid flesh is killed and 
foreign growth is removed by its agency. 
Ulcers have been eaten out and facial 
erysipelas has been cured by driving away 
the heat from inflamed tissues through roll- 
ing a glass bulb filled with liquid air over 
the face. Frequently it takes the place of 
the surgeon's knife. 

THE X-RAY. 

Almost every one has heard of the use 
of the X-ray for surgery. Although the 
discovery of the Roentgen ray is only of 
recent date, already marvelous operations 
have been performed which would not have 
been possible without its aid. By means of 



Digitized by the Center 



skiagraphs, or shadow pictures, taken with 
this all-penetrating light, bullets, blood 
clots on the brain, broken bones and the 
like have been located, and thus operations 
have been rendered possible. Frequently 
some foreign substance is present in the 
body of which no knowledge is had. Some- 
times the skull is fractured slightly without 
the knowledge of the physician. The X-ray 
discovered these, as well as consumption in 




By courtesy of Dr. Zeigler. 
REMOVING TUMOR ATTACHED TO STH, 6TH 
AND 7TH CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. 
No Anesthetics Used— No Pain Experienced. 



early stages, ruptures and enlargement of 
the heart, stomach and other organs. One 
case, brought 'to light some time ago, was 
that of a patient who suffered pains near 
his nose. An abscess had formed and the 
skiagraph discovered a small sack in the 
oavity back of his nose, containing 32 
miniature teeth. In the fight against 
bacilli, serums are used. These in the main 

)r Adventist Research 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



67 



are procured by taking the blood of an 
animal inoculated with some certain dis- 
ease. M. Pasteur has had remarkable suc- 
cess with his serum for preventing hydro- 
phobia and the plague. 

BUISSON'S CURE iFOB, HYDROPHOBIA. 

In the Pasteur institute for rabies great 
numbers of people have been successfully 



Some scientists believe that hydrophobia 
cannot be cured, yet there have been cures 
of the rabies in their last stages, under the 
Buisson system. It is well known that the 
system of sweating by violent exercise, or 
by Turkish baths, removes impurities from 
the body. This is the system discovered by 
the French physician, Dr. Buisson, al- 
though it is said the Arabs have long known 




By courtesy of the Lawrence Co. 
OPERATING CLINIC OF THE NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY DENTAL SCHOOL. 
Patients are treated free, for the practice the students get. 



treated for hydrophobia. There is much 
cruelty, however, in the system, for in 
order to keep the serum fresh, small ani- 
mals, like rabbits, must be inoculated in 
large numbers. The Pasteur treatment 
does not cure hydrophobia ; it simply pre- 
vents it. 



of this primitive cure. Commonly these 
nomads swathe themselves in heavy blank- 
ets of camel hair to cure snake bites. Dr. 
Buisson was called to treat a patient who 
was affected with the rabies. He bled her, 
accidentally cut his own finger and wiped 
it incautiously upon a handkerchief wet 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



with the patient's saliva. Although he 
cauterized the wound, he was seized so 
violently with the disease that he thought 
death was near. Knowing that a vapor 
hath frequently brings on stupor, he went 
to a bathing establishment to die in peace. 
At 127 degrees, Fahrenheit, he found him- 
self cured accidentally. After experiment- 
ing, he found prevention easily possible 
when the treatment was used soon after the 
bite, and many marvelous cures have since 



been effected, even when the patients were 
in the throes of madness. A simple method 
may be used where access to a vapor bath is 
not possible. Wrap the patient in a blanket 
and seat him on an open chair over a pan 
of water heated by a lamp. It is not known 
whether it is the sweating that opens the 
pores, letting the poisons out and thus 
effecting the cure, or whether the extreme 
heat kills the germs, or whether both com- 
bined produce the result. 



DIPHTHERIA. 

Wonderful cures have been made in 
treating diphtheria by the use of antitoxin. 
This is a liquid taken from the glands in 
the neck of a horse which has been inocu- 
lated to a fever point with the disease. 
After the serum is allowed to stand a while 
the antitoxin comes to the surface and is 
skimmed off. When the liquid is injected 
into the patient's blood an immediate cure 
is effected unless the subject is in the ex- 
treme stages. One evil 
effect from this treat- 
ment is a possible 
weakening of the ac- 
tion of the heart. 
APPENDICITIS. 

Appendicitis is a 
disease which is seem- 
ingly of recent origin, 
so much so that it is 
said to be fashionable 
to have operations per- 
formed for it. The 
disease is caused by 
the inflammation of 
the vermiform appen- 
dix, and the old name 
for it was inflamma- 
tion of the bowels, 
from which many peo- 
ple died because of the crude methods then 
in vogue for treatment. Then the case was 
not considered one for surgery. The in- 
flammation due to foreign substances in the 
appendix went so far that it burst the ■ 
bowels, and the poisons from the abscess 
were emptied into the abdominal cavity, 
thus causing death. To-day, upon the least 
sign of inflammation on the right side of 
the abdomen, near the hip, an investiga- 
tion is begun in connection with a small, 




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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



69 



worm-like tube attached fo the caecum — 
one of the intestines. It is less than half a 
foot long, and is about the diameter of a 
quill. This organ has no known use, closes 
by a rather imperfect valve, and, frequent- 
ly, in adult males and females, becomes 
inflamed by irritation from fecal secretions, 
such as result through taking foreign bodies 
into* the system. Fruit seeds, bitten finger 
nails, buttons and worms will cause inflam- 
mation. Great pain 
accompanies this dis- 
ease, and any pains, 
swellings, tenderness, 
or rigidity of the right 
abdominal wall may 
indicate it. The sur- 
gical operation for ap- 
pendicitis starts with 
an incision of several 
inches in the inflamed 
quarter. The abscess 
is probed, sometimes, 
although not gener- 
ally. The contents of 
the abscess are washed 
out and foreign bodies 
are looked for. The 
tissues are washed 
with antiseptic solu- 
tions; then the intes- 
tine is drawn out of 
the cavity and the ap- 
pendix is removed, after which the intestine 
is cleansed, sewed up and put back. Then 
the outer cavity is closed, although some- 
times this is impossible at first, and an 
opening may be necessary for impurities to 
pass out. 

Great advance has been made in skin 
and bone grafting. Frequently, nowadays, 
we hear of several persons giving up por- 



tions of their skin to be grafted onto people 
who may have been severely burned. Some- 
times a person's own flesh is stripped away 
from an arm to supply the tissue for a new 
nose that is to take the place of one lost. 
In such cases it is often necessary to graft 
the skin onto the face, and still leave an 
end attached to the growing arm in order 
to keep the skin alive. Then after the 
grafting has set in well the skin may be 




OPERATING CLINIC, COOK COUNTY HOSPITAL, CHICAGO. 



removed from the arm. Bone grafting is 
similar. Generally, bones of the ox take 
the place of silver plates, so common here- 
tofore. These bones are decalcified, or have 
the lime taken from them by soaking in a 
weak solution of hydrochloric acid. This 
renders the bone like so much gristle, and 
it may be cut up into strips. The cavity 
that is to be filled with this bone is cleaned, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



the bone placed in it and the skin of the 
wound sewed up. Gradually, the hones 
grow in with the natural hone, become 
hard, and perform the functions of the 
human hones perfectly. 

SUPRARENALIN, THE LATEST AID TO 
SURGERY. 

The wonderful progress made in recent 
years in the use of new agencies and appli- 
ances by which to facilitate bloodless and 
painless surgical operations, is signalized 
anew by a remarkable discovery lately 
made which promises to become a boon to 
the world through its potency in mitigating 
human suffering. 

This discovery occurred in connection 
with the manufacture of bi-products at the 
Armour & Co. laboratories, where the 
chemists are now producing a substance 
called "suprarenalin." It is one of the 
most precious articles in existence, being 
worth $7,000 a pound, and is so powerful 
that one part of it, dissolved in 100,000 
parts of water, will show its presence when 
tested with chloride of iron. 

It has been found that the suprarenal 
gland of an animal — which is found about 
the kidneys, when reduced to a drug — pos- 
sesses wonderful astringent properties; so 



powerful that operations on the eye and 
nose may be performed without the loss of 
any blood. With the addition of cocaine 
such operations are also painless. The 
great value of this to a surgeon will be 
appreciated when one realizes that in cut- 
ting around the eye he can have a perfectly 
clear field, and can do his work much more 
quickly, as a flow of blood would not only 
obscure the operation, but would make it 
necessary to stop frequently and wipe it 
away in order that he may see where he is 
cutting. The active principle has been iso- 
lated at the Armour laboratory, and has 
been named "suprarenalin," a word that 
has not yet gotten into the dictionary. It 
takes 7,000 grains of the fresh granular 
substance to make one grain of the "supra- 
renalin." However, it is very powerful, 
and solutions employed by surgeons in per- 
forming minor operations on the eye, ear 
and throat vary from 1-10,000 to 1-1,000 
in strength. 

"Suprarenalin" is also discovered to be 
the greatest stimulant known, and is now 
being used in the place of strychnia and 
other of the old remedies which were em- 
ployed hypodermically in cases of heart 
failure. 



ACETYLENE GAS, THE LATEST ARTIFICIAL LIGHT 



Acetylene gas is given off when calcium 
carbide is put into water. Calcium, or cal- 
cium carbide, is a hard, porous, grayish 
material produced by fusing pulverized 
coke and air-slaked lime in an electrical 
furnace. One ton of this substance will 
make 11,000 feet of acetylene gas, which is 
equal in illuminating power to about 264,- 
000 cubic feet of ordinary city illuminating 



gas. The method of making the calcium 
carbide is as follows: 

Two thousand pounds of lime and 1,500 
pounds of coke are placed in an electrical 
furnace. The lime is crushed and pulver- 
ized by suitable machinery and is slowly 
air-slaked and then thoroughly mixed with 
the coke. In the bottom of the electrical 
furnace is a cast-iron crucible, and the bot- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



71 




By courtesy of the Acetylene Apparatus M'f'g Co. 
TWENTY-LIGHT GENERATOR. CARBIDE 
CHARGE, 16 POUNDS. 



torn ia protected by a thick 
layer of powdered carbon, 
■which is a good conductor of 
electricity, but a poor con- 
ductor of heat. This bottom 
plate forms one of the elec- 
trodes of the electric cable 
which conveys the electricity 
to the furnace. The other 
electrode of the cable is a 
large carbon "pencil/' attach- 
ed to the wires that run to an 
alternating electrical gener- 
ator. This pencil is let down 
into the mass in the crucible, 
and the electricity being 
turned on, something like an 
arc light is formed. Intense 
heat is developed and the coke 



and lime are fused, producing the calcium 
carbide. 

The calcium remains unchanged iu dry 
air, but if subjected to moisture it gives off 
a thick heavy gas which smells like garlic. 
This is acetylene. All that is necessary to 
do isi to control it so that it may issue from 
a jet in suitable quantities, and then light 
it. The light given off is of a very brilliant 
and powerful greenish hue. This gas is. 
highly explosive unless handled carefully. 
It is being used in great quantities, how- 
ever, and especially convenient is it on au- 
tomobiles, carriages, bicycles and for coun- 
try places where ordinary gas cannot be 
obtained. The lamp used for vehicles con- 
sists simply of a small reservoir, from 
which water is allowed to trickle upon a 
quantity of calcium carbide contained in 
another gas-tight receptacle. Prom this 
latter reservoir, leads a small pipe to the 
gas burner. A match is applied when the 
gas is generated, which is very quickly, 




By courtesy of the Acetylene Apparatus M'f'g Co. 
ACETYLENE GAS GENERATOR, FOR A TOWN. 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



72 MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 

and for a few cents, a light may be carried lene gas plants, this method is simply en- 
for a long time. For more extensive aeety- larged upon. 

WONDERFUL MOVING PICTURES 



Of recent years, great advances have 
been made in the art of perfecting magic 
lanterns. The greatest invention in this 
line and the one productive of the weirdest 
results is the device for reproducing, in 
picture form, the movements of life, so 
naturally that one would believe the living 
objects portrayed were passing in review 
on the lantern screen. 

The first step in the discovery of the 
principle which underlies moving pictures 
was the invention of the zeotrope. This 
consisted of a disk, on the back of which 
were painted a number of pictures of some 
animal in various stages of motion. Un- 
derneath each picture was a narrow slit. 
The disk was a toy which was intended to 
be impaled on a pin so that it could be 
whirled around. By holding the picture 
side of the zeotrope near a mirror, and by 
looking through the slits as the disk was 
spun around, one could see a rapid succes- 
sion of pictures in the mirror, the animal 
apparently moving forward by jumps. In- 
asmuch as the pictures were painted from 
imaginary positions which were not always 
true to life, the method of movement some- 
times showed very odd phases. 

Gradually, the idea of portraying motion 
grew with inventors, and a principle, in 
which great development was involved, 
came to light. That was the method of 
passing a strip of pictures between the light 
and the lens of the lantern, and by the use 
of a light shutter, to close the lens from 
the light for an instant, between each pic- 



ture. The most perfect cinematographs, or 
moving picture machines, now use this 
method of jerking pictures through a lan- 
tern, letting them pause momentarily, and 
then closing off the light and moving on to 
the next picture. The result is a continu- 
ous picture of the objects in motion, giving 
the effect of the progression. 

When this idea was evolved the next im- 
portant thing to be discovered was a method 
for getting exact pictures of things in 
motion. One man tried the scheme of 
standing a number of photograph cameras 
in a row, and taking numerous pictures of 
the animal, or object, as it moved by. The 
result was a great improvement, but natu- 
rally the cameras could not be placed closely 
enough together or operated rapidly enough 
to catch the motions accurately. Then 
came Edison with his kinetoscope, by which 
he took instantaneous pictures on long 
strips of film, at the rate of about 30' photo- 
graphs in a second. Thenceforth the mov- 
ing picture problem was comparatively 
easy. 

In this method, long strips of sensitive 
gelatine films are prepared after the man- 
ner of any photographic plate. They are 
very narrow, are from 70 to 600 feet long, 
and are wound on spools. These films are 
run through a photograph camera specially 
adapted for the work. It is arranged so 
that only a tiny bit of the film is exposed 
■ at the focal point at a time. Then a shut- 
ter stops off the light, the film, moves on an 
inch and is exposed, only to be shut off from 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




the light again, and moved on once more. 
This is done very rapidly, in fact, so 
rapidly that about a thousand pictures can 
be taken in a minute, thus depicting mar- 
velously the actions of moving beings and 
things. 

The next thing to be done was to devise 
a magic lantern arrangement that would 
practically duplicate the action of the shut- 
ter device on the camera, and also to develop 
the photographs taken on such long strips, 
without marring them. Several methods 
have been adopted for this latter work. 
Sometimes, the yards and yards of gelatine 
are wound on windlasses and run through 
the enveloping chemicals bit by bit. At 
other times, the strips are wound on pegs 
and the whole affair immersed at one time. 
It must be remembered that the 
pictures taken are negatives, — that is, 
everything naturally light shows black 
in the negative, and vice versa. 
Therefore, pictures must be made that 
will show on the picture screen in their 
proper tones. In order to do this, other 
strips of the sensitive film are placed over 
the negatives and exposed and developed. 
When these last strips are dried they are 
run through the cinematograph machine, 
but with a very powerful light behind them. 
The film is unwound and by means of the 
same shutter device on the camera, the 
light is turned on and off as the picture is 
hehind the lens or moving into position. 
The lens throws the picture in enlarged 
form on the screen placed on the wall Be- 
cause of a phenomenon of optics called per- 
sistence of vision, the spectator sees the pic- 
ture for a brief instant after the light is 
shut off. Thus when the strip is run 
through, the series of pictures appears as 
one picture in constantly changing shapes, 
giving an imitation of life. 




By courtesy of Stereopticon 
& Film Exchange, Chicago. 



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MODERN INTENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



LARGEST AND FASTEST TROLLEY CAR 



110 MILES AIT HOUR. 

One frequently reads about trains going 
at the rate of 100 miles an hour, but few 
people have ever ridden at a speed of mora 
than 75 or 80 miles. On a little railroad 
extending from the suburbs of Berlin to 
the town of Zossen, an electric car travels 
daily as fast as 110 miles an hour, .which 
breaks all records for speed on the highways 
of steel. 

It is what we call a trolley car, but the 



little resistance to the air, when going 
along at the highest possible speed. 

The ear is divided into three compart- 
ments with seats extending transversely, 
while the motorman is separated from the 
passengers by a glass partition. What en- 
gineers call the three-phase system of elec- 
tricity is utilized for running the car and 
the two trailers which it has been hauling 
during the experiments. Instead of the 
current being conveyed by one or two wires 
to the motor, it 




ROAD-BED AND FEED-WIRE SYSTEM FOR HIGH-SPEED ELECTRIC CARS. 



trolley system is installed on a very elab- 
orate scale, and the motive power which 
operates the car is simply enormous. The 
railroad on which runs this wonderful car 
is about 16 miles in length, and was built 
by the Prussian government for military 
purposes. A few months ago it was turned 
over to an association of electrical engineers 
and other experts, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining what speed could be developed by 
the electric current. Then a car was con- 
structed especially for the purpose, and 
when equipped with the necessary ma- 
chinery, weighed nearly one hundred tons. 
The body of the car is similar to many of 
those in use on railroads in the United 
States, with a vestibule at each end, and 
the roof and sides tapering in order to offer 



over a 
series of four, 
three of which 
are carried 
along the side 
of the railroad 
upon posts. 
These are 
known as high 
tension, and are 



capable of supporting a current of no less 
than 12,000 volts, owing to the system of 
conduction and insulation. The current 
passes through the trolley bar, which, as 
will be noticed, is a very elaborate affair, 
and thence through transformers to the 
motor. 

The motors are bolted upon the axles of 
the trucks beneath the car, each motor being 
large enough to run an ordinary factory, as 
it can generate fully 250 horse-power under 
ordinary conditions. Although these pon- 
derous pieces of machinery weigh no less 
than four and a half tons each, they move 
at the rate of 900 revolutions a minu«f£V 
when a car is at full speed. It would be 
impossible to stop and start the ear with the 
controller which the motorman uses on the 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



75 



ordinary trolley system, so special appa- 
ratus had to be provided for this purpose. 
The electric switches and transformers are 
moved by compressed air, which really does 
the duty of the motorman. 

The inventor of this car claims that 
within a few years will come a complete 



EDISON'S SWIFT TROLLEY CAR. 

In this country, the genius of Edison has 
recently resulted in the construction of an 
improved style of trolley car whose speed 
closely approximates that of the Prussian 
invention. Experiments made on a short 
line in 'New Jersey, built especially for such 




ELECTRIC CAR THAT RUNS 110 MILES PER HOUR. 



revolution of travel on rail, and that elec- 
tricity with cars of this type will make an 
average of one hundred miles an hour with 
as much ease as a speed of 50 miles an hour 
is now made. Recent experiments with 
this car have proved conclusively that it can 
go at a speed of 110 miles an hour without 
apparent danger, and with absolute free- 
dom from swaying motion. 



a test, indicated that 100 miles an hour 
could be made with absolute safety and per- 
fect comfort to passengers. 

TRACKLESS TROLLEYS. 
Among the novelties in electric propul- 
sion are trolley cars operated in some of the 
large American and European cities, with- 
out the aid of tracks, and large quantities 
of freight are transported in this manner. 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



TRANSCONTINENTAL EXPRESS RUNNING SIXTY MILES AN HOUR. 



This train took its own picture, by opening the lens ol the camera, that had been made ready, as It ran over the connecting mechanism 

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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



77 



BREAD SUPPLIED FROM THE ATMOSPHERE 



Back in 1898, the scientific world 
was alarmed by the statement of Sir 
William Crookes to the effect that the 
bread supply of the world was threat- 
ened with exhaustion. Sensational as 
the remarkable analysis of the situa- 
tion was, nevertheless, the statement 
remains broadly true that unless some- 
thing develops to take the place of the 
Tapidly diminishing supply of nitrog- 
enous fertilizers, the world's wheat 
supply is sorely threatened by the fail- 
ing fertility of the soil. Summed up, 
the eminent scientist's statement was 
that the world's low average of less 
than thirteen bushels of wheat per acre 
means literal starvation for the rap- 
idly increasing nations of wheat eat- 
ers, unless aid comes. 

NITRATES ESSENTIAL TO WHEAT 
GROWTH. 

Nitrates supply the fertile qualities of 
wheat growth, but what of the great and 
growing wheat areas that before long must 
starve for soil nutriment ? The nitrate de- 
posits of Chile are swiftly being depleted. 
The guano beds of the islands of the Pacific 
even now are cleaned up. The phosphatic 
beds of the South 
are strictly lim- 
ited. Fixed ni- 
trogen in refuse 
is thrown away 
with alarming 
prodigality. Now 
one hears the pre- 
diction that bare- 
ly 30 years hence 
mr. d. r. lovejoy. it will take 





MR. CHARLES S. BRADLEY. 

3,200,000,000 bushels of wheat annually 
to feed the world. This, it is estimated, 
will necessitate the use of 12,000,000 
tons of nitrate of soda a year, over and 
above the 1,250,000 now used. But the 
nitrates in sight now promise a supply for 
only 50 years. The problem thus is serious 
in the extreme. 

Science, however, is coming to the res- 
cue. Spurred on by the timely warning of 
Sir William Crookes, scientists all over the 
world are endeavoring to develop artificial 
meansi of producing nitrogen in quantities 
sufficient not only to supply present needs, 
but to lay up goodly stores for the future. 
Be it known that there is nitrogen in super- 
abundance in the very atmosphere we 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



breathe. On every square yard of the 
earth's surface nitrogen is pressing in the 
form of gas in the air, with a weight of 
seven tons. The question that is perplexing 
inventors is that of developing a means of 
"fixing," or extracting it from the air at a 
little cost. Chilean nitrate costs $37.50 a 
ton, while commercial nitric acid costs $80 
a ton. It is with the ceaseless power of 
Niagara Falls that enough electricity is de- 
rived to extract nitrogen from the air so 




General view ol Arc Machine on left driven by Motor at the right, receiving its 
current from Niagara Power Plant. 



that nitrate of soda ought to be produced at 
not more than $25 a ton. 

Several inventors now have stepped for- 
ward hi the unique quest for bread from 
the atmosphere and have erected experi- 
mental stations at Niagara Falls. . As far 
back as 1785, Dr. Priestly noted the fact 
that when a spark of electricity was dis- 
charged through the atmosphere the air 
underwent a chemical change. Any one 
notices the change in the air after a thun- 
derstorm. The effect of electricity on the 
air is to enable nitrogen to unite i& & chem- 



ical combination with oxygen, and thereby 
become reduced to nitrous acid. 

With this knowledge Charles S. Bradley 
and D. R. Lovejoy have set to work and 
accomplished much toward the desired 
goal. After many experiments, they have 
succeeded at their plant at Niagara Falls 
in "fixing" nitrogen. The process consists 
of the production of a large number of elec- 
tric arcs, or flames, in a confined space, 
through which a regulated amount of air 
to be burned is passed 
from time to time. 
This air emerges from 
their apparatus laden 
with nitric oxides and 
peroxides, as the re- 
sult of the combustion, 
and is ready for col- 
lection and treatment 
Many difficulties be- 
set the path of the sci- 
entists. An extremely 
long spark was neces- 
sary in order to burn 
the air. It was found 
that static electricity — 
obtained from friction 
on glass — was not 
powerful enough to supply the arc de- 
sired. The great power of Niagara was 
turned to their use and fair success re- 
sulted. 

MACHINERY FOR PRODUCING NITROGEN 
OPERATED BY NIAGARA PALLS 
WATER-POWER. 

The device at last invented consists of a 
big box of metal six feet high and three 
feet in diameter. Within this box is a 
revolving cylinder or hollow shaft. There 
are openings in the box to admit air and 
to circulate it, and around its walls are 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



11 



fixed electrical Gontact points for the 
arcs, arranged' in gix rows of 23 
points each. The negative pole of a 
10,000-volt dynamo , circuit is con- 
nected with the revolving hollow 
cylinder, which has contact projec- 
tions or fingers to touch the other 
contact points. 

The affair is set in motion, whirl- 
ing at a great rate; the arcs are 
formed and are broken rapidly, caus- 
ing a constant stream of electrical 
fire, and the air is "burned up." A 
motor at the top of the box drives the 
cylinder at a speed of 300 to 500 
revolutions a minute and air is forced 
through it at the rate of five cubic 
feet per arc contact, per hour. The 
air leaves the treatment loaded with 
2% per cent of oxides of nitrogen. 
At the bottom of the ehamber 
are pockets to catch the decom- 
posed air and thence pipes lead 
away which carry the air and its 
gases to an absorption tower, where 
the process is completed. 

These gases when brought into contact 
with caustic potash, form saltpeter; with 
caustic soda, they form nitrate of soda. 
The effects expected to be obtained will 




EIGHT-INCH 10,0W>-VOL,T ARCS BURNING THE AIR. 

t 

work to fertilize the wheat lands of the 
world. Already nitrate of soda is being 
used to strengthen land properties. It has 
been found from experiments that land 
bearing 12 busheb of wheat to the acre, by 



S8 Ew 
" 3v. - 



II lift: 




. ■ 

.■ ■ :: : :: ■ .. " ■ r ■ '■ . 1 , ■ ■:. ■ ■-; ■ 




■ . . • . 



VIEW SHOWING TERMINALS USED FOR ARCING AND BURNING THE AIR IN CHAMBER. 

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80 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



the nitrate of soda treatment, has produced 
36 bushels an acre. 

SCIENCE WILL GIVE BREAD TO ALL. 

If this proportionate increase of produc- 



i 



tion holds good in the course of future ex- 
perimentations, and there seems to he no 
reason to doubt that such will be the result, 
the immense wheat-bearing area of the 



United States, aside from the stimulated 
growth in other parts of the world, will 
furnish adequate material for supplying 
"the staff of life" to generations untold. 
Thus science will be found to have re- 



sponded once more to the needs of humanity 
in removing the cause of the grave appre- 
hensions which so seriously impressed the 
mind of Sir William Crookes. 




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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



81 



LIQUID AIR— ITS WONDERFUL POWER 




LIQUID AIR BOILING ON A BLOCK OF ICE. 



To Charles E. Tripler, a scientist- of 
New York Gity, belongs the credit for hav- 
ing made liquid air familiar to the scien- 
tific world, cheapened its production, and 
applied it to practical commercial pur- 
poses. 

It seems almost a contradiction in terms 
at first thought, and yet scientists have 
been able to liquefy not only air but many 
other gases, while they can also turn solids 
into liquid, and the resulting liquid into 
gases. It is all a matter of temperature and 
pressure. 

Tripler, however, was not the pioneer in 
experiments. Scientists had long observed 
that to compress a gas into a reduced vol- 
ume, raised its temperature greatly. The 
heat thus resulting was to be generated by 
the pressure applied, but experiments soon 
proved it was not caused by the actual in- 
crease of the heat of the whole body, but 
rather by the concentration of the heat of 
the entire mass into the smaller space. 

Later experiments showed that if this gas 
under pressure was cooled, and then al- 
lowed to expand to its former volume, it 
would fall greatly in temperature, and in 



practice a drop of 200 degrees was ob- 
tained. In 1877, the first real headway was 
made by scientists in their efforts to liquefy 
air. The first real success in these experi- 
ments was made by Raoul Pictet, who sub- 
mitted oxygen gas to a great pressure, com- 
bined with intense cold, and produced a few 
drops of the clear liquid that soon evap- 
orated into the air after a few moments of 
violent bubbling. In 1892, there was a lite 
success with nitrogen, the other constituent 
of air. About the same time Prof. Dewar, 
of England, performed the same experi- 
ments, and then succeeded in producing a 
small quantity of liquid air, or rather a 
sort of slush of air, water and ice. His 




PACKING LIQUID AIB FOB SHIPMENT. 



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82 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




LIQUID AIR BOILING. BY HEAT OP THE 
ATMOSPHERE. 



experiments aroused tie utmost interest 
among scientists, but the cost of the appa- 
ratus and processes, 'which amounted to 
$3,000 for this first ounce of liquid air, 
limited it to laboratory experimentation. 

It was Prof. Tripler who discovered the 
means by which this wonderful product 
could be made with ease, at a cost of not 
more than 20 cents a gallon. Tripler's 
process comes as near being a practical 
form of the chimerical perpetual motion 
as can be conceived, as he utilized power 
generated by the liquid air itself to pro- 
duce more liquid air, and as the production 
from a given quantity is in each instance 
a larger quantity, there is a constant in- 
crease of the power at command. 

The apparatus for the manufacture of 
liquid air, in addition to the power plant, 
is ah air compressor, and a barrel-shaped 
tank about 15 feet high, penetrated by a 
multitude of small pipes and valves, pro- 
tected by felt and canvas to keep out the 
heat. This contrivance is so arranged that 
the expanding air, which constantly grows 
cooler, passes about the pipes containing 
the working material. Air is placed under 
a pressure of 2,500 pounds to the square 
inch, and cooled to about 50 degrees by 



being passed in pipes through running 
water. From there it is conveyed to the 
receiver through two different sets of pipe, 
one containing the air to be liquefied, and 
the other the air that does the work of 
liquefying, both under the same heavy pres- 
sure. By opening a tap in the receiver, 
the air from the latter pipe rushes up and 
around all the pipes in the barrel-like space, 
expanding, reducing the pressure, taking 
up the heat wherever any can be found, 




DRAWING LIQUID AIR FROM THE 
LIQUEFIER. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



83 



growing warmer, and gradually rising to 
the top of the space. 

While this process is in operation the air 
in the pipes has been gradually returning 
to the compresser, where it is again brought 
under pressure and cooled, only to be re- 
leased once more in the receiver, there to 
absorb more heat from the confined air in 
the pipes. So rapid is this process that 
the temperature of the air goes down 100 
degrees every time it is thus chilled, and it 
takes only fifteen minutes to produce the 
desired result. At the expiration of the 
fifteen minutes the faucet at the bottom 
may be opened, and the liquid air, at a 
temperature of 312 degrees below zero, be- 
gins to flow from the pipes. 

Liquid air is of such an expanding 
nature that if confined it would explode. 
In order to preserve the product thus 
yielded, various devices have been prepared. 
One of the vessels used for carrying liquid 
air is a bulb of glass, which is surrounded 
by an outer vessel, of the same material, 
the two having a vacuum between them and 
joined by a common neck at the top. The 
vacuum thus produced delays the passage 
of heat, so that the evaporation of the liquid 
in the inner tube is reduced to a minimum. 
In a shipment of nine hours, air packed in 
the above manner, loses less than one-third 
of its bulk. 

Liquid air is eleven and one-half times 
as powerful as compressed air, and yet it 
may be carried in a pasteboard box, while 
the heaviest steel tanks would be required 
to control as much energy in compressed 
air. In the meantime Prof. Tripler goes 
on experimenting with this wonderful air. 
Inventors of airships are seeking something 
that combines great power with lightness ; 
submarine navigators want an economical 



motive power and air for the crew8 to 
breathe; deep-sea divers hope that some 
service may be rendered to their perilous 
profession by the use of casks of the liquid 
suited to their apparatus, and automobiles 
have been adapted to this power. By the 
use of liquid air, a rose may be frozen in 
its full form, or an. egg may be made so 
solid that when broken, it will scatter like 
a powder. The surface of a frozen potato 
is as hard as stone and beautiful as ivory. 
Frozen butter may be pounded in a mortar 
until it is as fine as flour, and raw beefsteak 
will become pale and then break, like petri- 
fied wood. Mercury is frozen, and alcohol 




ROSES FROZEN WITH LIQUID AIR 
RENDERED BRITTLE AS GLASS, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



84 

is made stringy and white by this air, and 
steel bars, when dipped into this liquid, 
may he burned as readily as a piece of dry 
wood. 

ITS POSSIBLE USE POR FT/EL AND PRO- 
PULSION. 

In the not distant future, liquid air may 
supplant some forms of fuel, for when 
mixed with any form of carbon, it burns 
rapidly or explodes. Thus it may be used 
in interior combustion engines, — for in- 
stance, the gas engine. 



PULL RECOGNITION OP A GREAT DIS- 
COVERY. 

When, with its lightness and extreme 
potency, it shall be utilized in helping to 
solve the problem of practical aeronautics, 
and shall also be made to serve, with a suit- 
able motor, in propelling submarine craft, 
while at the same time supplying breathing 
air to the crew, through compression in 
storage tanks, then, indeed, will be fully 
recognized the great significance of the dis- 
covery of liquid air. 




DRIVING A NAIL WITH A HAMMER MADE OF MERCURY 
FROZEN BY LIQUID AIR. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



85 



NEW PROCESS OF MAKING STAINED-GLASS WINDOWS 




In a short article of this description, it is 
^ possible to give only the bare outlines of 
the art of making stained-glass windows. 
To begin at the beginning, when the exact 
shape and subject of a window is decided 
upon, a water color sketch is prepared to 
scale, and then the working drawings and 
cartoon in full size are made. The draw- 
ings are done either in monochrome, char- 
coal, crayon, pencil, or bister, in wash or 
in color or pastel, according to the taste of 
, the artist. 

The lead glazing lines are usually shown 
on the drawing, and for the guidance of the 
glass cutter a tracing of these lines is made 
on linen. Possibly, the most important, 
and certainly one of the most delicate func- 
tions in the making of a window, now fol- 
lows — that of choosing the glass itself, for 
on this depends to a great extent the final 
artistic results, as will be presently ex- 
plained. The artist stands by the cutter 
and chooses each tint, each sheet, and even 
indicates the particular part of each sheet 
most suitable for his purpose. For the 
color is not always even throughout the 



glass. What to an inexperienced eye looks 
like a flaw, a splash of different color, or 
a mass of air bubbles, is produced inten- 
tionally in the manufacture of the glass, 
and eventually adds to the beauty of the 
window. When the various pieces are 
chosen, they are cut to shape on the linen 
tracing. A tracer now marks on the pieces 
of glass the main lines of the artist's draw- 
ing. It is here that one may point out why 
stress is laid on the importance of the artist 
choosing his own glass, and not leaving it to 
the cutter. 

A prevalent idea is that a stained glass 
window is produced by painting white or 
ordinary glass with various colors, but it 




By courtesy of the American Art Glass Co,, of Chicago. 



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86 MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



is not so. It is in reality a Mosaic of col- 
ored glass, shaped by a pigment of one color 




By courtesy of the American Art Glass Co., of Chicago. 
STAINED GLASS WINDOW— REPRESENTING A 
HUNTING SCENE. 



only, and with the exception of what is 
called staining, which will be presently ex- 
plained, the color of the glass is in no way 



changed. The pigment used is chocolate- 
brown, in color, and is made of the same 
earths as the glass itself, with some 
iron or copper added to give opacity. 

The next process is to stick onto a 
sheet of plate glass, with hot wax, all 
pieces, placed in their proper order 
and position and the whole is then 
covered with a fairly thick pigment, 
and, while still wet, stippled to let 
the light through. When the pig- 
ment has dried, the lights and half 
tones are picked out and brushed 
away, here and there a shadow is 
strengthened with more pigment, and 
the work is ready for diapering and 
staining. The diapers, or patterns, 
are either painted on in thick opaque 
lines, or the existing paint is etched 
out with points, to the required de- 
sign (see illustration). Staining is 
painting the back of such portions of 
glass as may seem desirable with 
nitrate of silver, which, when suffi- 
ciently heated, changes to a brilliant 
yellow. It can be so manipulated as 
to give shades from pale lemon to 
deepest orange. 

The pieces of glass are now all dis- 
mounted and carefully laid in flat 
iron trays, the bottom of which eon- 
tains a layer of white dry powder; 
the glass is so arranged that no two 
pieces touch. The trays are then 
placed in a kiln heated by powerful 
Bunsen burners, gradually brought 
to heat and as gradually cooled. The 
pigment which, as was pointed out, 
is made of the same earths as the 
glass on which it is painted, has become, by 
firing, part and parcel of the glass itself; 
it is no longer paint, ^ut actual glass. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



87 



It is now ready for the glazier who, by 
• means of the design or cartoon, puts the 




By courtesy of the American Art Glass Co., ot Chicago. 
ARTISTIC WINDOW. 




different pieces in their proper places, and 
joins them together by means of grooved 
leads, and solder. Around the outside edge 
of the design, in order to 'bind the whole 
firmly together, is fixed a stronger piece of 
lead than that used to join the pieces of 
glass. 

Now follows a very dirty process — that 
of making the window proof against the 
weather. This is done by rubbing under 
the leads a cement made of whiting, oil, etc. 
The whole window on one side is smeared 
with this, but it is eventually all cleaned off, 
leaving a deposit under the leads which 
makes it water tight. Again the glazier 
takes it in hand and solders onto the lead 
cross-bars of galvanized iron at proper in- 
tervals. It is now ready for setting. 

The stone mullions of a window to be 
fitted with stained glass are grooved on one 
side deeper than on the other. The glass is 
slipped into the deeper groove first and then 
pulled hack into the shallow one in the mid- 
lion opposite. The iron bars, called tee 
bars, are set into the stone on each side of 
the window holding the glass in place. The 
space between the outer lead of the glass 
and the stone work is now carefully filled 
in with cement, to prevent the rain beating 
through, and then the window is complete. 




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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



NEW METHODS OF MAKING PORCELAIN 



Porcelain ware, ac- 
cording to experts and 
connoisseurs, is brought 
to its highest develop- 
ment, artistically and 
mechanically, in the 
great imperial porce- 
lain factory near Meis- 
sen, Saxony, the oldest 
in Germany. It was in 
these immense works 
that the secret of the 
Chinese and Japanese 
"erackleware" was dis- 
covered, and now 
erackleware is made in 
Saxony as well as in the Orient. The 
kaolin, or porcelain clay, from which the 
porcelain paste is made in the Meissen fac- 





Ey courtesy of Taylor. Smith & Taylor, East Liverpool, Ohio, 
CLAY DEPARTMENT. 



tory, comes partly from underground pits, 
and partly from open pits in the Saxon 
villages of Seilitz and Sornzig, and the 
feldspar comes from Norway. 



By courtesy of Taylor, Smith & Taylor, East Liverpool, Ohio. 
KILN. 



The porcelain clay is first washed in a 
large wooden cylinder, which revolves hori- 
zontally, and then is run through a series 
of vats and channels, 
into which the heavier 
substances mixed with 
the clay are precipi- 
tated. The feldspar and 
quartz are separated 
from all impurities by 
means of hammers, and 
are mixed with the clay. 
The mixed mass is 
passed through filter 
presses and kneading 
machines, in which the 
great iron arms and 
knuckles blend the ma- 
terials perfectly, and 
press out all the air bub- 
bles. The mass then is rammed into barrels 
and stored for a long time, ten months at 
least, in order to give the clay plasticity and 
to make it more "workable," In the molding 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



room, the plastic clay is formed into 
Vases, urns, plaques, statuette?, busts, 
and other shapes, by modelers, who 
first make the clay model and then the 
plaster mold for those pieces which are 
duplicated and reduplicated, and are 
finished in plaster molds. Sometimes 
figures in groups are molded in sepa- 
rate pieces, and then fastened accord- 
ing to the model by means of the thin 
paste, or "slip," as it is called. The 
porous plaster of the mold sucks out 
all the moisture, leaving the molded 
objects quite dry. 

A "bosser" puts on the finishing 
touches, correcting all faults in the 
plastic decorations. Then the articles are 
ready for the glazing. This is a very deli- 
cate and important process and one which 
requires much care and skill. They are 
first baked in a tempera- 
ture varying all the way 
from 1,400 to 1.800 de- 





By courtesy ol Taylor, Smith & Taylor, East Liverpool, Ohio, 
HAND PAINTING AND GILDING. 



grees Fahrenheit, which hardens them, 
and leaves them porous and very brittle. 
They then are ready to be painted or fin- 



By courtesy of Taylor, Smith & Taylor, East Liverpool, Ohio. 
DIPPERS GLAZING WARE. 



ished as white porcelain. In the glaz- 
ing room each article is carefully dipped 
into the glaze bath, a milk white fluid, 
which is composed of kaolin, quartz, feld- 
spar and limestone. As soon 
as the glazing mixture 
touches the porcelain all the 
colors painted on it by the 
artist disappear, for the 
glaze forms a powdery crust, 
which, however, fuses when 
exposed to a high heat, and 
the colors reappear. Those 
parts which are to remain 
unglazed are carefully cov- 
ered with a preparation 
which protects the surface, 
and the porcelain is put in- 
to the kiln. The kilns are 
circular in form and are 
built in three stories. The 
articles in the lowest com- 
partments are exposed to the 
highest heat, the temperature here reaching 
2,912 degrees. The other stories are used 



to give the first baking. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 




By courtesy of Taylor, Smith & Taylor, Bast Liverpool 
PUTTING HANDLES ON CUPS. 



SOME LIVE AMERICAN FACTORIES. 

Porcelain manufacturing in the United States is rapid- 
ly coming to the high standard reached by the foreign- 
ers. People have been slow to believe that good ware 
could be made in their own country, and any but Ameri- 
can manufacturers would have been discouraged by this 
non-appreciation of their fellow-countrymen, 
but with the vigor and vim character- 
istic of the race, they have slowly but 
surely pushed to the front, and their 
wares are no longer ignored, but con- 
ceded to furnish some of the world's 
best makes. The pottery districts of 
America are Trenton, N. J., and East 
Liverpool, Ohio. The latter, including 
the near surroundings, contains about 
two-thirds of the potteries of the United 
States. 

Through the courtesy of The Taylor, 
Smith & Taylor Company of East Liverpool, Ohio, we 
are able to show some of the departments in their factory 
which illustrate the method used in making fine dinner 




By courtesy of Taylor, Smith & Taylor, 
East Liverpool, Ohio. 
KILN PLACING. 



By courtesy of Taylor, Smith & Taylor, 
East Liverpool, Ohio, 

A PRESSES. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 91 

and toilet wares. Their model pottery is the ufacturers from all the world to study their 
envy of all, and every year is visited by man- modern methods of producing porcelain. 



A NEW PROCESS FOR MAKING WHITE LEAD 



A new process for the manufacture of 
white lead has been discovered by a 
chemist and mining engineer of Boston. 
This new process is what is known as the 
"electrolytic," and, judging from recent 
tests, it will be able to compete with the 
best now in operation. 

In the "electrolytic" process, a solution 
of sodium nitrate contained in two com- 
partment cells, separated by porous dia- 
phragms, is decomposed by an electric cur- 
rent. The electrodes in these cells are lead 
and copper. At the positive electrode, lead 
nitrate is formed and dissolved, and sodium 
hydroxide collects, and is dissolved at the 
copper pole. These solutions are drawn off 
and mixed in the proper proportions, and 
sodium nitrate is reproduced and lead 
hydrate precipitated in the form of an 
amorphous powder. A solution of sodium 
carbonate is then mixed with the lead 
hydrate, when lead carbonate (white lead) 
and hydrate sodium are formed. This 
sodium hydrate may again be converted in- 
to the carbonate by passing carbonic acid 
into it. 

The sodium carbonate may be used again 
for the conversion of more lead hydrate 
into white lead. The nitrate reproduced 
in the second operation may be again used 
as in the first, and there is but a slight 
loss in the repeated service of these two 
agents. During the past year, tests of the 



electrolytic pigment have been made, and 
in each instance it has proven itself equal 
to that manufactured by the Dutch. The 
new process is rapid, and requires only a 
small plant for a considerable output. It 
yields a good paint, with very little labor. 

AN OLD INDUSTRY. 

The manufacture of white lead, which is 
the most important of all pigments, is a 
very old industry, the native carbonate, 
cerussie, having been used by the Romans. 
But as this mineral is restricted in its dis- 
tribution, the artificial product was in time 
brought into use. 

the dutch: process. 

The so-called Dutch process of making 
white lead is the oldest known, reference 
being made to it as far back as 1622. With 
a few modifications, it is still in use, and 
yields a product which, for many purposes, 
is preferred by painters to the lead manu- 
factured by the numerous newer processes. 
It usually has more covering power, and a 
better color. The method consists in ex- 
posing sheet lead to the direct action of 
moisture, acetic acid vapors and carbon 
dioxide. Two other modes of manufacture 
are generally in vogue — the German, or 
Chamber process ; and the French, or The- 
nard's process. 



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92 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES. 



MARVELOUS METALS RECENTLY DISCOVERED 



RADIUM AND POLONIUM THROW OUT LIGHT THAT SHINES THROUGH IRON. WOMAN 
SCIENTIST'S ACHIEVEMENT. VALUE OE RADIUM $1,000,000 PER POUND. 



A new metallic substance called radium 
has been discovered by a Polish woman, 
Madame Sklodowska Curie, who, with her 
husband, is engaged in scientific work in 
Paris. 



would probably destroy his eyesight, burn 
off his skin and even kill him. 

l^ow, before scientists have finished mar- 
veling at the new an'd mysterious metal, 
the Polish woman has added another to her 




RADIUM'S MIGHTY EXPLOSIVE POWER. 

The power of an ounce of radium is sufficient (according to Sir William Crookes) to lift 
the entire British and French navies from the water. 



Radium is a white crystalline powder, a 
combination of several metals, with an 
illuminating power that far eclipses the 
Roentgen or X-rays. Its rays travel almost 
as fast as sunlight and can pierce three feet 
of iron, burn through metallic cases and 
take photographs in closed trunks. Pro- 
fessor Curie, the husband of the discoverer, 
says that he would not venture into a room 
containing two pounds of radium, as it 



triumphs in chemistry, by the discovery of 
a still more wonderful element to which she 
has patriotically given the name of polon- 
ium, in compliment of her native country. 

In a much higher degree than radium it 
possesses the property of shining in the 
dark and, like radium, this strange sub- 
stance does not seem to exhaust itself or 
lose its luminous powers with the passage of 
time. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES. 



93 



Polonium is extracted from pitchblende, 
a black mineral found in Bohemia and here- 
tofore considered valueless, after uranium 
had been extracted from it. Uranium is 
most commonlj used for imparting fine 
orange tints to glass and porcelain enamel. 

As yet too little is understood of the mar- 
velous properties of this new metal to pre- 
dict just what its uses will be in medicine, 
surgery and other sciences; but it is not 
improbable that it may be found to per- 
form the present functions of the Roentgen 
or X-rays far more powerfully : and with- 
out their cumbrous apparatus. 

VALUE, $1,000,000 FEB POUND. 

Its vast value, $1,000,000 a pound, must 
always keep it as a laboratory subject, but 
one that is pregnant with possibilities to the 
scientific world. 

BUT TWO POUNDS OP RADIUM IN THE 
WORLD. 

The total supply in the world is esti- 
mated at two pounds, which, if gathered to- 
gether, would contain enough potential 
energy to swing the globe from its orbit. 
It projects invisible elections — or scientific 
particles of matter — at the amazing rate of 
1,200,000 miles per second. It neither tests 
nor destroys anything, but a plate of 
radium one inch square would shine suc- 
cessfully for a million years. 

RADIOGRAPH OF A MOUSE. 

William J. Hammer, an electrical en- 
gineer of New York, has made a series of 
photographs and radiographs by the light 
of radium. Among them is a radiograph 
of a mouse, taken by laying the animal di- 
rectly on the plate, which was then placed 
in the bottom of a trunk, wrapped in rugs 
and allowed to remain there twenty-four 
hours. 

RADIUM'S UTILITIES. 

The future uses of radium are likely to 



be various and important. In connection 
with the treatment of blindness and cancer, 
great and beneficent results are confidently 
expected. The extremely limited supply 
thus far available restricts its application 
to industrial purposes; but is understood 
that a small fraction of an ounce, properly 
employed, would probably furnish a good 
light for several rooms, which would last, 
without renewal, for a hundred years. Cal- 
culations have been made indicating that 
the potential force inherent in one gramme 
of radium will raise 500 tons to the height 
of a mile. An ounce would therefore be 
sufficient to propel a 50-horse-power motor 
car at the rate of 30 miles an hour around 
the world. 

AN AMAZING TRANSFORMATION. 

The most recent discovery in connection 
with radium, through the experimentations 
with radium is that a dense vapor is thrown 
off by it, which is gradually transformed 
into helium and afterward disappears. 
This antagonizes a basic idea in chemistry. 
The gas now found to emanate from it 
is measurable and weighable and can 
be bottled, but vanishes within a few 
weeks. It was at the moment of its disap- 
pearance that its spectrum was discovered 
by Prof. Ramsay to show the peculiar fea- 
tures of helium, which grew more manifest 
until the identity was established. This 
astounding transformation suggests the 
problem whether, if one metal can change 
into another of a different nature, a simi- 
lar transmutation, under certain conditions, 
may not likewise affect many other sub- 
stances in metallurgy. The latest predic- 
tion from scientific sources is that a species 
of radium will soon be obtainable from 
petroleum by certain processes now being 
pursued. 



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.94 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



SNAP-SHOTS OF THE HUMAN VOICE 



A French scientist, M. Marage, has in- 
vented a process by means of which it is 
now possible to photograph the human 
voice. The actual vibrations of the air, 
made in speaking the vowel sounds, can be 
recorded and made visible by an ingenious 
use of chronophotography, or the analyz- 
ing of motions by means of instantaneous 
photographs. Every one is familiar with 



vibrating in unison with the sound waves, 
throw their images into a revolving mir- 
ror, which dissociates and causes them to 
appear in various forms, according to the 
sound. By means of the acetylene flames, 
which are photogenic, the vibrations are re- 
corded on - a ribbon of sensitized paper. 

It has been found possible also to photo- 
graph the various functional movements or! 






CHRONOPHOTOGRAPH OP THE MOVE- 
MENTS OP THE JAW. 



HOW THE VOICE LOOKS IN PHOTOGRAPH OP AIR CURRENTS 
FORMING SOME OF THE PASSING A CURVED OBJECT. 

VOWEL SOUNDS. 



an opposite and synthetic use of chrono- 
photography , — the presenting of animated 
views of moving objects by means of the 
kinetoscope. 

M. Marage's scheme may be described as 
follows: the vibrations of the air set in 
motion by the voice are made to act upon 
the flames of acetylene gas, issuing from 
specially prepared burners. The flames, 



the body. Thus the motions of the lower 
jaw in the act of opening the mouth may be 
represented, as well as the movements of 
the ribs in respiration. Another ingenious 
use of chronophotography makes it possible 
to reproduce in visible form the action of 
air currents in their passage around an ob- 
struction, as shown in one of the accom- 
panying illustrations. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



95 



THE SOLAR FURNACE 



POWER FROM THE STTN. 

A wonderful new invention, running 
steam engines, smelting all kinds of ores 
and minerals, heating and lighting houses 
ittnd cooking all kinds of food, either day or 
night, by heat of the sun's rays, without 
fire, fuel or expense, is the Solar Furnace. 

STEAM ENGINES. 

For running steam engines the sun's 
fays are concentrated by 
means of curved reflectors 
onfo a specially built high- 
pressure boiler, the heat be- 
ing so intense that the water 
is turned into steam very fast, 
two square yards of sunlight 
furnishing sufficient heat to 
develop one horse-power, the 
sunlight falling on a space 44 
feet square, furnishing suf- 
ficient heat to run a 100 
horse - power steam engine. 
Any engine can be used, but 
a specially built boiler is 
necessary. The reflector is 
mounted on a revolving base 
and moved by a clock-work 
attachment that keeps it in 
focus with the sun all day. 

PUMPING PLANTS. 

It is thought by some that the solar fur- 
nace will revolutionize the present irriga- 
tion system, especially in the Southwest, 
where water is scarce and fuel high. Any 
amount of water and fuel can be pumped 
from either deep or shallow wells ; no fuel 
is required, and when a plant is once in- 



stalled the expense is ended. On all 
pumping plants requiring over five horse- 
power, a steam engine is used, the steam 
being generated by tbe heat of the sun, as 
above stated. On plants of five horse- 
power or less, a "compression" engine with 
pump attached is used. No fire, fuel, 
ateam, or water is used ; nothing but sun- 
light and air. It is impossible for it to 
"blow up" or explode. It works auto- 




By courtesy of the Solar Furnace and Power Co. 
SOLAR FURNACE (SIDE VIEW). 

matically, and no engineer i? required. 

A small plant may be made to pump suf- 
ficient water for a large tract by having a 
reservoir and running the pump every day 
when the sun shines, using the water only 
as needed. 

SMELTING ORES AND MINERALS. 

Any and all kinds of minerals can be 
smelted, or literally "burned up," if de- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



sired. A single yard of sunlight "will melt 
silver, gold, glass or wrought iron to a 
liquid, while two yards square of sunlight 
will develop heat of over 25,000 degrees, or 
more than one hundred times as hot as boil- 
ing water. 




By courtesy ot the Solar Furnace and Power Co. 
SOLAR FURNACE (FRONT VIEW). 



HOUSEHOLD USE. 

A small plant can be installed on the 
roof of the house at a cost of only a few 
dollars. Attached to the water hydrant it 
works automatically and carries steam 
down through pipes to the kitchen, where 
it is attached to a steam cooker cooking 
a dozen different kinds of food at the 
same time without fire, fuel or expense, 
and furnishing boiling water for the 
bath, the laundry and all other pur- 
poses. 

STORING HEAT AND POWER. 

Electric power is generated by a 
steam engine run by the solar furnace 
during the daytime and stored up in a 
storage battery to run machinery, and 
for heating, lighting, cooking and other 
purposes nights and cloudy days. The 
possibilities of the solar furnace are 
practically unlimited. 



A TELEGRAPH MACHINE THAT PRINTS 



Along with progress in other electrical 
devices has come the invention of a prac- 
tical printing telegraph machine. For 
years effort has been expended to produce 
a contrivance that would print automatic- 
ally from electrical impulses sent over a 
wire from a distance, but the devices have 
operated poorly. To be sure, the stock 
"ticker" serves its purpose in a measure, 
and when not out of order, is worthy of 
great commendation. The mechanism, 
however, is so complicated that the machine 
cannot be relied upon. 

Now comes from Australia a man named 
Donald Murray, who with great ingenuity, 
has perfected a device which to-day oper- 
ates in the offices of the Postal Telegraph 



Company in many cities, and before long 
probably will find its way over two conti- 
nents. Labor saving is not so much the 
result aimed at and reached in this instru- 
ment as the tremendous saving in wire. 
When it is considered that a single copper 
wire from New York to Chicago costs $60,- 
000, that it rents for $12,000 a year, and 
that the Murray system can, on one line, do 
the business of two or three, the saving may 
be imagined readily. 

This device, the Page-Printing Tele- 
graph, is a series of instruments which au- 
tomatically receive upon a typewriter tele- 
grams sent over a single wire. There are 
four main instruments for sending and re- 
ceiving* — two for each station. The send- 



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MODERN 1NVENTI0 

ing instruments consist of a transmitting 
perforator and a modified Wheatstone 
transmitter. The receiving devices are a 
receiving perforator and an automatic 
typewriting attachment. 

Upon receiving a message for trans- 
mission, the operator sends it through the 
perforator, which is much like a type- 
writer. This device punctures a tape with 
little dots at irregular intervals. The ar- 
rangement of these dots signifies certain 
letters. The perforator writes eighty-four 
characters. The tape is provided also with 
a central line of smaller punctures, which 
engage the teeth of feed-wheels in the ma- 
chines, thus insuring a steady flow as they 
are drawn through mechanically. After 
the message has been perforated on the 
tape, the tape is fed through the trans- 
mitter. This instrument is so arranged 
that two small rods press against the tape, 
held in place by small springs. When the 
rods are even with the perforations they 
push through for a moment and then are 
withdrawn automatically. These rods serve 
to make and break an electrical current. 
This current is imparted to the wire, trav- 
eling as irregular impulses according to the 
spacing of the perforations. 

These impulses pass as signals to the re- 
ceiving station. The process of receiving 
the message is similar to that of its trans- 
mission, excepting that the latter is done by 
hand, whereas the former results from 
electrical energy. To aid in the receiving 
operation, there is a local electrical circuit. 
On this line are a punching relay, a gov- 
erning relay, a vibrator, a receiving per- 



S AND DISCOVERIES 91 

forator and the automatic typewriter. 
The message arrives on the wire and the 
impulses are transformed into the local re- 
ceiving circuit. Automatically, the punch- 
ing machine perforates the series of irregu- 
lar dots in the receiving tape. The tape is 
then fed into the typewriter, which is so 
arranged that the perforations cause the 
proper keys to be lifted and the message to 
be printed in commercial form. 

The speed of the system is remarkable. 
The ordinary Morse system permits of 
about 25 words a minute. Under similar 
conditions, the Page-Printing Telegraph 
transmits and receives about 130 words dur- 
ing the same interval. The perforators can 
receive messages faster than the typewrit- 
ing machine can translate them in commer- 
cial form, but this is no drawback, as the 
tape at thte receiving station can be torn at 
certain intervals and fed into several ma- 
chines at once. 

The design of Murray's skilfully con- 
trived apparatus, filed November 28, 1899, 
in the United States Patent Office, indicates 
how striking is the contrast between its deli- 
cate simplicity of construction and its great 
importance to telegraphy. Since he per- 
fected the instrument, however, the inventor 
has made claim for 37 distinct improve- 
ments ©n its various parts, which are now 
covered by three separate patents. The 
value of the invention in facilitating the 
operations of the Postal Telegraph Cable 
Company, to which the ownership of the 
patent was assigned, cannot be overesti- 
mated. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



TIN-MAKING IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 



Originally the method of tinning plates 
was the simple expedient of dipping them 
in a bath of molten tin and allowing the 
surplus metal to drain off ; but about thirty 
or forty years ago, a Mr. Morewood, of 



which seize the plate as it comes up and 
roll off the surplus tin, leaving a smooth 
and even coating of the metal. 

Even this system has been improved, and 
to-day the rolls are submerged inside the 




By courtesy of the Scientific American. 
TINNING MACHINE. 

With Bennett Magnetic Catcher for removing tinned plates as they come from the rolls. 



South Wales, Great Britain, designed a 
tinning machine which has since revolu- 
tionized the tinning process. The system 
consists of placing at the surface of the pot 
a pair of very carefully turned steel rods, 



tinning pots in the hot metal and oil baths, 
and as the plates pass through, while the 
coating process is going on, it leaves a uni- 
form coating and a highly polished sur- 
face. In the manufacture of high-grade 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



99 



roofing tin, the hand process of dipping is 
still maintained. 

In this hand-dipping process, known as 
the "M.V Style," the plates pass through 
four or five different pots filled respectively 




By courtesy of the Scientific American 
THE GUTTING AND DOUBLING SHEARS. 



with metal or palm oil. The plates made 
by this process resist attacks of the atmos- 
phere more thoroughly than plates made 
in the "coke" tinning process. Recently, 
a new method of finishing has 
been introduced. In this method, 
the plates after coming out of the 
last old-style of "MF." tinning 
bath, are immersed immediately 
in an oily substance, the tem- 
perature of which is below the 
melting point of the coating 
■metal, and an instantaneous and 
uniform settling of the coating 
metal is thereby effected on all 
parts of the sheets alike 

A sectional illustration of a 
modern tinning machine is here- 
with given, which shows very 
clearly its construction. The 
heavy cast-iron tin pot is carried in a brick 
setting, and the tin is kept molten by a 
furnace below the pot. In the bottom of the 
pot is about 14 inches of the molten tin, 



and above this on the discharging side are 
12 inches of palm oil. The black plate is 
introduced into the tin pot through the 
hopper (A). This hopper holds a chem- 
ical fluid, the weight of which is less in 
specific gravity than the mol- 
ten tin, and which in combina- 
tion with the tin and iron, 
causes a galvanic action by 
which the iron and tin are 
quickly and thoroughly amal- 
gamated. The tinner pushes 
the plate downward with a pair 
of tongs over the curved guide 
bars until it is seized by the 
first pair of rolls known as the 
"feed rolls" marked (B) in 
the picture. By these it is 
drawn through the molten tin into the up- 
ward curved hopper (C), in which are run- 
ning two pairs of rolls (D D). The top 
pair is partly visible and partly immersed 




By courtesy of the Scientific American. 
THE BRANNER. 

in the palm oil which covers the tin on this 
side of the machine. These rolls are held 
suspended in a machine frame and are 
regulated by means of screw-adjusted 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



101 




By courtesy of the Scientific American. 
PLACING BLOCK TIN. 



springs (E E). Upon the adjustment de- 
pends the thickness of the coating of tin 
given to the plate. 

As the plates come out of the rolls they 
are picked up by a mechanical figure with 
arms and fingers, which stands above the 
finishing pot, taking the place of a man. 
It seizes the plates as they rise through the 
rolls, swings them sidewise, comes to a stop 
automatically, drops the plate into a bran- 
ner, and comes back to its original point of 
action, repeating the operation in rapid 
succession. 

The "Bennett" device for 
transferring the plates from 
the tinning pot to the bran- 
ner consists of a revolving 
drum with the points of con- 
tact with the plates mag- 
netized by an electrical con- 



be 



nection. As the plates leave the tin 
pot, they have upon them a thin 
coating of oil which has to be removed. 
For this purpose they are put into a 
branner which is located conveniently 
at the side of the tinning machine. 
The branner consists of an inclosed 
wood and metal box, through which 
a series of carriers (C) are continu- 
ally traveling on an endless belt. The 
plate (B), as it comes from the tin- 
ning machine, is placed in a rack (A), 
which is so located that the plate will 
caught up by the traveling racks 



. (C), and by them carried through the ma- 
chine. The interior of the branner is 
filled with bran and slack lime and as the 
carrier- travels, it forces the plate through 
the bran and Jime, which cleans off the de- 
posit of palm oil. After the plate has 
passed through, it drops into what is 
known as the "duster," where it is passed 
slowly through a rapidly revolving pair of 
sheep-covered rollers, which clean off the 
residue of the palm oil and impart a finish- 




By courtesy of the Scientific American, 
SECTIONAL VIEW OF TINNING POT. 

t Rese, ANDfl£vvS UN/Ver" 5 ' 



102 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



ing touch or polish to the plate. There are 
three of these sheepskin rollers and by the 
time the plate has passed through the set, it 



shows the beautiful finish for which tin 
plate is noted. 



SUBMARINE NAVIGATION SCORES NEW TRIUMPHS 



The day has come when boats instead of 
floating on top of the water may be so con- 
structed as to dive, swim and stay under 



results have come from their efforts. Such 
boats are of prime importance in the war 
equipments of Governments, and are be- 




THE ASSASSIN OP THE SEA. 



Submarine boat Holland" In action. Possible results shown by practice maneuvers In Narrae<m- 
sett Bay, when the submarine vessel approached close enough to the big cruiser "K™ Yort" tT*?n» 
her out of the water. This was done under the penetrating Rlare of the fleer'* *^v>^iVL * 
enemy.' 0 °* " H ° ]laml " UntU the latter r ° se sffie^n f y supjSS 

Z^STLXTZS f'° c^SSSSSi.* 1 ** m ° re "* fw ihe U " S " Government. 

The "Holland" is 54 feet long, and 10% feet wide. She contains a 50-horse power gasoline eneine 
for propulsion; five torpedoes .for attack, and requires but nine tons of water ballast to suCerge hlr 
in three minutes. Her speed is ten knots on the surface, and eight when running mider water 



the water, almost as long as the operators 
of them desire. Numerous men have been 
at work on the idea and many practical 



ing studied carefully by experts in the 
war departments of the nations. In fact 
many countries have already bought the 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



103 



submarine devices and have added them 
to their naviea. They are especially desir- 
able because, when supplied with a num- 
ber of torpedoes, they can go beneath the 
•water, and destroy whole fleets of the 
enemy's ships. 

THE "GYMNOTE." 

There has been considerable advance- 
ment along these lines in naval architec- 
ture in France. Gustave Zede has done 
! much, and in 1886, built an experimental 
boat called the "Gymnote." This was con- 
structed something like a large White- 
head torpedo. It was 56.7 feet long, 5.9 
feet in diameter, made of sheet-steel, 
cigar-shaped, and had a displacement of 
30 tons. Driven, when submerged, at a 
speed of 7 knots an hour by an electrical 
propeller, and 9 knots above water, this 
craft proved that much might be done in 
submarine navigation. Both upright and 
horizontal rudders were used so that the 
boat might be steered straight ahead, or 
made to dive or ascend at will. The bat- 
teries would run the device four or five 
hours constantly. The boat was sunk by 
means of a heavy ballast attached to the 
keel of the boat, which was so arranged 
that it could be detached at a moment's 
notice. Buoyancy was secured by water- 
tight compartments, which also supplied 
compressed air for a crew of five men, 
when submerged. A long tube ran from 
the top of the Gymnote, upwards, to the 
surface of the water. This was equipped 
with a lens and reflecting mirror. By bend- 
ing these at right angles a picture of the 
whole horizon could be seen below. Thus 
was the boat directed when under water. 

So successful were the experiments with 
this craft that the French government had 



Zede work out another boat of greater di- 
mensions. This was named after the in- 
ventor, was 147 feet long, 10.75 feet in 
diameter, had a displacement of 260 tons 
and, like its predecessor, was cigar-shaped. 
It could run with a crew of 10 men at the 
rate of 14 knots on the surface, and 8Vy 
knots below. It was equipped to discharge 
torpedoes. 

THE "HOLLAND." 

Other inventors have been at work on 
similar lines and some of the successful 
boats turned out have been the Peral, the 
Nordenfeldt, the Argonaut and the Hol- 
land. The last named has been used with 
some success in the United States Navy, 
and is the invention of John P. Holland. 
The idea of such a craft came to Holland 
when he was a teacher in Cork, Ireland, 
where he devoted his spare time to the 
study of navigation. As far back as 1862, 
he had made diagrams of a boat drafted 
on similar lines with the Holland. Holland 
taught school for six years after his arrival 
here, at Paterson, New Jersey, while he 
sought financial support to bring his plans 
before the government. In 1875, he sub- 
mitted plans to the United States officials, 
which provided for the construction of a 
cigar-shaped boat, 15 feet long, that would 
accommodate one man in a sitting posture 
who should propel the boat by treadle 
power. Much adverse criticism was meted 
out to these plans, but the boat was built 
and tried successfully in the Passaic river, 
near Paterson. So marked was its success 
that Holland gave up school-teaching and 
went to perfecting his new craft. J. Bres- 
lin, of Paterson, was his supporter. In 
time — by 1895 — the Holland boat, much 
after the style of the best submarine de- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



vices of the present, was completed, and 
demonstrated its ability to sub-navigate the 
sea. 

A number of these boats have been built 
for the United States government at a cost 
of $175,000 each. 

THE "ARGONAUT." 

One odd craft for sub-sea work is the 
"Argonaut," the invention of Simon Lake. 
It is constructed to float on the surface 
after the manner of a yacht, dive under 
water as a submarine navigator, and once 
under water, to avoid obstacles by being pro- 
pelled, like an automobile, on wheels along 
the bed of the ocean or river. This craft is 
equipped with three wheels, one of which is 
at the stern and moves so as to steer the boat 
in it operations. This wheel is also the rud- 
der when the boat is afloat. Only a little 
weight is necessary to keep the boat on the 
bottom. Like other vessels of its kind, it 
has adjustable ballast or weights on its keel. 
Water is let into the hold to start it down- 
ward, and when it is desirable to rise, the 
weights may be cast off. This vessel is 36 
feet long, cigar shaped, with a blunt nose 
and pointed stern, and is fitted out with a 
30-horse-power engine, which is used to 
drive the screw propeller, driving wheels, 
the electric dynamo, air compressor and 
derricks for hoisting wrecks. A steel kibe 
rises like a mast out of the water when the 
vessel is not entirely submerged, and 
through this, air is taken in. The ship is 
equipped with a compass which is found to 
work well if kept away from the machinery. 
When the boat is closed up entirely for 
deep diving, the engines must be stopped 
for want of air, and then storage batteries 



operate the machinery. The engines run 
by gasoline fuel. Air sufficient to supply 
five men for 24 hours can be carried, and 
the supply can be increased by running up 
near the surface and taking in air through 
the mast tube. This craft is also equipped 
with a device for leaving the boat when it is 
under water. A compressed air compart- 
ment, with an air lock, is arranged so that 
by having a strong air pressure in this 
room, a hole in the bottom of the boat may 
be opened, and the air pressure being 
greater than that of the water when it 
presses to get in, divers can leave the boat 
and enter again without danger^ This man- 
hole is intended for use in leaving the boat 
to explore wrecks, or in time of war, to 
pick up and cut cables, and for similar 
uses. This boat has made successful trips 
of over 1,000 miles under water. 

TORPEDO BOATS BTJXLT BY THE GOV- 
ERNMENT. 

The torpedo boats built by the United 
States Government are capable of steaming 
a maximum speed of 26 knots. The prin- 
cipal dimensions are, — length, 170 feet; 
beam, 17 feet; draught, 5 feet 6 inches; 
and displacement, 180 tons. The engines 
are triple expansion and twin-screw, and 
capable of developing 3,200 indicated 
horse-power, when making 395 revolutions 
per minute. 

The armament of these boats consists of 
three torpedo tubes, four 1-pounder, quick- 
firing guns, four 18-ijnch Whitehead torpe- 
does, and 600 rounds of 1-pounder 
ammunition. In speed, tonnage and arma- 
ment, these craft almost rank with torpedo- 
boat destroyers. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISOO V ERIE 8 



105 



SAVING. SHIPS AND LIFE AT SEA 



If one were able to look upon the many 
wrecks that are strewn upon the bed of the 
oceans and lakes, he would readily compre- 
hend the value of the numerous devices that 
find their way to ma- 
rine bureaus and pat- 
ent offices, to prevent 
Such maritime disas- 
ters. In 23 wrecks, 
alone, in the last cen- 
tury, nearly 8,000 lives 
were lost. A map of 
the Atlantic coast-line 
of the United States 
shows places where 
hundreds of good ships 
went down with all on 
board. In the old 
days when only the 
hardy mariner trav- 
ersed the seas, tbe loss 
of life was great. To- 
day, however, when 
the whole of mankind 
is inclined toward 
globe-trotting, and 
when every precaution 
is taken to avoid ca- 
lamity, the destruction 
of life and property is 
truly appalling. 

Eaturally, scientists 
and inventors have 
been at work to solve 
the question of pre- 
venting wrecks. The 
result has been grati- 
fying in the extreme, 
and one may travel 



generally with a very reasonable degree of 
safety. But, with further research, greater 
improvements in precautionary methods 
and devices will result. 




mSm 



' |t§| ' ffpSII pf "* i^"- 

WSmm 




■ 



MINOT'S LEDGE LIGHTHOUSE. 
The most expensive beacon on the Eastern seaboard, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



THE HYDRO GRAPHIC OFFICE. 

Of prime importance is the protective 
system of the Hydrographic Office in 
Washington, and its branches. Here ex- 
perts study the currents of the oceans, riv- 
ers and lakes, plat and chart the spots 
■where danger lies, and advise mariners of 
their discoveries. In conjunction with the 
'weather bureau, warnings against winds, 
hurricanes and storms are given. One of 
the methods applied to rough seas is the 



These houses are equipped with the 
most modern apparatus for warning ships 
at sea. Great lamps revolve in their high 
turrets in the lighthouses, aided by power- 
ful prismatic lenses and brilliant reflectors, 
and sending out their light for many miles. 
Lightships also are anchored in dangerous 
places, and send forth their warnings. In 
many shallow waters, the bell-buoy tolls out 
its incessant alarm and at night, flares its 
warning beacon. 




THE BREECHES BUOY. 
Life-saving expedients on the Eastern seaboard. 



old and familiar one, still in vogue, of pour- 
ing oil on the water. Many devices have 
been arranged to do this effectually, and 
every ship is now equipped with some bar- 
rel-shaped machine for letting oil slowly 
seep out to quiet the angry waves. 

THE LIGHTHOUSE. 
Each year is adding to the number of 
lighthouses erected on rocky coasts and 



Collisions at sea and their accompanying 
disasters have caused learned men to study 
how to foretell the approach of dangerous 
objects. Often, in a fog, an iceberg or an- 
other vessel is encountered. The devices 
invented to prevent this are many. Wire- 
less telegraphy is of great service. Where 
two vessels are equipped with the Marconi 
system, it is possible to catch signals many 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



107 



miles away, and to avoid the same patch 
in the sea. But this method has not come 
into general use. Moreover, it would not 
detect the presence of an iceberg. Conse- 
quently a instrument known as the ther- 
mopile, or heat detector, has come into use, 
in various shapes and kinds. 



tect the heat of a candle a quarter of a mile 
away. 



THE THERMOPILE. 



„ The thermopile in use by ship masters is 
made up of a galvanometer for registering 
an electric current, and two or more wires 
of different degrees of sensitiveness when 




TYPICAL. LIGHTHOUSE AND TENDER. 



THE ICEBERG. 

It is well known that an iceberg greatly 
chills the water in its vicinity. Similarly, 
a vessel with great steam-boilers sends out 
heat. If it is possible to know the tempera- 
ture of the water in which one's vessel is 
floating, and to detect some sudden change, 
either of heat or cold, it is easy to avoid a 
possible collision. Instruments have been 
made that are so delicate that they can de- 



subjected to heat or cold. Some of these 
different wires are made of copper, German 
silver, bismuth, antimony or selenium. 
These metals are arranged to hang over a 
ship's side in such a manner as to feel a 
change in the temperature of the water. If 
an iceberg is near, the chill in the water 
will be noted, the current sent to the gal- 
vanometer, and a bell will be rung. If a 
steamer is near another bell will ring, de- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



noting the approach of a heated object. 

Admiral Makaroff, of the Russian navy, 
has perfected a thermopile which is located 
in the keel of vessels. It consists of a tube 
so arranged that the water of the sea may 
run through it. The thermopile proper is 
suspended in this water, and if the temper- 
ature suddenly changes a danger bell is 
rung in the pilot house. 

Means have been employed to some ex- 
tent for transmitting warning waves 
through water. It is well 
known that water is a 
great conductor of sound. 
Divers can easily distin- 
guish the throbbing of a 
steamer's propeller, or 
paddle wheels, a mile, or 
more, away. Work has 
been done on devices to 
be placed in the keel of 
a vessel, consisting of a 
sensitive diaphragm 
which 'will record noises - 
in the water. 

Another instrument 
used to detect sound for 
life-saving purposes, con- 
sists of an immense hood 
connected with a funnel, from which 
lead rubber tubes, adjusted to the listen- 
er's ears. This instrument can be re- 
volved in any direction, and so sensitive is 
it that distant noises not otherwise audible 
may be detected. More than this, there is a 
compass attached to the instrument, and 
arranged so that it will show the direction 
of the warning sound. 

Possibly the greatest benefit to sailors 
would be some means for dispersing fogs, 
and experiments have been made which, ere 
long, will probably result in such a discov- 




TYFICAL RANGE LIGHT. 



ery. Some scientists have been at work on 
the theory that the moisture in a fog may 
be condensed by an electrical discharge. 
To a small degree, this has proved effective. 
Professor Oliver Lodge, of Liverpool, by 
means of electrical discharges, cleared a 
room of thick turpentine smoke, and a res- 
ervoir, of magnesium smoke. In announc- 
ing his researches before the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, 
he advocated using the donkey engines on 
board ships, to generate 
electricity, to be dis- 
i , charged from poles on 

the masts. 

The means of saving 
life in wrecks are being 
improved. Each year, ' 
new devices are invented, 
such as automatic davits 
for letting down life- 
boats, etc. 

THE LITE BTJOY. 

A new life-buoy has 
been perfected which is 
so arranged that water 
is allowed to leak in 
. through a crack and mix 
with a powder (calcic phosphide). "When 
the buoy is in the water this powder ig- 
nites, producing a bright flame which runs 
out through a tube a foot or so above the 
water, and, for an hour or so, is visible 
many miles away. Another sort of buoy 
has a lighting device and also the means 
of carrying food and drink. 

Besides all these devices for preventing 
wrecks, there is ever a watchful eye on the 
lookout to protect the stray mariner from 
death, after his ship is wrecked. The 
United States Life Saving Service is a 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



109 



credit to the nation. Its members, like 
their great brother order of life and prop- 
erty savers, the firemen, accomplish much 
in the saving of life that would be impos- 
sible, were it not for the great hardship 
these brave men undergo. 

Along the coasts of oceans and great 
lakes, extend lines of life saving ■stations, 
manned by hardy crews whose business it 
is to watch out for vessels in danger, or al- 
ready wrecked. Patrols of men walk the 
beaches, or spy out 
upon the waters from 
their watch stations, 
for a sign of distress. 

After the distress 
signal has been sight- 
ed, everything in the 
'Station is bustle. It 
may be that a big ship 
has crashed upon a 
reef or sand-bar, and is 
pounding herself to 
pieces in the angry 
waves. If the ship 
cannot be reached from 
land, the life-savers 
must clamber into 
' their big boats and 
pull away to tbe res- 
cue. Often the savers, 
themselves, go down 
before the fury of the tempest, in trying to 
rescue their fellow men. But, more often, 
are the sailors, chilled through by the icy 
waves, brought safe to shore. 

THE BREECHES BUOY. 

If the use of a life-boat is impracticable, 
resort may be had to the breeches buoy. 
The savers are equipped with a coast gun — 
* sort of short cannon — in which is loaded 



an iron pin fastened to a life line. The 
gun is fired off, the pin hurtles over the 
ship in distress, and the line is hauled in by 
the weary sailors until a block and tackle 
are taken on board. This tackle is at- 
tached to the mast, a rope is run through it 
to shore, and down this rope travels a pul- 
ley, to which is attached a heavy pair of 
leather breeches. The sailor gets into this 
buoy, and is drawn safely through the 
waves to shore. There are many methods 




THE LINE 



Long Island Life Savers Running a Lite-line to Stranded Ship. 

besides these, used by life savers, but these 
are the most important and most commonly 
used. Naturally, a life saving station is 
equipped with the latest kinds of improved 
boats, etc. The life boat now in most com- 
mon use is fitted in the bottom with self-act- 
ing valves, which empty it of any water 
that may dash over the sides. So perfect 
are these boats, that in practice tests, the 
savers frequently tip them over completely, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



and they will right themselves, and drain 
off all the water. 

THE MINOT'S LEDGE BEACON. 

Among the Government lighthouses 
which serve their beneficent purpose on 
dangerous coasts, that at Minot's Ledge, 
Boston Harbor, is perhaps the most note- 
worthy. It has been twice destroyed, once 
in 1842 by a drifting ship striking it in a 
storm, and again in 1863, when a historical 



hurricane swept the New England coast. 
The second "house" was supported on steel 
piles 13 inches in diameter, and after the 
light went out when the storm was at its 
worst, the huge beams were found twisted 
like twine, leaving no other evidence of the 
tragedy, which cost the lives of three per- 
sons living there. The present structure is 
built of masonry and cement, and promises 
to last for centuries. 



ABOUT THE PHONOGRAPH 

Among the many recent inventions which wizard of electricity — Thomas A. Edison 
have emanated from lie brain of the great — is the phonograph. Most people have 




By courtesy of James I. Lyons. 
THE NEW UNIVERSAL KONE-0-PHONE, OR TALKING MACHINE. 
The highest stage ol development yet reached \, 7 mechanism in reproducing sound. 



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'MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



111 



seen these clever devices for recording and 
reproducing sound, but few are aware how 
the device operates, and fewer still know 
of its rapidly increasing value in commer- 
cial circles. 

One must know that sound is a series of 
vibrations, or waves of the air. "When one 
talks, thousands of waves agitate the ether, 
the same as water is disturbed when a stone 
is dropped into it. Edison worked on the 
principle that these sound-waves were pow- 
erful enough to inscribe themselves in rec- 
ords, if given the proper opportunity. After 
a great many crude experiments, the phono- 
graph was the result 

This instrument consists of a machine 
upon which revolves a wax cylinder. Ele- 
vated over the cylinder and moving along 
its distance as the machine is set in motion, 
is a funnel which gathers up the sound 
waves. At the end of this funnel is a small 
drum-like affair made of thin metal, upon 
which is fastened a tiny stylus or pen. 
When sound is directed into the funnel, it 
agitates the drum membrane, which in 
turn moves the stylus very slightly, and 
this in turn scratches a record of the waves 
into the wax of the cylinder. Each sound 
wave has a peculiar motion unlike any 
other. Therefore when the cylinder has 
been revolved its entire distance and the 
pen has scratched the song into the wax, 
it should be a perfect record of that song 
only. Such is the case and now it remains 
to reproduce the sound. 

Another drum is attached which has a 
reproducing stylus similar to the recording 
one, but of a nature that will not scratch. 
This pen runs along into all the little 
scratches made in the record, and agitates 
the drum membrane in just the reverse 
manner that it was agitated when the 
sounds were sent into the funnel at first. 



Naturally enough this agitation causes the 
metal drum to give off sounds that very 
closely imitate those that first went into the 
phonograph. The motive power to revolve 
the cylinder is generally developed from a 
small electric battery attached to it, al- 
though clock work will run one for a few 
minutes. 

THE STORY OF THE DISCOVERY. 

In 1888, Edison, in commenting on the 
origin of the phonograph, called attention 
to the well known effects of certain musical 
notes and chords, upon sand loosely 
sprinkled upon a sounding board. He 
showed how the sand sifts itself into various 
geometric, curves, differing according to 
pitch and intensity. He alluded to the fine 
line of sand left high upon an ocean beach, 
as each breaker spends its force and then 
recedes. Continuing, he said: "Yet, well 
known as these phenomena are, they appar- 
ently never suggested until within a few 
years, that the sound waves set going by the 
human voice might be so directed as to 
trace an impression upon some solid sub- 
stance, with a nicety equal to that of the 
tide in recording its flow upon the sand 
beach. * * * 

"My own discovery that this could be 
done came to me almost accidentally, while 
I was engaged upon a machine intended to 
repeat Morse characters which were re- 
corded on paper. 

"In manipulating this paper, I found 
that when the indented paper was turned 
with great swiftness, it gave off a humming 
noise from the indentations, a musical, 
rhythmic sound resembling that of human 
talk heard indistinctly. 

"This led me to try fitting a diaphram ■ 
to the machine." 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



DRIVING MECHANISM OF THE HORSELESS VEHICLE 



Torpedo boats have their machinery 
stowed away in the most ingenious manner, 
so as to get the most power concentrated in 
the least number of cubic feet possible. A 
watch is a marvelous example of what can 
be done in the way of packing machinery, 
but it is doubtful if the torpedo boat or 
the watch can show such ingenuity in nest- 
ing machinery as is shown 
in the modern steam or gas- 
oline automobile. When 
the power plant of the 




By courtesy of the "Motor Age 
LATEST THING IN THE AUTOMOBILE LINE. 



steam automobile is exposed to view there 
is disclosed a complete equipment of en- 
gine, boiler, furnace, water tank, pipes, 
valves, pumps and link motion, with all 
necessary adjusting devices, and all ar- 
ranged in space ridiculously disproportion- 
ate to the duty required of the engine and 
the power developed. 

There is more machinery in a gasoline 
automobile, yet it is nested in space very 



little more than is required to house the 
steam engine and boiler. A casual glance is 
enough to impress one who has any love for 
machinery with the fact that the mechanism 
is of the highest order. Every member 
shows the high-class workmanship which 
entered into its making. Every part bears 
witness to the skill and ingenious craft of 
its maker. It rep- 
resents the aris- 
tocracy of en- 
gine building. 

The automo- 
biles that are in 
daily use are 
steam, gasoline or 
electric motor ve- 
hicles. There are 
a few experimen- 
t a 1 automobiles 
which use com- 
pressed air, but 
they are not nu- 
merous. A large 
proportion of the 
natty "iiina- 
bouts" in Chica- 
go are steam au- 
tos, but they use 
gasoline for fuel. The motor of such a 
machine is a horizontal engine of the ma- 
rine type, with plain slide valves, and the 
link motion which was used by George 
Stephenson in the first half of the last cen- 
tury. The cylinders of this engine are of 
cast iron, but the other parts are of drop 
forgings, and the momentum of the vehicle 
takes the place of the momentum of a fly 
wheel. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



113 



It was with a steam automobile with an 
engine of this kind that the world's record 
for steam automobiles was broken, in Oc- 
tober, 1902, by making a mile in one min- 
ute and twenty-seven and one-fifth seconds. 
There was a steam pressure of 650 pounds 
to the square inch in the wire-wound cop- 
per boiler of the machine. 

"The cylinders of the engine — there are 
two of them — are two and a half inches in 
diameter, the engine has a stroke of three 
and a half inches and the steam is cut off 
at five-eighths stroke. 
The ordinary working 
steam pressure is 160 
pounds. The engine 
weighs forty - seven 
pounds and is three 
and one-half indicated 
horse power. This is 
the engine used in the 
ordinary runabouts 
which weighs 650 
pounds. The boiler is 
of the fire tube type. 
It is fourteen inches 
in diameter and thir- 
teen inches long, and it 
has 298 copper tubes, 
each one-half inch in 
diameter. The copper 
shell is seamless, -with 
steel heads, and there are about 2,000 feet 
of steel piano wire wound, in two layers, 
around the boiler to strengthen the copper 
shell, which is only three thirty-seconds of 
an inch thick. The boiler is covered with 
an asbestos jacket that not onlyprevents the 
steel wire from rusting but prevents loss of 
heat by radiation. The boiler holds about 
five gallons of water, but carries, when in 
use, but three gallons. 



"The water for the boiler is contained in 
a tank that holds twenty-seven gallons, and 
it is forced from this tank to the boiler 
by a pump attached to the cross-head of the 
engine. As the pump works all the time 
while the machine is running, it is neces- 
sary to provide means to shut off the water 
from the boiler when none is needed, and 
this is done by means of a by-pass and an 
automatic valve that shunt the water back 
to the tank when necessary. 

"The furnace of the boiler is a Bunsen 




By courtesy of Chicago Motor Vehicle 
TWELVE PASSENGER, BRAKE. CANOPY AND CURTAINS. 



burner, for gasoline is the fuel. The burner 
consists of 200 one-half inch copper tubes 
expanded between two steel plates. The 
tubes are for the air which is burned with 
the gasoline. In the steel plates are about 
fifty small holes for the gasoline vapor, 
which is taken in between the two plates 
through a mixing tube from the gasoline jet 
valve. The heat of the boiler is used to' 
vaporize the gasoline and make it a gas. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



The top plate of the burner is four inches 
in diameter and the whole burner sits down 
four inches below the bottom of the boiler. 

"The fire is controlled entirely by the 
steam pressure, which actuates a copper 
diaphragm whose expansion or contraction 
opens and closes the needle valve that feeds 
the gasoline into the burners; the gasoline 
is under an f air pressure of eighty pounds 
to the inch, so that it jets out in spurts. The 
diaphragm is normally set for 180 pounds 
of steam. "When the pressure exceeds that 
amount the diaphragm moves and operates 
the valve, which reduces the flow of gasoline 
and thus lowers the flame under the boiler. 
If the pressure falls below the working 
standard the diaphragm moves the other 
way and more gasoline is fed to the fire. 
The boiler is provided with a safety valve, 
which blows off at 260 pounds pressure. 
Between the boiler and the throttle valve of 
the engine is a globe valve which can be 
opened and closed only by a key carried by 
the operator of the automobile. If it is de- 
sired to leave the rig the key shuts this lock 
valve and no steam can enter the engine's 
cylinders. 

"About five gallons of gasoline are car- 
ried in, the reservoir, and as it takes one gal- 
lon to run ten to twelve miles, enough fuel 
for a sixty-mile run can be carried in the 
ta.nk. The boiler evaporates about one gal- 
lon of water to the mile run. The speed of 
the machine is controlled by the throttle; 
the more steam the higher speed. The rear 
wheels are the drivers, which are driven 
through differential or compensating gears. 
This gearing permits the outer wheel to re- 
volve faster than the inside wheel in going 
around a curve. The engine drives a 
sprocket which transmits its motion to the 
differential gearing by means of a steel Ifnlr 



belt, and the engine makes two and one-half 
revolutions to each turn of the gear. When 
running ten miles an hour the engine makes 
300 revolutions. The brake is a double ac- 
tion band brake. Ball bearings are used on 
the engine as well as on the wheels, and the 
tires, of course, are pneumatic. The opera- 
tor has at hand the steering device, throttle 
valve, reversing lever and brake lever, and 
in front of him is a steam gauge and air 
gauge. 

"It will be noticed that the steam automo- 
bile uses gasoline for fuel and calls in com- 
pressed air as an agent to present the fuel 
to the flame in the best possible manner. 
In the automobiles operated by gasoline en- 
gines, the volatile child of petroleum is the 
fuel,but it is used without being first burned 
to raise steam. It is curious'* that while 
gasoline is the operating agency of the 
gasoline motor, water, electricity and com- 
pressed air are also necessary. The water 
is required to keep the cylinder of the 
gasoline engine cool ; the electricity to make 
the sparks that explode the gasoline at the 
proper time, and the compressed air to en- 
able the operator to govern the supply of 
the fluid and gas. 

"There is a miniature waterworks sys- 
tem in a gasoline automobile. If it were 
not for water to cool the cylinder of the en- 
gine the piston would stick, and that would 
end its operation, for the time being at 
least. The water tank lies up pretty snug 
to the engine and the water is forced for- 
ward through a pipe to the front of the 
machine, where it passes through, the radia- 
tor, which might be called the dashboard. 
It is placed in front so as to get the full 
effect of the air that rushes through it and 
cools the water. From the radiator the wa- 
ter passes back and performs its office of 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



115 



cooling the cylinder of the engine. It then 
passes on and re-enters the reservoir to con- 
tinue its cycle of operations. 

"The gasoline tank is just above the en- 
gine cylinder and holds about five gallons 
of fluid. There is nothing particularly 
mysterious in the way the gasoline drives 
an engine. The fluid passes down a pipe 



cylinder of the engine by the piston. Now 
this engine here is called a four-cycle en- 
gine, which means that the stroke which 
gives power comes every other revolution. 

"Now suppose the engine at rest. The 
forward movement of the piston sucks in the 
charge of air and vapor; when the piston 
goes back on its return stroke it compresses 




AUTO TRUCK WITH FROM 2 



By courtesy nl the Chicago Motor Vehicle Co. 
TO 4 TONS' CAPACITY. 



from the tank into a carburetor. This is 
what you might call a mechanism for vapor- 
izing the gasoline. In the carburetor of this 
machine there are eight screens, and the 
gasoline, trickling down, not only is vapor- 
ized, but is also mixed with air so as to 
form a proper mixture. This mixture of 
gasoline vapor and air is sucked into the 



that charge between the piston and cylinder 
head, and just when the charge is at its 
highest point of compression an electric 
spark flashes through it and explodes it. 
The explosion- drives the piston forward, 
and at the same time the gasoline valve is 
closed, so that on the fourth stroke — that is, 
the next stroke backward — the exhaust 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



valve opens and the exploded gas leaves 
the cylinder and goes into the muffler. 
Then the next forward stroke sucks in a 
new charge and the same operations are re- 
peated. 

"This motor here is what is called an air 
controlled motor — the air is compressed by 
a pump in and about the inlet valve which 
feeds the gasoline to the carburetor and 
the gas-air mixture to the cylinder. A pipe 
carries the compressed air forward to the 
person who is running the automobile. A 
button controls a valve at the forward end 
of the pipe in such a way that if it is com- 
pressed some of the air is released 'and the 
pressure is lowered. And this operates to 
move the valve so as to allow not only more 
gasoline to pass into the carburetor, but 
also more of the gas-air mixture to pass 
from the carburetor to the cylinder. 

"The electric sparks for igniting the 
charge in the cylinder are made by a little 
dynamo which is part of the outfit, but in 
starting the machine, however, the sparks 
come from an electric battery. "When the 
machine is idle — that is, when the engine 
is in operation, but the automobile is stand- 
ing still — the fly-wheel of the engine makes 
about 100 revolutions per minute. On a 
good road the motor makes about 800 revo- 
lutions, going thirty miles an hour. 

The horse power of this engine, which is 
the style used on the ordinary runabouts, is 
eight and a half, and the automobile as it 



stands weighs 1,850 pounds. In its gaso- 
line tanks it carries about nine gallons of 
the fluid, "which on good roads is good for 
a tour of from 125 to 140 miles. All parts 
of the engine are automatically oiled, and 
the mechanism as it stands there is a beau- 
tiful example of fine workmanship." 

As compared with its competitors, the 
electric auto is simplicity itself. The driv- 
ing mechanism is a first-class electric 
motor; the energy comes from the storage 
batteries that are carried on the machine. 
The electric automobile is clean, simple, 
safe and more expensive than the other 
styles. ' . 

Electricity from the battery passes 
through a controller, which, by making 
different combinations of batteries, feeds 
more or less electricity into* the motor, and 
consequently decreases or increases the 
speed of the vehicle. For instance, an ordi- 
nary electric runabout, at the lowest speed, 
requires about twenty volts ; second speed, 
forty volts ; and third speed, eighty volts ; 
which means that every one of the forty 
cells of the batteries is at work. Aa ordi- 
nary electric carriage will use from seven- 
teen to thirty amperes per hour. 

The average radius of the electric 
vehicle is forty miles per charge, that is, 
the average electric auto, with one charg- 
ing of its storage battery, will travel forty 
miles without requiring recharging. Some 
will go much farther — others not so far. 




Courtesy of the Woods Motor Vehicle Co., Chicago 
DIFFERENT STTLES OP AUTOMOBILES PASSING IN REVIEW. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



117 



INVENTIONS MINIMIZING FARM LABOR 

NEW INVENTION DOES TEN MEN'S WOBK WITH ONE, AND DOUBLES VALUE 

OF CROP. 

Farm labor, like 
everything else, has un- 
dergone a great change 
during the last fifty 
years. Previous to that 
time, almost every- 
thing was done by 
hand. The sickle, scythe 
and cradle have been 
supplanted by inven- 
tions that would make 
the heads of our fore- 
fathers reel with amaze- 
ment. 

The reaper, a ma- 
chine designed to har- 
vest small grain such as 
wheat, oats, barley and 




By courtesy 01 the McCormick Division, International Harvester Co. 
MANUFACTURING BINDER TWINE, 




t>y courtesy of the McCormick Division, International Harvester Co. 
BORING KNOTTBR FRAMES. 



rye, was invented in 
1831 by Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick. Prior to that 
time wheat and other 
grains were gathered by 
hand with the cradle, 
which had superseded 
the reaping hook. Since 
its invention the im- 
portance of the reaping 
machine has been recog- 
nized by the world. 
During the years of the 
early development of 
the reaper the Hon. 
Wm. H. Seward said: 
"It moved the line of 
civilization westward 
thirty miles every 
year." 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



119 



The first reaping machine built by Mc- 
Cormick in 1831, and operated in the har- 
vest of that year, was the prototype of the 
harvesting machine industry that has 
grown to the stupendous proportions which 
characterize it at the 
present time. To-day 
more than 3,000,000 
McCormick machines 
are in use through- 
out the world. Inas- 
much as each machine 
does the work of ten 
men, the McCormiek 
machines in use are 
equivalent to an army 
of 30,000,000 men. 
These machines have 
multiplied the world's 
production of wheat 
many times, thus ban- 
ishing the fear of fam- 
ine, and making flour 
so abundant that the 
best bread is no longer 
a luxury. 

Harvesting ma- 
chines now embrace 
binders, reapers, head- 
e r s, header-binders, 
rice binders, mowers, 
hay rakes, corn bind- 
ers and huskers and 
shredders. The bind- 
er, the most improved 
type of harvesting ma- 
chine, will cut and bind 15 acres of wheat 
in a day of ten hours. The machine requires 
only one man to operate it, while the work 
it does is equivalent to the work of ten 
able bodied men.- Moreover, the work done 
by the machine is in every way superior to 
that done by hand. 



SHREDDING- CORN. 

The introduction of the husker and 
shredder has greatly assisted the farmer in 
handling the corn crop. The machine husks 
the corn and shreds the fodder, leaves and 




FEEDING OF COAL IN BOILER ROOM, McCORMICK 
HARVESTING MACHINE CO. 

husks into feed that is worth as much as 
timothy hay. By handling the corn crop 
with machines, the corn grower Baves all 
of his crop — the ears as well aa the Btalks 
— thus practically doubling the value of the 
corn crop, inasmuch as the stalks in former 
years have gone to waste in the field, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



Chemical analysis has shown 
that nearly half the feeding 
value of the corn crop is in the 
fodder. This makes the hither- 
to neglected fodder crop the 
second most valuable one pro- 
duced in America — worth more 
than wheat, oats, cotton, hay, 
or any other crop, excepting 
the corn itself. The McCor- 
mick husker and shredder has 
made it possible to prepare the 
fodder at a minimum expense, 
so that practically the entire 
stalk is eaten by horses as well B ? counes 
as cattle, and do well on it. 
Some of the statements made by practical 
dairymen, who have been feeding shredded 
fodder for years, seem almost incredible. 
They say that as a milk producer it is far 
superior to timothy hay, and many main- 
tain that it is better than clover, if fed with 
a well considered ration of grain to supply 




of the MoCormick Division, International Harvester Co. 
SHREDDING CORN. 

the protein, in which fodder is somewhat 
deficient. Many of the leading dairy and 
stock men no longer grow hay, plowing up 
their meadows not needed for pasture and 
using shredded fodder as their Sole forage 
crop, which enables them to make a large 
increase in their output of beef and butter. 




By courtesy of the McCormick Division, International Harvester Co. 
MAKING KNOTTES HOOKS AND BINDER NEEDLES. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



121 



THE SEWING MACHINE AND KNITTING MACHINE 

SAVING WOMAN'S LABOR. AND LESSENING EXPENDITURE. 




Passing the records made by Thomas Saint, 
in 1790, and Duncan in 1804, both of 
England, and those of Dodge (1818) and 
Lye (1826), both of the United States, be- 
cause it does not appear that either of their 
inventions was of practical use, we find 
that, in 1830, Barthlemy Thimonnier pat- 
ented a sewing machine in France, which 
was so successful that, in 1841, 80 of them, 
made of wood, were in use for sewing army 
clothes at a shop in Paris. 

Several sewing machines, having more or 
less merit, were constructed in the United 
States during the first half of the 19th cen- 



HOW SEWING IS DONE TO-DAY. 

Among the many inventions which have 
come to the front in the last 50 years is 
that of the sewing machine. Compare, if 
you will, the time saved by the use of the 
modern, up-to-date sewing machine and the' 
work done in the old manner, by hand. 

In the sewing machine as in many other 
inventions America leads the world. Not 
only is this true of the machine used in the 
family, but of machines used in manufac- 
turing, for stitching all kinds of textile 
fabrics and leather, including special ma- 
chines for buttonholes, eyelets, over-seam- 
ing, embroidery, etc. 

The idea of sewing by machinery had 
been cherished for a hundred years before 
the first successful machine was made. 




BEFORE THE TIME OF THE SEWINO 
MACHINE. 



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122 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCO VERIES 



tury, the nearest approach to success, prior 
to 1850, having been made by Walter 
Hunt, in 1832. Eo serious attempts were 
made by him to exploit his invention, nor 
was it of any benefit until Isaac H. Singer, 
in 1850, perfected the improvements neces- 
sary to make Hunt's product of real utility, 
and produced the first sewing machine hav- 
ing any practical value. In 1851, Allen 
B. Wilson took out patents for a sewing 
machine having a revolving hook for mak- 
ing the double lock-stitch Other inventors 
closely followed, and we find that six dif- 
ferent manufacturers made about twenty- 
five hundred machines in 1853. None of 
these has survived, excepting Singer's and 
— ste^ Wilson's. The an- 

from these inventions 
■r^^^jB0r now runs into mil- 

fikjMHffi| t^Sfii,- 1 scn * *° T, ' ie remotest 
parts of the entire 
world. The most remarkable phase of this 
development has been the adaptation of 
sewing machines foT special uses in a great 
variety of manufactures. 

In addition to machines of the best type 
for family sewing, a single manufacturing 
company makes more than 70 distinct 
classes, or types, of sewing machines for 
every stitching process used in manufac- 
ture; these classes are fitted with attach- 
ments, or devices, for special processes, and 
there are more than six hundred distinct 
varieties of Singer machines. There are 
machines making twelve, or more, seams at 
once; machines, also, that hemstitch and 
tuck; machines that ruffle and tuck; ma- 
chines for stitching books and boots, sewing 
on buttons and making the buttonholes ; in. 



short, the American sewing machine of to- 
day stitches everything capable of needle 
perforation, from lace to leather. This 
development of special stitching appliances 
for factory operation has been of tremen- 
dous benefit to the world, because it has 
caused a great reduction in the cost to the 
consumer of many articles in common use. 

Because of this fact, the quantity of sew- 
ing done in the home has been greatly 
reduced, and the finished garment can often 
be bought for the former cost of the ma- 
terial. Thus, domestic burdens have been 
correspondingly lessened, and this result 
may fairly be claimed as due to the inven- 
tive genius and executive ability in the field 
of sewing-machine manufacture. 

THE KNITTI2TO MACHINE. 

Much of the foregoing comment as to the 
effect of the sewing machine in lightening 
the task of the mistress of the household, 
as well as in lessening the expense incurred 
for clothing the family, may properly apply 
to the results attending the introduction of 
the knitting machine. The enterprise of 
knitting by machinery has already attained 
large proportions. 

Knitting is a branch of industry which 
may be termed the twin sister of sewing. 
The first device ever invented to replace 
hand work in knitting stockings was the 
stocking frame, contrived in 1589 by Wil- 
liam Lee, of Woodborough, in Nottingham- 
shire, England. The invention, limited in 
scope as it was, resulted in making the 
stocking trade one of the chief industries 
of the Midlands, for it was the precursor of 
many ingenious contrivances in this line. 

The modern, upright, rotary knitting 
machine has two cylinders or heads. Each 
head generally knits four threads at once, 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



123 



and each thread, or the machinery necessary 
to knit it, is called a feed. One girl can 
attend to six cylinders. The needles used 
are the spring-beard, and they are placed in 
a mold in pairs, and leaded by having a 
composition consisting of equal parts of 



cylinder apparatus of 22 inches diameter, 
20-gauge, 4 feeds, knitting common hosiery, 
yarn, cotton and wool mixed, running 45 
revolutions, has 920 needles, thus making 
165,000 stitches per minute. A 16-inch 
cylinder, 20-gauge, 4 feeds, cotton yarn, 




KNITTING MACHINE FACTORY. 
Interior View, Showing Up-to-date Methods of Manufacturing Hosiery. . This industry has sprung into promi- 
nence during the last fifteen years. Our grandmother knitting needle is a weak competition 
with such an establishment as this. 



lead and tin poured around them. The 
gauge is determined by measuring the 
needles and counting the leads, when set in 
the cylinder. Tor instance, 14-gauge has 
14 leads, or 28 needles, 3 inches in length, 
measure^ on the circumference. A single- 



has run 79 revolutions and made 212,532 
stitches per minute. Usually, an 18-inch 
cylinder, 15-inch gauge, is run 45 revolu- 
tions; and a table of two heads turns off 
160 pounds of knit cloth, per day of 11 
hours. 



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124 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



THE SEMI-AUTOMATIC PIANO PLAYER 



The advance of civilization has brought 
with it a more numerous and critical music- 
loving public. At the same time, in the 
press of modern business activity, the man 
of musical tastes does not often have the 
opportunity or necessary time for master- 
ing a musical instrument. Again, the be- 
ginner's appreciation of the art is often so 
advanced that his discordant and halting 
efforts are extremely painful to his sensitive 
ear. 

In fact, he must suppress his loftiest 
inspirations by a most mechanical system 
of scales and finger exercises, before he can 
become even a fair player on such an in- 
strument as the piano. However, necessity 
is the mother of invention, and the modern 
semi-automatic players have now come to 





SINGING WITH THE PIANOLA. 



READY TO ATTACH THE PIANOLA 
TO THE PIANO. 

the rescue, by affording us all a ready means 
of playing the most difficult music with our 
own individual coloring and expression — 
this too without the necessity of any 
tedious preliminary practice. Such instru- 
ments are well known and 
already have their accepted 
place in the musical world. 

The principles on which 
wind instruments are auto- 
matically played are quite 
familiar to the general pub- 
lic, but we venture to say that 
few understand the workings 
of the semi-automatic piano 
player, and we therefore take 
pleasure in acquainting the 
public with the construction 
and important features of the 
Simplex piano player which 
is also illustrated herewith. 

The Simplex piano player 
is characterized by the sim- 
plicity of its construction. 
One of the accompanying cuts 
shows the instrument in play- 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



125 



iitg position against the piano, its striker 
rods being in position over the keyboard, 
and its pedal lever connected to the loud 
or open pedal of the piano. 

The music rolls used are identically the 
same as thpse used on all self -playing 
organs and the like, because the Simplex 

/HOW THE PULSE IS MADE TO 

Among the modern inventions which 
have been utilized in connection with the 
healing art, an instrument called the spyg- 
mograph is considered of much value. A 
skilled physician is often able to detect in 
the pulse of his patient certain characteris- 
tics besides the mere rate, which are highly 
' significant as regards the condition of the 
circulatory system. The range of these in- 
dications has been greatly extended by the 
, spygmograph, an instrument invented by 
M. M. Chauveau and Marey, by which the 
pulse is made to write down a graphic 
representation of its action. 

The patient's arm having been placed on 
a suitable support, a little stud covered 
with soft leather is lightly pressed against 
the artery by a spring. The stud is in con- 
tact with the shorter end of a very light 
lever, the other extremity of which is fur- 
nished with a point, which registers its 

RESPIRATION REGISTERED IN 

OF THE 

An instrument which is doing good ser- 
vice in the hands of medical investigators 
is the spirograph, in which the rise and 
fall of the chest in breathing are traced by 
. the motions of a lever, as in the ease of 



is a pneumatically . operated instrument. 
The music roll consists of a long 
sheet of paper provided with a series of 
perforations of such dimensions and loca- 
tions as to co-operate with the . mechan- 
ism of the player to produce the desired 
music. 

KEEP A RECORD OF ITS BEATS 

movements on a cylinder of blackened 
metal, made to rotate and advance longi- 
tudinally by clockwork; or, the record is 
taken on strips of flat smoked glass. 

As the motion is much magnified by the 
lever, every variation in the pressure of the 
blood in the artery during the beat of the 
pulse is distinctly and faithfully indicated. 
From the line so traced, the physician may 
obtain infallible data for judging of the 
condition of the heart, the action of its 
valves, etc. It is marvelous to observe the 
manner in which the curves of this instru- 
ment change their form when certain drugs 
are administered. 

The change in some cases occurs 
immediately, so that the eye can detect 
by inspection of the spygmographic 
curve, almost the instant at which the 
drug was taken into the system, and 
the nature of its action on the heart 

CHARACTERS BY THE ACTION 
LUNGS 

the spygmograph. In this instrument a 
small pad, which presses on the chest, com- 
municates the movements to an elastic mem- 
brane, which like the skin of a drumhead, 
covers one end of a cylindrical box main- 



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126 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



tained in a fixed position relatively to the 
person of the patient. The air in the box 
is in communication, by means of a flexible 
tube, with the interior of a similarly closed 
box ; the elastic membrane of the latter acts 
against the short end of a lever, which is 
made to register its movements, the com- 



pression of the air caused by the rise of the 
chest being conveyed to the second box 
through the flexible tube. The curves fur- 
nished by this instrument also give valuable 
indications, and exhibit marked changes 
under any influence in the least degree af- 
fecting the respiratory system. 




UNIVERSITY OP PENNSYLVANIA. 
From which some ot the greatest physicians of tbe age haTe graduated. 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 127 
PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE USE OF THE CAMERA 



Nearly every person is familiar -with the 
photographer's studio and has had his or 
her picture taken many times. To most 
of them the mysteries of the dark room 
have been explained and many now own 
snap-shot cameras themselves with which 
they can take pictures. On the other hand, 
even those who are amateurs and have taken 
photographs realize the great strides being 
made in the science of photography, and 
what the result of the progress of the art 
means to the world. It can be imagined 
readily enough that new kinds of photo- 
graphic plates are being manufactured 
which will allow much more rapid expos- 
ure of moving objects. The development 
in the manufacture of sensitive paper upon 
which photographs are made has also been 
so great that, nowadays, nature and life are 
portrayed with remarkable accuracy. Let 
us look, however, at some of the remarkable 
things done in the realm of photography. 

THE TELEPHOTOGRAPH. 

The telephotograph, as its name signifies, 
is a picture of an object taken from a dis- 
tance. Most cameras are equipped only to 
take pictures of objects near at hand. When 
far off mountains and other inaccessible ob- 
jects are photographed, usually only small 
pictures with indistinct details are the 
result. To-day, however, it is possible to 
catch;pictures as deftly and in as distinct 
detail as one can view an object from afar 
through a telescope. The device which per- 
mits telephotography is called a rack-and- 
pinioh lens tube in which are fitted two 
lenseB. One of these is the far-seer or 
negative lens and is the one that does the 



magnifying, while the other ordinary lens 
in fronfc„of the far-seeing concave lens does 
the photographing. Work may he done 
with this combination in the field, all that 
is necessary being to adjust the rack and 
pinion to get a good focus. One of the 
drawbacks to this kind of photography is 
that because of the smaller range a magni- 
fied picture covers, naturally less light is 




By courtesy ol "Lawrence" Photographer., 
READY TO ASCEND TO MAKE AN ACTUAL 
BIRD'S-EYE VIEW. 



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128 



MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



admitted and the exposure lias to be longer. Therefore, it 
seriously retards taking pictures of moving objects. But as 
time goes on, the apparatus will be perfected and then one 
may attach it to a cinematograph camera. Then the actions 
of wild animals miles away can be accurately portrayed and 
studied. Birds can be caught in flight and battles can be 
photographed from afar and reproduced in lif e size. 

In delicate scientific work photography has stepped in and 
done marvelous things. By use of the X-ray apparatus we 
are enabled to take pictures, or "shadowgraphs," of the human 
heart, ribs, stomach and other organs through the living body. 
In astronomy, we have been able to discover what the dif- 
ferent stars are made of and what kind of atmospheres sur- 
round them. This kind of photography is done through tele- 
scopes proper, and is a great deal like micro-photography, 
which consists in taking pictures through microscopes. This 
latter method consists simply in attaching a light, tight box, 
with a very long' bellows, to a microscope and photographic 
lens. This is a good deal like a telephotograph camera, but 
is used mainly for taking pictures of diseased tissues, germs, 
and minute animal and vegetable life, so that they may be 
studied afterwards at leisure. 

TAKTNG PICTURES OF THE HEAVENS. 

Taking pictures of lightning, stars, comets, etc., has added 
much to the knowledge of the world. At the Harvard Astro- 
nomical Observatory in Cambridge some of the best work in 
this line has been done. The photographs of lightning are 
taken much the same as one takes snap-shots, 
only the camera is much bigger ; in fact, it is a 
great telescope itself, with a plateholder and 
sensitive plate attached at the small end — the 
eye-piece. In taking a picture of a flash of 
lightning great pains must be taken for one 
never knows just where to catch the lightning. 
Besides there is generally rain falling when one 
wants to take such a picture, and this tends to 
spoil the scientific value of the picture, because 
the rain drops act as tiny prisms and break up 
the light. One of the best experiments in this 
direction has been in photographing the spectra 
of stars and lightning. 




By courtesy of "Lawrence" Photographer 
PHOTOGRAPHIC TOWER 
USED TO MAKE BIRD'S-EYE VIEW. 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



; MODERN INVENTIO. 

THE SPECTRUM. 

■ A word about the spectrum. Heat any- 
ihiag to the point where it gives out light, 
and then, pass a ray of this light through a 
prism of glass and a line of colored bands 
will result, ranging in some cases all the 
Way from violet through blue, green and 
yellow, to red. That variegated strip is 
the spectrum, and the different series of 
-these bands represents the elements in the 
substance examined. The most familiar 
spectrum is, of course, that of the sun when 
its rays are intercepted by the prismatic 
drops of- a passing shower and produce a 
jrainbow. The glass prisms hung as decora- 
tions from old-fashioned lamps also make 
spectra. But a photograph does not pro- 
Slice colors, and lightning will not stay 
quiet to have its picture taken. How, then, 
&an a spectrum of lightning be photo- 
graphed? At the big end of the telescope 
& prism is attached, and by adjusting the 
camera at an angle, the refraction or turn- 
ing aside of the rays after they have entered 
the prism is thrown into the telescope. 
After a number of pictures have been taken, 
one or two may be of value. These plates 
are developed and the lines of the spectrum 
of the lightning will show. Here comes 
another difficulty, however, for yellow and 
red are not colors that can be absorbed 
readily by the photographic plate. There- 
fore the pictures of the spectrum will show 
only different degrees of blackness and 
whiteness, marked by little waves as the 
colors affected the plate. But these are 
still of great value, for, by comparing them 
with pictures of spectra of known lights, 
great discoveries have been made. 

EELECTB.OGBAPHS. 
Some of the peculiar properties of elec- 
tricity have been discovered by taking 



? AND DISCOVERIES * 129 

electrographs, or pictures of electric sparks. 
This is done by interposing a photographic 
plate, wrapped in a dark envelope, between 
two poles of a static electrical machine. 
The spark which jumps from the pole 
strikes the envelope, penetrates it, and leaps 
off the plate to the other pole. This ex- 
poses the plate and gives a picture. By 
studying these pictures scientists are 
enabled to -learn much about the laws gov- 
erning electricity. One already arrived at 
is that it follows the line of least resist- 




By courtesy of "Lawrence" Photographer. 
SETTING UP LARGEST CAMERA ON EARTH, 
PREPARATORY TO MAKING EXPOSURE. 

ance, and that often it takes divergent paths 
in traveling. 

USE OF THE CAMERA. 

A photograph is not always -a picture. 
The mere regard for the mechanism and 
chemistry of photography does not insur*?- 
success in the art, for the results may be 
a composition far from pleasing to the eye. 
lor instance, a straight front view of the 
end view of a building is always disagree- 
able because there can be no perspective. 

In photographing anything with height, 
breadth and depth, all the proportions 



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MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



should appear. A view from one corner is 
preferable to any other, although the best 
effect is seldom obtained by placing the 
camera directly opposite a corner. The 
photograph should show, if possible, more 
of the front than the end. Sometimes, 
where a street is very narrow, it is impos- 
sible to find the ideal position for a camera 
'and in such cases the photographer is 
obliged to be content with the nearest pos- 
* sible approach to that point. The position 
of the camera and its height with regard 
to the object to be photographed are of the 
utmost importance. 

With regard to height, the choicest posi- 
tion is the level of the eyes. When, how- 
ever, the object to be delineated is so high 
that the only position of the camera from 
which the photograph can be taken at the 
height of the eyes, is so far away that half 
or nearly half the plate is lost in' fore- 
ground, it may be preferable to make the 
exposure from a position nearly half as 
high as the object. By this means the dis- 
tance necessary to include the whole figure 
may be reduced nearly half, and the size of 
the object in the photograph may be nearly 
doubled. This is nearly always necessary 
with tall subjects, when a fixed-focus camera 
without a rising front or a swing back is 
employed. 

If, however, no place except the ground 
is available for the camera, the picture will 
be greatly improved, although considerably 
reduced in size, by cutting away from two- 
thirds to three-fourths of the foreground 
before mounting the print. In no case 
should the camera be above the center of 
the height of a building or tower. The 
picture improves the nearer the camera is 
brought to the height of the eyes, provided, 
of course, the whole of the structure is in- 



cluded. Next in importance to the position 
of the camera with regard to perspective 
and height, is its relation to light and 
shadow. A picture in which everything 
seen is brightly lighted, is rarely pleasing, 
and one in which the whole view is in 
shadow is even less attractive. ilatness in 
a picture is due to want of contrast; that 
is, to the absence of high lights in a shadow 
picture, or to that of shadows in one made 
from a position directly between the source 
of light and the object. In nearly all sat- 
isfactory photographs, including groups 
and portraits,- there is a good blending of 
light and shade in considerable masses. A 
photograph mottled all over with shadows 
and flecks of light in nearly equal propor- 
tions is almost as objectionable as one that 
is light, or a shade flat. 

The more nearly the masses of shadow 
assume rough triangular forma> the better 
the picture; and the larger the triangle^ 
so one, either of light or shadow, does not 
exceed one-half to two-thirds of the area 
of the plate, the more pleasing the effeet. 
This is limited, of course, to buildings and 
landscapes. In taking a building it is best 
to have the front lighted, and the end ia 
shadow. The perspective, of course, if the 
camera is placed as suggested, makes each, 
side a triangle more or less regular and 
complete, according to the style of the; 
architecture. 

Light and shadow in a picture are not 
wholly dependent upon sunshine and 
shadow. Dark objects serve the same pur- 
pose as shadows. A tree in foliage is al- 
ways dark. A mass of foliage, therefore, 
is as good — often better — in balancing a 
landscape than an actual shady side to some 
object; and a picture with a high, green 
hill or a mass of foliage sloping down from 



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132 ✓ MODERN INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES 



one corner to a point at or beyond the 
middle, is always picturesque. Water and 
sky are nearly always very light, and when 
they furnish triangles, make the picture 
complete. On the beach a dark building, a 
pile of rocks or wreckage, or even a group 
of people near enough to the camera almost 
to fill one end of the plate, enhances the 
beauty of the picture. If a group of people 
is utilized for the purpose, care should be 



exercised to have them in dark clothing 
White attire defeats the principal purpost 
of utilizing a group in such a case. The 
best view of a crowd can be secured from 
a position overlooking it. A portrait shoull 
not be made with the camera very mucl 
below the chin of the subject. The level of 
the middle of the body greatly exaggerates 
the height of a person. Below is given an 
illustration of black and white attire. 




By courtesy of "Lawrence." Photographer. 
ILLUSTRATING THE ART OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 
A magnificent and prosperous family; one after the order advocated by 
President Roosevelt. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



MANIFESTING PRODIGIOUS STRIDES IN ALL LINES OF HUMAN ENDEAVOR, 
f A CENTURY'S ACCOMPLISHMENT IN A DECADE 



THE WORLD'S GREATEST MEAT MART 



IT IS a recognized fact that the world's 
greatest meat mart is located at Chi- 
cago. There are other great stock 
yards and packing houses at Kansas City 
and Omaha, but they do 
not begin to compare 
with the stock yards in 
Chicago. 

The Union Stock 
Yards are located 4^ 
miles from the very 
heart of Chicago. Into 
these yards run 26 rail- 
roads that center in the 
metropolis of the . west. 
The total area is a trifle 
over 600 acres, three 
hundred of which are 
paved with vitrified 
brick tiling, which makes 
the surface most substan- 
tial. Running through 
the pens are 25 miles of 
streets and alleys, 38 
miles of water troughs 
and 60 miles of feeding 
troughs. In addition to these there are 
over a hundred miles of water, sewer and 




drainage pipes. The total cost of the yards 
up to the date of this publication is in the 
neighborhood of $50,000,000. 

The stock yards were built in 1865, and 
the first day's receipts of 
cattle, sheep and hogs 
numbered a trifle over 
300. At the present 
writing, it is not an un- 
common thing to see 20,- 
000 cattle, 30,000 sheep 
and 45,000 hogs in the 
yards at one time. The 
annual receipts of live 
stock are approximately 
as follows: 2,900,000 
cattle, 155,000 calves, 
9,325,000 hogs, 3,600,- 
000 sheep, and about 
130,000 horses and 10,- 
000 mules. To bring 
this stock into market 
requires nearly 400,000 
cars, which would make 
a train almost long 
enough to reach across 
the continent, from New York to San Fran- 
cisco. In the yards there are about 15,000 



Courtesy of Armour & Co, 
DECOY GOAT LEADING SHEEP. 



133 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



pens, of which 8,000 are roofed in for sheep 
and 3,000 pens, or "double decks," for hogs. 

200 MILES OF RAILROAD TRACES. 

Inside the yards are grouped nearly a 
score of separate packing houses, all doing 
an enormous business. There is also a big 



work of tracks comprising a total mileage 
of nearly 200 miles. 

If the visitor to Chicago wishes to wit- 
ness a busy scene, let him or her go to the 
stock yards between 5 and 9 o'clock any 
week-day morning, and they will see a great 
horde of people flocking to their daily 











- 


... r . .... - -». , .. ... 4v"-^Jj 



GOVERNMENT INSPECTOR. 



office building known as the "Exchange 
Building," which accommodates nearly 
300 commission firms, the general offices of 
the stock yards company, a bank, and a 
branch of the Bureau of Animal Industry, 
of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture. Surrounding the yards is a net- 



work. Inside the yards alone there are 
regularly employed 33,410 men, women, 
boys and girls. The early morning is de- 
voted to the unloading of the live stock. 
After this is accomplished begins the sale. 
Soon after the sales are made, the stock is 
weighed to the purchaser, and if it is to he 



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WON DEBS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



reshipped, is again loaded into oars and 
forwarded to its proper destination. 
GOVERNMENT INSPECTION OF MEATS. 

When the cattle, hogs and sheep are in 
the pens, the government inspectors step in 
and make a thorough inspection of all live 
stock received. Condemned animals have 
a tag fastened in their ears. These animals 
are slaughtered under the direction of the 



FORK TESTED BY THE MICROSCOPE. 

Pork that is to be exported is subjected 
to a rigid microscopic inspection, and if 
found to contain disease of any kind, the 
carcass in which the disease is found is 
ordered "tanked" at once. All this work is 
done by a corps of expert microscopists, 
under the direction of the chief of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry. Tiny bits of 




SECTION IN COOLER, 



Bureau of Animal Industry, and, if the 
meat is found to be diseased, the carcass is 
condemned and goes into the tank. In 
addition to this inspection, the Government 
keeps a man in every packing house in the 
yards, whose duty it is to inspect all ani- 
mals slaughtered, and so thorough is the 
work done that an animal can be traced 
from the time it arrives at the yards until 
it reaches the retail butcher's shop. 



meat are cut from each carcass that is to 
be exported, and after being placed in a 
tin box, are labeled, and later, taken to the 
microscopic department, where an inspector 
(usually a woman) cute the meat into jelly 
with a tiny pair of scissors, after which 
the pulpy mass is placed between two 
pieces of clear glass, pressed together, and 
then subjected to a. powerful microscope. 
If the meat is diseased, the microscopist 



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WON DEBS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



will immediately discover it, and that car- 
cass will be condemned. In Chicago, there 
are 90 inspectors at work during the whole 
year. 

PROCESS OF SLAUGHTERING AJSTD 
DRESSING. 

In the great packing houses that abound 
within the yards, there is a familiar jest, 



house from beginning to end. The buyers 
of the concern purchase such cattle as are 
wanted for the day, which are driven from 
the pens over long runways, to the pens of 
the packing house, which is located near 
the slaughter house. Some of the packing 
houses have fat steers trained to lead the 
other cattle to the foot of the gangway, 




LOADING INTO REFRIGERATOR CAR. 



that everything of the animals slaughtered 
except the squeal of the pigs is saved, and 
this is to-day literally true, for, that which 
once was loss is now made into various 
things. So complete is the utilization of 
that which was once waste, that the profits 
of a big packing house on its by-products 
amount to a small fortune eaeh year. Let 
us follow the process of a typical packing 



there to turn and leave them, while the 
victims go on to their fate. From the gang- 
way there is an incline which leads into a 
small stall, or pen, directly opposite the 
killing floor. Above, on small platforms, 
the '"knockers" run along, and with a small 
sledge-hammer, strike the cattle upon the 
head until they fall to the floor, stunned. 
Then the doors open automatically, and a 



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SEWING HAMS FOR EXPOHT. by courtesy of Armour & Co. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



moment later, the animal is dangling by the 
hind foot at the end of a long chain, which 
suspends the carcass high enough for the 
butcher to cut its throat. The heads are 
removed at the same time the carcass is 
drained of blood, and then in quick stages 
the hoofs, shanks and entrails are removed. 



come the horn of commerce; the straight' 
lengths of leg bone go to the cutlery makers 
for knife handles; the entrails become 
sausage casings and their contents make 
fertilizing material; the livers, hearts, 
tongues and tails, and the stomachs that 
become tripe, all are sold over the butchers' 




ROUGH FINISHING. 



The carcass is split down the backbone. It 
travels along on an endless chain, or trol- 
ley, is washed, and later taken into the 
great coolers to be chilled. 

NOTHING WASTED. 
Everything that pertains to a slaughtered 
beef is sold and put to use. The horns be- 



counters of the nation; the knuckle bones 
are ground up into meal for various uses; 
the blood is dried and sold as a powder for 
commercial purposes; the bladders are 
dried and sold to druggists, tobacconists 
and others ; the fat goes into oleomar- 
garine, and from the hoofs and feet and 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



other parts, come glue and oil and fertiliz- 
ing ingredients. 

Directly above the slaughter houses is a 
series of rooms full of bones and horns. 
The bones are boiled to get the fat of the 
marrow as well as to clean them. Then 



Germany, to be worked into knife handles, 
fan handles, tooth-brush handles, backs for 
nail brushes, sides for pen knives, and in- 
to button-hook handles, shirt studs, cuff 
buttons, and so on, ad infinitum. "What is 
to become of the horns is still more aston- 




SKINNING CATTLE. 



they are dried and shaken abqut until they 
are smooth and clean as cotton spools. The 
knuckle bones are cut from them, and one 
room is filled with the ground-up pulver 
of these parts. The white and pretty bones 
are shipped to Connecticut, England and 



ishing. By heating them and then tapping 
them skillfully, the operators loosen the 
soft cellular filling which solidifies and 
strengthens each horn. The substance 
around this, between it and the inner sur- 
face of the horn, goes for glue; the rest 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



is ground up into bone meal. The horns 
are then sent to makers of horn goods, who, 
by cutting each horn skillfully and then 
pressing it between heavy rollers, manage 
to spread each into a flat ribbon. In this 
shape, it can be used in a thousand ways. 
The artificers who do this work cut each 
horn spirally, so that it becomes a tight curl 
capable of being straightened out. By 



a fog. As soon as it is cool, the sides of 
beef become firm*, hard and almost appetiz- 
ing. Everywhere, except at the actual 
scene of slaughter, these houses and their 
work are clean and above criticism. 

HOG- KILLING AND DRESSING. 

The killing of hogs is done in a much 
more peculiar manner than the slaughter- 




SLIDING ONTO RATI/. 



immense pressure the curve is taken out of 
it. Good horns sell for $100 per ton. 

REFRIGERATION. 

The refrigerating and cooling rooms are 
kept at a temperature of 36 degrees, yet, 
when the meat fresh from the slaughter is 
railroaded into such a room, the animal 
heat in it warms the room for a consider- 
able time, and fills it with steam as with 



ing of cattle. Tbfe hogs are run into a 
catching pen, from where they are caught 
up and forced upon a revolving wheel, 
where the butcher stabs them to the heart, 
and death is practically instantaneous. 
From the wheel the dead body swings along, 
to be loosened over a vat of scalding water, 
into which it is plunged. Here the bristles 
are loosened. Then a great rake scoops out 
a hog, and it falls upon a runway, where 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



a chain that is hooked to its nose pulls it 
through a steam scraper. The knives of 
this machine are set at every angle, and 
miss no part of the hide on the body. 

When out of reach of the scraper a num- 
ber of men pass the body along, to remove 



cooling room. The blood is turned into 
albumen for photographers' uses, sold to 
sugar refiners or transformed into fertiliz- 
ing powder. The bristles go to brush 
makers, shoemakers and upholsterers. The 
fat is valuable in many forms, the intes- 




HOISTING ON REVOLVING WHEEL. 



every bristle and speck that was missed. 
Then the body is washed with a hose, and 
its head is almost cut off. Next it is dis- 
emboweled. Then the lard is removed, the 
head is cut off, the tongue taken out, and 
the body is split and passed ' along to the 



tines become sausage casings, livers, lungs 
and hearts are made up into sausage meat, 
and parts of the meat of the heads made 
up into headcheese. The feet are canned 
or pickled, or worked up in the lard 
tanks. 



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147 



SHEEP KILLING. 

The method used for tilling sheep is similar to that 
heretofore described, except that they are suspended 
two by two on hooks that run along a continuous trolley 
line. As each pair passes the succession of men in wait- 
ing, a new step in the process is completed. The killer 
sticks the knives into their throats at the rate of 25 per 
minute, and the animals continue to pass through the 
hands of specialists at that rate of speed, until the 
carcass appears at the end of the trolley, spread apart 
with wooden braces, and ready for the refrigerating 
room. 

One of the big packing houses, in 1901, did a busi- 
ness of $160,000,000, which is astonishing when one 
thinks that there are a score or more which do an enor- 
mous business. The markets for the products of these 
American packing houses, of which those of Chicago 




RTJMPING AND BACKING. 




SHEEP KILLING. 



are but the largest of many 
great ones in western cities, 
are found the world over. It 
would be hard for any Euro- 
pean power to go to war with- 
out patronizing the American 
packing houses for their meats 
and supplies. During the Span- 
ish-American war the United 
States government drew on 
them heavily, and when Eng- 
land was fighting the Boers 
the American packers did an 
enormous business. 

KILLING "KOSHER" CATTLE. 

For Jewish customers, meat 
must be dressed with especial 
religious rites. 

In closing this article it is 
proper to mention a peculiar 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



feature of the yards, viz., the 
killing of cattle intended for 
the Jewish markets. For this 
purpose a "Kosherman" is in 
attendance, who, as a steer is 
thrown upon its back, with legs 
bound, takes a razor-like knife 
and makes a stroke forward 
and a half stroke backward up- 
on its throat After the carcass 
is dressed it is hung up, and 
remains thus about four days, 
the rabbi washing it carefully 
each day. He then officially 
marks it as fit for consump- 
tion by those of bis faith. 

No country in the world, unless, po3sibly, 
South America, breeds mules so extensively 
as the United States, or regards their use- 
fulness so highly. Their value in some sec- 
tions of the country is manifested in the 
statement of a veterinary periodical, that 




PUTTING UP SAUSAGES. 

100 mules were sold not long ago in Scott 
county, Kentucky, at $177 each. 

The perfection to which mule breeding 
has attained in this country, so far as de- 
velopment in size and strength is concerned, 
is shown by a recent advertisement offering 




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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 149 

for sale two black mules, 
three years old and 17 
hands and 3 inches high. 
It is not uncommon in 
Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey to see teams of 
mules on heavy work 
which stand 16 and 17 
hands in height. 

In no other part of the 
world are mules of this 
size bred. In most coun- 
tries large animals of 
this species are not re- 
garded with favor, 14 
hands being deemed the 
proper limit. The mule 
will do double the amount 
of heavy road hauling 
and work on the farm that is possible for by the latter, and can be depended upon, 
the average horse, requires but two-thirds as a rule, for more than double the num- 
the food and half the attention demanded ber of years of service. 




SCENE ON A MULE FARM. 




THE LONGEST TAILED HORSE IX THE WORLD. 

This remarkable animal was bred in Lexington, Ky., and attracts great 
attention at stock shows In Europe. His tail is 19 feet long, mane 12 feet and 
forelock 8 feet. Ho is a chestnut and stands 15V4 hands. The last selling 
price for the horse was $20,000. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



CONSTRUCTION OF 




FLATIRON BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 



THE "SKY-SCRAPER" 

Great has been the progress in building 
in the last decade. Time was when a ten- 
story office building would have been 
deemed an affront to Providence. But with 
the invention of the modern elevator and 
the rapid advance of land values in great 
cities, architects and contractors began seri- 
ously to study out methods for accommodat- 
ing great numbers of tenants in individual 
buildings. As long as buildings had to be 
constructed solely of brick and masonry 
there was a definite limit to their height, 
for, as the height grew so grew the weight 
of the walls and further altitude had to be 
sacrificed when it became impossible to fit 
the Avails to carry the height without undue 
expenditure. 

At the junction of Fifth avenue, Broad- 
way and Twenty-third street, Xew York, 
stands a unique structure, probably the 
strongest ever erected. It is known as the 
"flatiron" building, and is the cumulative 
result of all that is known in the art of 
building. It is equipped with every con- 
venience that human ingenuity could devise. 
BUILDING WAI.XS PROM THE UPPER 
STORIES DOWNWARD. 

Suddenly there appeared an engineer 
who solved the problem by propounding the 
idea of building steel structures after the 
fashion of gigantic bridges set on end, and 
to hang the walls on — that is, to make the 
girders and beams support the floors and 
walls, instead of making the walls sup- 
port everything. This was called Chi- 
cago construction, because it originated 
with a Chicago man. Building under 
this method each floor is absolutely inde- 
pendent so far as the walls and parti- 
tions are concerned, for the walls have 



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151 




MONADNOCK BUILDING, CHICAGO, ILL. 



The largest office building in the West; 17 stories high, covering an entire block, facing four 
streets. Architects, Messrs. Holabird & Koche; builders. The Geo. A. Fuller Co. Sixteen hydraulic 
elevators. Original cost 12,800,000. Occupants, 7,000 (equal to the population of a small town). 24,000 
people carried by elevators each day. 12 horizontal tubular boilers 1,800 horse power, all equipped with 
smokeless furnaces. 

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nothing but their own weight to carry in 
the height of each story. It is no un- 
common thing on "Chicago-construction" 
buildings for the contractor to begin his 
exterior work on the third, fifth or ninth 
story, leaving the first to be enclosed after 
every other floor has been walled in and 
plastered. This method of building is 
diametrically opposed to the old-fashioned 
solid-masonry construction, which begins 
at the very bottom with the foundation and 
rises to the roolf, with the piers, exterior 
walls and partition walls going up to- 
gether. The contractor, building a sky- 
scraper according to "Chicago construc- 
tion," shoots the steel frame-work up as rap- 
idly as possible, so as to get the roof on to 
protect the interior from the weather. With 
the frame-work up, he puts in the hollow 
tile partitions or builds the walls to suit 
his convenience. This method of building 
set all traditions, rules and time-honored 
customs of architects and builders at 
naught, for it ignored massive foundations, 
heavy piers, the use of thick walls to carry 
weight, and solid partition walls running 
from the foundation to the roof. 

When new tenants moved into old-fash- 
ioned buildings, the rearrangement of 
spaces to meet the tenants' requirements 
frequently necessitated expensive altera- 
tions, for the partitions could not be moved 
without substituting some other form of 
supports for the floors above, Chicago's 
architectural engineers concluded that col- 
umns starting from the foundations could 
carry the floors as well as partitions, and 
would thus permit any arrangement of a 
floor without interfering with the construc- 
tion. 

High buildings required monstrous foun- 
dations and very thick walls under the solid 



masonry style of construction. The limited 
areas in the cramped business districts of 
the cities made it impossible to build 16- 
story buildings under old-fashioned meth- 
ods because the builder could not get 
"spread" for his foundations, and the 
original soil of Chicago was not adapted 
for carrying weights on small areas. 

THE ARCHITECTURAL EBON WORKER. 

This style of new building developed a 
new craft — that of the architectural iron 
worker — -who is a mixture of a bridge 
builder and a sailor. He must .be a rigger 
as well as an iron worker, and must be able 
to tread the beams high in the air with the 
confidence and nerve of a tight-rope dancer. 
The building up of the great structures in 
the business center provided another source 
of wonder and admiration for the gaping 
crowds that watched the daring workmen 
riveting together angles and beams hun- 
dreds of feet in the air. Many sailors left 
the lakes and became iron workers, and the 
craft grew until it became one of the largest 
and strongest of unions. 

OLD AND NEW STYLE FOUNDATIONS. 

In solid masonry construction the foun- 
dations are made of heavy stones piled on 
each other so that they are broad at the base 
and somewhat pyramidal in form. On the 
foundation the massive piers rise, well-, 
nigh filling up all the space in a basement. 
Under present methods of construction a 
basement, so far as room is concerned, is 
as valuable as the other floors, for the slen- 
der columns shoot up from the foundations, 
occupying comparatively little space. In 
"Chicago construction," the foundations are 
made of steel railroad rails or beams. 



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MASONIC TEMPLE. CHICAGO. 
The largest building ever attempted by a charitable or social organization. It is twenty stories 
In height (265 feet), and has a west frontage of 170 feet and a north frontage of 114 feet. The first 
three stories are constructed of Wisconsin granite, and above them the material is gray fire-brick. The 
number of people engaged in the stores and numerous offices of the building is about 7,000. 

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HAVEMB\™R BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 



First a bed of concrete 
is laid; and on this 
is placed a layer of rails 
or beams set side by side. 
On this bottom layer an- 
other layer of rails or 
beams is laid, crossing 
the lower members of 
the foundation at right 
angles. On top of the 
rails a cast-iron plate is 
laid. This is the shoe for 
the steel column. 
THE COLUMNS. 
The column is always 
made of wrought steel 
shapes and it is of uni- 
form size for each of two 
stories, diminishing in 
size as it nears the roof. 
The floor heams are car- 
ried on the columns and 
the entire frame-work is 
riveted together with hot 
rivets, just as a bridge is. 
Architectural engineers 
say that if it were pos- 
sible to upset a building 
of the "Chicago-construc- 
tion" kind, the whole 
structure would tip over 
like a box and would not 
fall into pieces as a solid- 
masonry building would. 
An earthquake might 
rattle down some bricks, 
or loosen some partitions, 
but, according to claims 
made by Chicago build- 
ers, it would not throw 
down a Chicago sky- 
scraper. 



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FTREPROOFITTG. 

Every piece of exposed steel work is com- 
pletely surrounded with! some fireproof 
material, such as blocks of tile, terra cotta 
or brick, and air spaces are left between 
the fireproofing material and the metal, for 
dead air is one of the poorest conductors of 
heat known. The hollow tile arches, placed 



sible to make them. The average thickness 
of the walls of .a modern skyscraper runs 
from 16 to 18 inches, the walls carrying 
about the same thickness from the ground 
up. This is a radical departure from the 
old-fashioned construction, for the walls of 
the lower floors of 15 stories of solid mas- 
onry would have to he at least three and a 




By courtesy of Lawrence Photo. Co. 



CHICAGO P0STOFFICE. 



between floor beams, are covered over with 
thick concrete, and this concrete is fire- 
proof. The partitions are of hollow tile, 
which is not only light as compared with 
brick, but is fireproof as well; and it is 
said that buildings of "Chicago construc- 
tion" are as nearly fireproof as it is pos- 



half feet thick, and would drop off about 
four inches for every two floors above the 
third. This thinness of walls in Chicago 
buildings has its disadvantages from the 
point of view of the architect, for it gives a 
"skimpy" look to the building, but to the 
ordinary man they are simply wonders. 



• 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



MARVELOUS DEVELOPMENT OF PRINTING APPARATUS 



PThe first meth- 
od of printing 
known was that of 
the Chinese which 
was done from en- 
graved blocks, a 
brush being rub- 
bed over the paper 
laid upon the form 

old-style screw press. ^ type. As early 
as the 15 th cen- 
tury, the principle of printing from forms 
upon a flat bed beneath a cylinder was 
understood and put to practical use. The 
presses, however, were wooden and rudely 
formed. 

FIRST USE OF MOVABLE TYPES. 

In the middle of that century Gutenberg 
printed a book from movable types. Two 
upright timbers with crosspieces of wood at 
the top and bottom constituted the outer 
frame of his press. Other crosspieces held 
the flat bed containing the type, and 
through still another intermediate slot 
passed a wooden screw, its lower end touch- 
ing the center of a platen of wood and 
screwing it down upon the type. " 

The form was inked with a ball of 
leather stuffed with wool, upon which the 
paper was laid. On this paper a fragment 
of blanket was spread to make the platen 
smooth and soften the impression. The 
idea of the machine was based on the cheese 
and linen presses used in medieval house- 
holds. The type of the present time is 
practically identical with that used by 
Gutenberg in printing his Eible. 

For about 150 years the wooden press, 



operated with a screw and movable bar, was 
used without much modification. The 
forms, however, sometimes rested upon 
stone beds held in frames styled coffins, and 
were moved by hand. The platen was 
screwed up with the bar after each im- 
pression, in order to withdraw the printed 
sheet and hang it up for drying. 

BLAEW'S IMPROVED PRESS. 

About the year 1620 this press was first 
improved by a printer, of Amsterdam, 
named William Jensen Blaew. He ran the 
spindle of the screw through a square block 
guided in the wooden frame, and by cords 
or wires suspended the platen from this 
block, which prevented the platen from 
twisting and equalized the motion of the 
screw. This press was used in England 
and on the continent, and was nearly iden- 
tical with that operated by Benjamin 
Franklin when he worked as a journeyman 
in London. 

FIRST CAST IRON PRESS AMD FIRST 
LEVEES USED. 

About the close of the 18th century it 
was found necessary, particularly in the 
printing of wood cuts, and because of the 
size of larger forms of type to' secure greater 
power for the impression. This led the 
Earl of Stanhope to construct a frame of 
cast iron, and, to facilitate the manipula- 
tion of the screw, he added a combination 
of levers which enabled the pressman to 
bring more force to bear, with less exertion. 

FIRST PRESS WITHOUT A SCREW. 

Shortly after the year 1800, George 
Clymer, of Philadelphia, contrived an iron 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



machine without a screw. Over the platen 
was placed a long, heavy, cast-iron lever. 
One end of this was fastened to an upright 
of the frame, and the other end was raised 
and lowered by a combination of smaller 
levers operated by the pressman in a man- 
ner similar to that of the common hand 
press. A spindle or pin, attached at the 
top, to the center of the large cross lever, 
and properly balanced Taised and lowered 
the platen when making the impression. 
This press was used in England. 

FIRST FLAT-BED CYLINDER PRESS. 

Eriedrich Koenig, of Saxony, introduced 
the first press of the above description into 
use in England in 1812-13, and in 1814 he 
patented a continuously revolving cylinder 
press which printed one side of a paper at 
the rate of 800 sheets per hour. 

SCREWS AND LEVERS REPLACED BY 
TOGGLE JOINT IN PETER SMITH'S 
INVENTION. 

Peter Smith, of New York, who was as- 
sociated with R. Hoe & Co., contrived a 
cast-iron press in 1822, in which he re- 
placed the screw and levers with a toggle 
joint, which simplified the operation of the 
machine and rendered it more effective. 

RUST'S IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENT. 

Smith's invention was greatly improved 
upon in 1827 by a device perfected by 
Samuel Rust, of New York, in which the 
frame was not all of cast-iron, but hlad the 
uprights hollowed for the introduction of 
wrought-iron bars fastened to the top and 
bottom of the casting. This feature greatly 
lessened the quantity of metal in the press, 
while adding to its strength. Rust's patent 
was bought by Hoe & Co., who improved it 
materially and manufactured and sold it 
extensively. 



In this press (the Washington) by turn- 
ing a crank, with belts attached to a pulley 
upon, its shaft, the bed is run out and in 
from under the platen on a track. The 
platen is raised by springs on each side, and 
a curved lever acting on a toggle joint im- 
presses it upon the form. A tympan frame 
covered with cloth and inclined so as to re- 
ceive the sheet of paper is attached to the . 
bed. Another frame, the frisket, covered 
with a sheet of paper, is attached to the 
tympan. That portion of the sheet which 
would naturally receive an impression is 
cut away, as, otherwise, the chase and furni- 
ture would smear it. Over the sheet and 
tympan the "frisket" is turned down, and in 
making the impression all are folded to- 
gether. The machine has automatic inking 
rollers, which the pressman operates by a 
weight. The descent of the weight draws 
the rollers over the type and returns them 
to the inking cylinder, while the pressman 
places another sheet upon the tympan. 

Hoe & Co. also improved this press by 
providing a steam-driven apparatus, which 
distributes the ink on the rollers and makes 
them move over the type at will. 

Eine books and cuts were commonly 
printed by the bed and platen method until 
1850, the first steam-power, wooden press 
of this kind having been made by Daniel 
Treadwell, of Boston, in 1822. 

The next improved press of Hoe & Co. 
printed papers of four, six, eight, ten or 
twelve papers at the rate of 24,000 per hour 
and sixteen-page papers at 12,000 per 
hour, the odd pages being in every case ac- 
curately inserted and pasted in and the 
papers cut at the top and delivered folded. 
The machine is constructed in two parts, 
the cylinders in one portion being twice 
the length of those in the other. The short- 



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WONDERS OP INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



161 



cylinders are used for the supplements of 
the paper, when it is desired to print more 
than eight pages. The plates being secured 
on the cylinders, the paper enters from the 
two rolls into the two portions of the ma- 
chine, through each of which it is carried 
by two pairs of type and impression cylin- 
ders, and printed on both sides, after which 
the two broad ribbons or webs pass over 
" turning bars and other devices, by which 
they are laid evenly, one over the other, and 
pasted together. The webs of paper then 
pass down over a triangular "former," 
which folds them along the center margin. 
They are then taken over a cylinder, from 
which they receive the final fold, a revolv- 
ing blade within this cylinder projecting 
and thrusting the paper between folding 
rollers, while at the same moment a knife in 
the same severs the sheet and a rapidly re- 
volving mechanism resembling in its mo- 
tion the fingers of a hand causes their ac- 
curate disposal upon traveling belts, which 
conveys them on for final removal. 

What is known as the "Quadruple News- 
paper Press," constructed in 1887, was de- 
veloped to a greater extent. The supple- 
ment portion of the press was increased in 



width, and by ingenious devices the press 
was made to produce eight-page papers at 
a running speed of 48,000 per hour; also 
24,000 per hour, of eight, ten, twelve, four- 
teen or sixteen-page papers, cut at the top 
and pasted and folded, ready for the carrier 
or the mails. 

In 1889, R. Hoe & Co. made the "sex- 
tuple" machine, which occupied about 
eighteen months in construction, and is 
composed of 60,000 pieces. It is fed from 
three rolls, each being more than five feet 
wide. In a single hour it will use up 
twenty-six miles of this paper. It can print 
and fold 90,000 Heralds in an hour, which 
means 1,500 copies per minute, or twenty- 
five copies every second. 

The latest and most elaborate newspaper 
machine is the Octuple Perfecting Press 
with Folders, which prints from four rolls, 
each four pages wide; and gives (from the 
four deliveries) a running speed per hour, 
of 96,000 four, six or eight-page papers; 
72,000 ten-page papers ; 60,000 twelve-page 
papers; 48,000 fourteen or sixteen-page pa- 
pers; 42,000 eighteen-page papers; 36,000 
twenty -page papers; and 24,000 twenty- 
four page papers. 



A RAILROAD ENCIRCLING THE GLOBE 



An American syndicate has offered to 
complete the building of the Siberian 
Transcontinental Railway, from its present 
terminus at Vladivostok in southeastern Si- 
beria to Cape Numiano, on Bering Strait. 

BTJSSIA SPENDS $400,000,000 ON BO AD. 

Russia has already built 5,542 miles of 
the Siberian Railway, at a cost of $400,- 
000,000. This has, of course, been a drain 



on the treasury, and on the physical re- 
sources of that frigid country, since the ser- 
vices of 70,000 men have been required for 
a period of nearly ten years. 

In connection with this enterprise, the 
American syndicate has figures giving 
every elevation, every grade and every item 
of engineering data necessary to the build- 
ing of a standard gauge railway from the 
northwestern terminus of the Canadian Pa- 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



cifie Hoad at Edmonton or Quesnella, to 
Vladivostock, including the crossing of 
Bering Strait. 

This great, ambitious, Alexandrian 
scheme would encircle the earth with a 
double band of steel and the construction 
and operation of a railway system 20,000 
miles in extent, traversing three continents, 
with one terminus at Calais on the channel 
coast of France and the other at New York 
City. 



depth from 800 to 5,000 feet and occupies 
an area of 12,000 square miles, with a 
minimum width of thirty miles. 

This great body of water has a distinct 
ebb and flow and current, and its high alti- 
tude has made it peculiarly the home of vio- 
lent storms and intense cold. It was deter- 
mined at first to ferry the trains over this 
gap, and for that purpose a steel ice-crudi- 
ing ferry boat was built at a cost of $1,000,- 
000. 




TYPICAL RUSSIAN LOCOMOTIVE IN URAL MOUNTAINS. 



ON" THE BTJSSIAN SIDE. 

On the Russian side the czar's engineers 
have made an accurate survey of the 
ground, and they have found no such ob- 
stacles along the route as those which have 
already been overcome in building to the 
present terminus.; for instance, that at 
Lake Baikal. This is a great inland fresh 
water lake, 1,560 feet above sea level, in a 
clef of the Baikal Mountains. It ranges in 



But the incapacity of so cumbersome an 
arrangement soon became manifest, and the 
great thickness of the ice even further lim- 
ited its usefulness, so that it was decided to 
build around the south, and this is now 
being done. 

Bering Strait, between Capes Numiano, 
Siberia, and Prince of Wales, Alaska, is a 
fraction more than nineteen miles wide — a 
lesser distance than from Dover to Calais — 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



163 



only one-fourth the width of the Yukon 
Kiver, 1,200 miles above its mouth. 

TUNNEL UNDER SEA. 

The American project involves a tunnel 
for Bering Sea, which will not be nearly 
so difficult a matter as it would appear at 




REMOVENG BENDS IN RTVKR. 



first glance. To begin with, the Dioinede 
Islands would break the continuity of a 
tunnel twice, so that no section of it need 
be more than six or seven miles long. 

The czar spent $400,000,000 building 
5,542 miles. The new road, to make con- 
nections at both ends, will be just about 
that length — perhaps 1,000 miles less. 

One inducement on the part of the czar to 
accept the syndicate's offer is the fact that 
there is no more fertile land anywhere than 
southeastern Siberia, and its millions of 



square miles of grazing and farming and 
fruit lands would support almost the world, 
if they were employed. They have been 
opened and worked just sufficiently to dem- 
onstrate their value. The mines of the 
farther north and in the mountains are 
among the richest on earth in gold, copper, 



coal, platinum, silver, salt, iron, lead, zinc 
and tin. 

ON THE AMERICAN SIDE. 

On the American side, the wealth of 
Alaska and the Northwest Territory is just 
becoming apparent. There are hundreds of 
millions of acres of lands needing only that 
little impetus of the iron horse to develop 
them into the richest the world has ever 
known. While the summers are short, the 
days are twenty-four hours long, and vege- 
tation grows all those twenty-four hours. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



Illinois will not raise such wheat. Puget 
Sound never saw such vegetables, and Cali- 
fornia never dreamed of small fruits in 
such prodigal .profusion as grow wild in the 
valleys of Alaska. 

Th'e waters of Bering Sea and the Arctic 
and of the internal fresh water lakes and 
rivers will furnish enough fish to feed the 
world if need be, and the waters being ex- 
tremely cold, the northern fish are noted for 



to all the rivers and harbors within the 
country's borders and one of Uncle Sam's 
biggest tasks is to dredge away the slime, 
ooze and formations which tend to fill up 
navigable waters. For this work great 
dredges are necessary. The machines 
which serve the government are similar to 
those that are used by individuals in 
digging artificial lakes or altering the lanir 
scape in many ways. 



HOW THE U. S. GOVERNMENT PROTECTS THE RIVER BANKS FROM WASHOUTS. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



the delicacy of their flavor and the firmness 
of their meat. 

There is that other phase of the proposi- 
tion, however, that must appeal to all 
namely, the saving in time in traversing the 
earth or any portion of it. Within ten years 
one may girdle the earth within twenty days. 

UP-TO-DATE DREDGING MACHINES. 

The United States government is father 



Several varieties of dredges are used; 
one, the dipper dredge, which scoops out the 
mud as a man would with bis curved hand ; 
another, the clam-shell dredge, which goes 
down like an open clam-shell and comes out 
with it closed and the load inside; and 
third, the new hydraulic dredge, which 
thrusts its snout down into the mud,- sucks 
it up and vomits it forth through a long 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



165 



tube into a barge or upon the shore. The 
old-fashioned bucket-ladder-dredge has been 
used very little of late years. 

THE DIPPER DREDGE. 

The dipper dredge is comparatively a 
simple affair. It consists of a huge iron 
scoop at the end of a long arm and hung to 
a heavy derrick at the end of a barge. The 
arm is driven by a powerful engine and 
descends almost perpendicularly into the 



down into the mud and the scoop sinks' into 
it. As soon as the derrick raises the arm 
the jaws of the dredge come together. 
When the load has been brought up, a 
simple device releases the jaws and the load 
falls out. 

Where streams are loaded with mud, or 
where canals are being dug in very soft 
mud, the hydraulic dredge cannot be im- 
proved upon as a digger. This dredge is 




HOW THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PROTECTS ITS BANKS FROM WASHOUTS. 



stream to be dredged. It is scraped along 
the bottom by means of a chain attached to 
the end of the arm, and when it is filled and 
is pulled to the surface the bottom of the 
scoop is opened by pulling a rope and loos- 
ening a pin. Then the load slides out. 
THE CLAM-SHELL DREDGE. 
The clam-shell dredge is made of two 
separate scoops hinged together at the 
upper part. The arm of the dredge is shot 



equipped with a suction pump, a powerful 
engine, a long, hollow arm which reaches 
down into the mud, and a cutter at the end 
of the arm supplied with steel knives which 
burrow into the soil and loosen the mud so 
that it can be drawn up easily by the suc- 
tion pump. 

The operation of this dredge is simple. 
When the barge is in position a big post is 
shoved down into the mud and the barge is 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



anchored to it. Then the spout is shoved 
down into the mud, the engines started and 
the cuter and pumps loosen and bring up 
the mud. When the mud has been brought 
to the surface it is often run directly into a 
mud scow, but sometimes it is carried 
through piping 1,000 feet or more, and 
dumped on shore. When one spot in a river 



has been scooped clean, the anchoring post, 
or "spud," is drawn up and another post is 
set out behind by machinery, to force the 
barge along. So great is the capacity of 
these dredges for cutting and drawing up 
mud, that one of them pumped up more 
than 165,000 cubic yards of mud in twenty 
days. 



MAMMOTH CATERING ENTERPRISES 




By courtesy of Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chicago. 
METHOD OF COOKING MEATS FOR CANNING. 
Monthly output, 10,000.000 cans. 



The methods of those great enterprises 
which cater to the appetite of millions of 
people throughout the world furnish an in- 
teresting study. To the multitudes who 
partake of the tempting products of these 
establishments, the extent and variety of 
their output is little understood, and the 
degree to which the delicacies therein manu- 
factured tend to lessen the culinary labors 
of the average household, especially in thle 
glimmer season, is hardly realized. 



COOKING AND CANNING FOR THE 
MARKET. 

Among the mammoth concerns which fill 
the world's mouth with skillfully contrived 
edibles, one, located in Chicago, may be 
taken as a representative plant, for the pur- 
pose of this article. 

PIPTY ACRES OP FLOOR SPACE USED BY 
ONE CONCERN. 

The cooking and canning facilities of 

this company cover a space of six acres and 




By courtesy of Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chicago. 
HEADING AND SOLDERING CANNED MEATS. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



include a floor area of 
fifty acres. The de- 
partment devoted to 
cutting meats has a 
capacity of disposing 
of 250 cattle per hour, 
and 15,000 cattle are 
slaughtered weekly in 
the plant. Its power- 
house refrigerator con- 
tains eighteen boilers, 
with a capacity of 750 
tons per day. 

MONTHLY OUTPUT 
10,000,000 CANS 
OF FOOD. 

The number of peo- 
ple employed in the 
concern is 3,000 and 
their annual earnings 
amount to about, $15,000. These toilers 
handle 10,000,000 cans of prepared meats, 
soups, etc., every month, which necessitates 
the use of 500,000 boxes of tin plate 
annually. 





CANNING BEANS. 
The above-shown plant h&s a capacity of putting up 



PREPARING JEWISH MEATS. (KOSHER.) 



A LUSCIOUS VARIETY OF APPETIZING 
PREPARATIONS. 

Among the specialties in delicatessen 
manufactured by this concern may be men- 
tioned the following: Veal loaf, Melrose 
pate, luncheon loaf, lunch tongues, ham 
loaf, beef loaf, 
chicken loaf, 
Vienna sausage, 
club-house sau- 
sage, sliced 
smoked beef, 
corned beef 
hash, potted and 
deviled meats, 
turkey and 
tongue, boneless 
chicken, and ten 
varieties of 
soups. These are 
put up in pack- 
ages running 

By courtesy of the H. J. Heinz Co.f- mT , nnp-nnlr- 
40,000 cans of iw. per day. tFOm 000 * 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



169 



ter of a pound to six pounds. This is but 
one of several vast establishments engaged 
in the same industry, and in the same local- 



ity. Taken together, their product is 
sufficient to supply the demand of the en- 
tire world for goods of this description. 




TURTLES AS BROUGHT INTO MARKET. 



TURTLES BEING PREPARED FOR SOUP. 



,,-l,t i M -W I ■ ^ 




By courtesy of the H. J. Heinz Oo. 



BOTTLING PICKLES. 
1&,000,000 of bottles »re here put up each year, 



Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 



DRAY-TEAM OF LIBBY, McNEIL & LIBBY — ONE OF THE GREAT PACKING FIRMS OF THE UNITED STATES. By courtesy of Lawrence & Co. 




A GREAT INDUSTRY— PICKING PEAS AT MOUNT MORRIS, ILLINOIS. By courtesy of the Detroit Photographic Co. 

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172 WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 

AUSTRALIA'S GREAT RAILWAY PROJECT 

HOW ONE 01" THE GREAT COLONIES PROPOSES TO HELP HERSELF. 



Australia is the latest country to catch 
the transcontinental railway fever and, 
with an energy characteristic of pioneer 
lands, has taken the most direct way of get- 
ting what it wants. The Parliament of 
South Australia has formally invited capi- 
talists of Europe and America to bid for 
the contract of connecting the city of Ade- 
laide on the south coast with Palmerston on 
the north coast. 

BONUS OF 90,000,000 ACRES OF LAND. 

Ninety million acres of land along the 
right of way, with all the minerals and 
other sources of wealth they may contain, 
are offered as a bonus to the company that 
has the courage to undertake a project that 
will cost from $30,000,000 to $40,000,000, 
and to operate a railroad through twelve 
hundred miles of semi-desert land that has 
only one white inhabitant to every three 
square miles. But 90,000,000 acres of 
land, even in the most unj>romising region 
on the earth's surface, may well be a 
temptation when it is offered at forty cents 
an acre; and capitalists are not so much 
afraid of big railway ventures now as they 
were before the Union Pacific was finished, 
thirty-five years ago. 

England is constructing the "Cape to 
Cairo" to connect Egypt with Cape Town, 
and Belgium, England and Germany will 
cross this line in the Congo country with a 
road running from the Atlantic to the In- 
dian Ocean. It is now possible for passen- 
gers to step on board a train in any Eu- 
ropean capital and steam away across Cen- 



tral Asia for Canton, China, over the 
Chinese-Eastern Railway. 

DIFFICULTIES OF BUILDING ACROSS 
AUSTRALIA. 

In many ways this proposed Australian 
railway line, when it comes to be built, will 
encounter the same difficulties that were 
met in the building of the Union and Cen- 
tral Pacific roads. There is no mountain 
system to be crossed and no great rivers to 
be bridged, but there are broad reaches of 
desert as hot as those of Arizona and so lit- 
tle known that the maps show blank spaces 
for hundreds of miles in extent. All Aus- 
tralia taken together is within 50,000 
square miles as large as the United States. 
In the interior deserts ten states as big as 
Pennsylvania could be dropped down and 
lost. 

Although the distance to be covered is 
only 1,200 .miles, or as far as from New 
York to the Mississippi River, the cost will 
be something enormous, and the returns 
must, for years, be a matter for conjecture 
rather than a matter that can be figured out. 

The bonus offered is about 15 per cent of 
the entire area of South Australia. The 
United States gave only 25,000,000 acres 
to the Union and Central Pacific for build- 
ing a road twice as long. 

It is confidently believed in Adelaide 
that Canton, China, is to be the great port 
of debarkation for European traffic to the 
east, and that Palmerston, South Australia, 
only ninety-six hours from Canton by fast 
steamer, is to become the great Australian 
seaport to connect with Europe. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



173 



BIGGEST SHIPS AFLOAT 



Steamship records, both for speed and 
size, have been broken of recent years. 

TEE CELTIC. 

One of the greatest steamships now in 
operation is the Celtic. This vessel is 700 
feet long, 75 feet beam and 49 feet deep. 
She is equipped with twin screws and can 
develop seven- 
teen knots an 
hour. About 260 
tons of coal 
daily are neces- 
sary to run her. 
Compare with 
these dimensions 
the first ship of 
the White Star 
line, the old 
Oceanic, built in 
1871, which was 
420 feet long, 41 
feet beam, 31 
feet deep, had 
an average speed 
of fourteen 
knots, and consumed sixty-five tons of coal a 
day. The speed of the Celtic is about 25 per 
cent greater than that olf the Oceanic. She 
has nine decks, with complete accommoda- 
tions for 3,294 persons. It takes 350 people 
alone to look after the wants of the pas- 
sengers. The steerage accommodations are 
better than the best quarters for saloon pas- 
sengers a generation ago. The Celtic has 
eight double-ended boilers, each with four 
furnaces, to furnish power for the quad- 
ruple-expansion twin engines. She has four 
masts and two smoke-stacks. Over two mil- 
lion rivets were used in her construction. 



Nearly 1,400 shell plates of an average size 
of 30x5 feet and about four tons' weight 
were used in the hull, and 13,000 more were 
used in other parts. The Celtic cost about 
$2,500,000. 

For certain kinds of trade it has been 
found that sailing vessels of great size are 
very profitable. As a result, two great six- 




By courtesy of the "Scientific American.' 
THE? "PREUSSEN," THE WORLD'S LARGEST SAILING VESSEL. 



masted schooners and one seven-masted 
schooner have been lately built. In carry- 
ing lumber and the like these vessels have 
made a handsome return on the investment. 
It is a noticeable as well as important fact 
that they are built of steel. In fact, it is 
only by the substitution of steel for wood 
that seven-masters are possible. 

THE STEAM TURBINE. 

Speed as well as size has received the atr 
tention of the 'shipbuilder. In England, 
one of the interesting departures from or- 
dinary methods is the use of a steam tur- 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 




bine in the King Edward VII., 
which was the first passenger 
steamer thus equipped. This 
departure seems destined to 
revolutionize marine transpor- 
tation. 

THE VIPER AND COBRA. 

As far back as 1894, the tur- 
bine showed great success in 
the two torpedo boats, Viper 
and Cobra. The former reached 
a speed of thirty-seven knots an 
hour. The King Edward VII. 
has made an average speed of 
over twenty knots. The weight 
of her machinery is sixty-six 
tons, which is about half as 
much as is required to develop 
equal horse-power in the pad- 
dle-wheel steamer. There is 
almost an entire absence of 
throbbing and pounding. 

THE ARROW. 

The Arrow, a vessel recently 
built for Charles R. Flint, of 
iiew York, has recently at- 
tained a speed of nearly fifty 
miles an hour. Her descrip- 
tion is as follows : Length, 130 
feet; beam, 12 feet 6 inches; 
displacement, 66 tons; horse- 
power, 4,000. She can be 
stripped and converted into a 
torpedo boat at forty-eight 
hours' notiee. 

THE MINNESOTA. 
LARGEST VESSEL EVER BUILT 
IN AMERICA 

The "Minnesota," cargo and 
passenger ship, designed for- 
the Pacific trade between Seat- 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



175 




THE ARROW— THE FASTEST STEAM CRAFT AFLOAT. 



tie, Honolulu, and Yokohama, is the largest 
vessel ever built in America. 

In this vessel, the Eastern Shipbuilding 
Company, of New London, Connecticut, 
has embodied all the features of the great 
White Star liner, "Celtic." The Minne- 
sota is of imposing appearance and is thus 
described: Length, 030 feet; depth, 50 
feet; breadth, 76 feet 6 inches; displace- 
ment, 37,000 tons. Her engines are of 10,- 
000 horse-power, supplied by steam from 
sixteen Niclausse water-tube boilers, which 
will drive the ship at a speed of fourteen 
knots per hour. 

While the Minnesota is designed prima- 
rily for freight, she will carry 172 first 



cabin passengers, 110 second cabin, 68 
third cabin and 2,424 steerage passengers 
or troops, in addition to a crew of 250. The 
speed is fourteen knots and it is expected 
to average twelve knots with the heaviest 
cargoes and in the worst weather. 

In completeness of electric service, of 
cold storage and refrigerator plant, of 
laundry service, ventilation plant and life- 
saving appliances, the Minnesota is the 
most modern and up-to-date vessel yet 
launched. The dining saloons, the cabin, 
library and women's boudoirs, the state- 
rooms and toilet rooms are models of the 
latest discoveries in their respective lines. 
The "Minnesota" originated with J. J.Hill. 




A CABLE THAT GIRDLES HALF THE GLOBE. 

The linklng-up at the new cable at Suva in the Fiji Islands makes one continuous 
British telegraph wire from Britain to Australia. 



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WONDERS OP INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



EGG CANDLING BY MACHINERY 



Egg candling by machinery ia one of the 
modern wonders of the poultry world. In 
ancient times eggs were held up to the sun 
or some strong light, and thereby tested as 
to their freshness. This process was con- 
sidered very slow and far from satisfactory. 



would be rapid and would prove a success. 

In this, several Englishmen participated, 
hut it was left for a "down-east" Yankee to 
devise a machine that would candle eggs, 
and do it with such rapidity that it was 
found necessary to have five women to re- 



■•' ^ - - ■ 




M < 



PACKING 27,080 EGGS PER HOUR, 
At the Chicago Stock Yards. 



A few years ago, when the hig packers of 
the country began to deal in eggs and poul- 
try, the necessity of an egg candling ma- 
chine dawned upon the more progressive 
dealers. Then a systematic appeal was 
made to inventors in all parts of the world 
to produce some kind of a machine that 



move the eggs after having passed through 
the inspection house. In 1892, a machine 
of this kind was put into one of the big 
packing houses at the Chicago stock yards, 
and within a week it was running so 
smoothly that 27,080 eggs were candled in 
an hour's time. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



The egg candler consists of a box or 
house, eight feet square and ten feet high. 
^ Through this runs a shallow trough. Inside 
the house are a set of rollers, which work in 
serew fashion, and over these rollers the 
eggs pass while being inspected. Under- 
neath the rollers is a set of powerful elec- 
tric are lights. Two women stand at thfc 
feeding end of the candler, and pour eggs 
upon an endless belt that carries them in 
upon the rollers. As they roll along the 
inspector picks out the bad and broken 
eggs. The fomier he consigns to the "fer- 

EVOLVING NEW 

In the rapid advance of scientific meth- 
ods of farming, not the least important re- 
sult is that obtained in breeding new kinds 
of grain suitable to the peculiarities of soil 
in the different sections of the country. 
Particular study in this line has been made 
by our agricultural colleges, and marvelous 
are some of the new species developed by 
careful and persistent experiments. 

The stronghold of these experiments is 
the Minnesota State Experiment Station 
associated with the agricultural school of 
the University of Minnesota. From the re- 
sults of the efforts made here, a revolution 
in the production of wheat is promised, if, 
in fact, it has not already been achieved. 

The purpose of the experiments was to 
develop new breeds of wheat. The new 
kinds of grain thus produced show a power 
of increase, both in yield and quality. By 
a process of breeding and careful selection 
a product has been evolved which not only 
stands every test of successfully withstand- 
ing climatic severity, but also shows the 
presence of every essential food quality. 



tilizer" tank, and the latter, to an uppei 
set of rollers which carries them out to a 
woman in waiting, who places them in a 
box marked "broken," or, if they are badly 
cracked, breaks them into a can. 

The eggs that are broken into the can are 
stirred together, and when the can is filled, 
it is conveyed to the cooler, where the con- 
tents are frozen and, later, sold to bakeries. 
The good eggs are placed in cases and put 
into cold storage. It is not an infrequent 
thing for the packers to have 15,000,000 
eggs in storage. 

KINDS OF WHEAT 

!Nb longer is this development in the 
merely experimental stage. The new breeds 
have stood the test also of the farm, and 
the result will doubtless be a bettering of 
wheat harvesting, not only near the section 
where the experiments were carried on, but 
in the wheat area of the whole world; it 
will also result in the addition of great 
wealth to the farming districts. Millions of 
dollars are being added to the value of 
single sections of the wheat raising country, 
and a practical denial is given to a state- 
ment that ere long, there would not be 
enough wheat for the increased population 
of the world. 

The work at the Minnesota station began 
something over ten years ago. The purpose 
was not only to secure new breeds of su- 
perior wheat, but to secure enough of this 
superior breed to enable the farmers to 
profit by the practical use of it. 

The process followed necessitated remov- 
ing the pollen from the flower of one grade 
of wheat to the stigma of the flower of an- 
other. Two breeds of good character are 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



selected in the experiments, one for thte 
father, the other for the mother of the new 
breed. About four o'clock in the morning, 
when the florets of the wheat open, the 
operation is performed, and then the head 
of the wheat is enveloped in a sack of tissue 
paper, in order to keep out insects. It may 
be that some of the good qualities of one 
wheat are mingled with the bad qualities 
of another, when the harvest of the new 
breeds is garnered. Painstaking work, how- 
ever, has finally resulted in new and much 
stronger varieties, and now that they have 
been secured, they will go on reproducing 
themselves, to the benefit of mankind. 

In the process of selection, only the 
hardiest grades were selected for new 
breeding. The best start in life is accorded 
the new wheat, and only the best of the new 
grades are kept. Some kinds were found to 
be too heavy and rank in growth, thus tend- 
ing to "lodging" or falling during periods 
of rain and much moisture. Others were 
found to be especially susceptible to wheat 
diseases. Still others showed a deficiency in 
food quality. In all, over 500 new grades 
were thrown out in the early tests, and less 
than a dozen were retained for the prac- 
tical farm tests. 

Something of the practical results of the 
experiments may be learned from the pro- 
lific qualities shown. In tests where the 
new breeds were grown side by side with 
old wheat, there was an increase in some 
cases of from eight to twelve bushels an 
acre. The new wheat that has been best 
tested so far, is called Minnesota No. 163, 
and shows an average yield of 42.7 bushels 
per acre. Of eight grades tested in small 
experiments, none averaged less than 19.5 
bushels per acre, while the average of six 
breeds w,as 27 bushels, and the average of 
all averages showed 28.1 bushels. 



Tests made comparing the new breeds 
with Fife wheat — one of the old standard 
wheats — showed an increase of four and 
one-half bushels, and an increase of one and 
one-half bushels an acre was made over all 
wheats compared. From these tests it is 
concluded that the new breeds will excel 
the old by at least two bushels, although, 
when it is considered that under ordinary 
conditions the old breeds develop only 
about thirteen to fifteen bushels an acre, 
this seems too small. And yet, when it is 
further considered that in the Dakotas and 
Minnesota about 15,000,000 acres are an- 
nually under cultivation this increase 
means an additional yield of 30,000,000 
bushels. At 75 cents a bushel, the annual 
increase in wealth to the farmers of three 
states only should be about $22,500,000. 
When all these things are considered,, it 
may be readily seen that humanity is a 
great gainer ; for, not only is the greatest 
source of food supply made more hardy, 
more certain and more safe, but the wealth 
of the world is certain shortly to be greatly 
enhanced. 

If this proportion of increased produc- 
tion be applied to the entire wheat-growing 
area of the country, the results to agri- 
culturists would be of almost incalculable 
benefit. 

But the enhancement of the prosperity 
of the farmer through this multiplication 
of the profits of his labor is not the only 
cause for congratulation over the success 
of these experiments. As bread is verily 
the staff of life, and constitutes almost the 
main dependence of millions of lowly fam- 
ilies, whose lot is ever on the verge of want, 
whatever tends to maintain the supply of 
this great staple up to the utmost possible" 
demand, at rates within the means of needy 
multitudes, will be hailed as a boon. 



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179 



THE TWENTIETH CENTURY DAILY NEWSPAPER 

HOW IT IS MADE tfP AND SENT OUT. 



Among the forces that have worked for 
progress in civilization, none is of greater 
importance, and yet is more misunderstood, 
than the modern newspaper. In point of 
both literary and mechanical perfection, 
the American daily paper stands supreme. 
!Not only does the metropolitan paper of the 
United States excel its foreign contempora- 
ries in both bulk and circulation, but it is 
almost entirely free from the blot of sub- 
sidy which smirches so many papers in 
Europe. Being untrammeled by any but 
self-imposed checks or hindrances, the 
American daily is the best exponent of the 
freedom of the press, and in its fearless at- 
titude in all matters, serves the public with 
a unique and honest loyalty. 

While every one is acquainted to a great 
extent with the salient points of American 
journalism as exemplified in any one of the 
many thousand papers constantly read in 
the American household, there is an aspect 
to the progress made in the last few years 
which to the average mind_ is most marvel- 
ous. This is that feature of the work which 
enables a journal to gather the news of the 
whole world, and to deliver it in printed 
form within a few hours of the date of the 
matter chronicled, to thousands upon thou- 
sands of subscribers in their homes, many 
of them hundreds of miles away. To the 
unprofessional mind, the work of this pub- 
lic servant seems lighted by a halo of mys- 
tery. There is, in truth, much about the 
up-to-date newspaper plant to mystify, but 
let us here unravel the mystery. 

For convenience a business-like news- 



paper plant is divided into a number of de- 
partments, usually as follows: editorial, 
circulation, advertising, general business, 
and mechanical. Each of these divisions is 
in charge of a superintendent, whose duty 
it is to see that the work of his department 
goes on with the utmost precision and ac- 
curacy. These superintendents in turn 
confer with each other or are instructed by 
a general manager, as to that ultimate com- 
bination of their forces which produces a 
perfect newspaper. About 600 people con- 
stitute the working force of the metropoli- 
tan daily. From start to finish, from office 
boy to publisher, speed is a requisite. This 
may be understood Avhen it is known that 




BENJAMIN FRANKMN AND HIS PRINTING PRESS. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



from the moment the gathering of a 
day's news begins, until it is printed by the 
half million copies, and is speeding on its 
way, by fast mail, to be read by millions, 
but from six to twelve hours elapse. Let us 
note the process by which news is picked up 
and made of commercial value. 

THE VARIOUS STAFFS. 

At the head of the editorial department 
stands the managing editor, who is respon- 
sible for his department to the editor-in- 
chief and publisher, and to him are respon- 
sible the numerous city, associate and sub- 
editors, and reporters. In general, each of 
the staffs of a paper is made , up of over 
twenty-five men. Those whose work it is to 
issue the evening editions come to work be- 
fore seven o'clock in the morning, relieving 
men already on duty. Until the last regular 
evening edition is printed and away, these 
men are on duty. Overlapping them and 
coming to work about noon, is the staff of 
men who issue the following morning's edi- 
tion. While following upon this other staff, 
comes the third force near midnight, work- 
ing until relieved by the next day's shift. 

Each of these staffs is divided in such a 
manner as most effectually to "cover" the 
news of the world, and to write and prepare 
all reading matter, aside from advertise- 
ments, that appear in the paper. In order 
to do this, a number of men are assigned to 
take care of all the news in certain "depart- 
ments," such as finance, music, the drama, 
railroads, politics, leading editorials, the 
funny column, etc. The routine news of 
the days is gathered in two ways— that 
from out of town by mail or telegraph and 
from special news bureaus and correspond- 
ents, and the city news, through a corps of 
local reporters. The former work is under 



the care generally of the telegraph editor, 
and the latter, under the city editor. 

Telegraph news, while not always as in- 
teresting and valuable as important local 
news, yet plays a great part in every paper 
and relatively costs as much, and fre- 
quently more, than city news. The tele- 
graph editor is assisted by several experi- 
enced men called copy readers. Since prac- 
tically all the matter in the telegraph de- 
partment comes to hand in written form, 
the duty of these men is principally that of 
reading it to see that the matter conforms to 
the general policy of the paper, and to cor- 
rect any superficial errors. These men also 
write the large headings for the telegraph 
news. 

While the work of editing telegraph . 
"copy" in a newspaper office is something 
of an easy task, the gathering of this news 
has reached such a stage of perfection that 
it may be truly called marvelous. In the 
main most papers rely upon some news bu- 
reau for their out-of-town service. Large 
papers, however, retain correspondents in 
many cities (frequently employes of other 
papers), who gather special items not car- 
ried by the bureaus. These correspondents 
are in constant touch with the paper by 
mail and telegraph, and aside from a few 
representatives in very important cities, are 
paid according to the amount of news 
printed. 

THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 

So intricate is the business of a well 
equipped news bureau, that it will be worth 
while briefly to describe the most important 
one of the kind 3 The Associated Press. 
This association is a corporation, not for 
profit, and consists of a mutual organiza- 
tion of over 600 of the most influential 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



181 



papers of the country. Its object is to 
gather the news of the whole world, and to 
serve its associated members therewith. In 
every large city in the world this organiza- 
tion is represented by an experienced news- 
paper man, whose duty it is to gather news 
worthy of national notice in the United 
States. Leased telegraph wire is spread 
across the country in every direction, con- 
necting the principal offices of this organi- 
zation. Special service is secured from the 
world's greatest cables. In times of storm, 
when wires are damaged, the first ones re- 
paired are put in the service of this com- 
pany. Every effort is made to circumvent 
time. The service of foreign news bureaus 
is secured to amplify the work of special 
correspondence. Thus if a queen dies at 
Windsor, a king is crowned at London, a 
new dictator assumes power in one of the 
Latin-American states, or a tribe of Afri- 
can savages swoops down upon a band of 
explorers, the news is flashed almost instant- 
Iv to every newspaper in the association and 
shortly after appears in printed form for 
the edification of newspaper subscribers. 
In smaller cities this news is taken directly 
from the telegraph instrument by an expert 
operator, or is served to the newspaper as 
messages from one of the telegraph com- 
panies. In the large cities, where a number 
of papers are served, the association em- 
ploys a staff large enough to supply each 
paper with type-written manuscript. This 
is usually sent by pneumatic tubes which 
run underground long distances, and con- 
nect the several newspaper offices. 

LOCAL NEWS AND THE REPORTERS. 

The gathering of local news devolves 
upon the city editor and his corps of re- 
porters. By a simple method of keeping 



clippings of all notices of important events, 
to develop, and by carefully tracing down 
every clew that may lead to news, the gath- 
ering of actual happenings of importance 
in the way of news is reduced almost to 
clockwork precision. Every man connected 
with a newspaper is always on the alert for 
news. The reporters are assigned regu- 
larly to certain districts to gather whatever 
turns up in them. Police reporters are de- 
tailed to watch all accidents, crimes, fires, 
etc., that are reported at police stations. 
The society department keeps close touch 
with events of social importance. As in the 
telegraph news department, there is also a 
city news bureau in every large city. This 
bureau has a large corps of men covering 
routine work, such as courts, police sta- 
tions, city, county and state offices, etc. 
Thus it is that all papers print, practically, 
all the news worth printing. Of course, a 
certain paper, through the large acquaint- 
ance of its best men, may now and then 
secure exclusive news, called a "scoop," but 
in the long run, one paper prints as many 
exclusive items as another. 

ESSENTIAL QUALITIES IN THE NEWS- 
PAPER MAN. 

Of the newspaper man, himself, it may 
be said that he is essentially a worker. All 
sorts of ideas and things are material for 
him to work upon. His occupation is to 
him the breath of life. 

Above all, to succeed, this man must use 
his every opportunity to the best advantage. 
To the person who knows nothing of his 
labors, he appears simply as the genial 
critic, editor or reporter, with something of 
a halo about him, denoting that he lives a 
life free from care and always to be envied. 
While there are phases of this sort in the 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



life of the newspaper writer, they are ex- 
ceptional, and the true basis upon which 
such men build their success is strenuous 
exertion. From beginning to end of his 
work day, he must be constantly on the 
alert for information that may develop into 
• a "story" for his "sheet." True, nowadays, 
the management of a great newspaper is so 
methodical that a great deal of the work of 
the reporter or editor is laid out for him 
hy men in higher authority. Yet, every 
moment there is some call upon even the 
youngest of the craft to exercise judg- 
ment and caution and a discrimination that 
is not often necessary in other callings. 

To the powers that be in the realms of 
news, there is no such word as faiL If a 
rival journal has a piece of news exclu- 
sively, some one is responsible for its ab- 
sence from your paper. It does not matter 
how many exclusive "stories'* a man may 
deliver, how many "scoops" he may secure 
for his paper, if he is beaten, they count for 
naught If he cannot do as well always as 
men on rival papers, he will lose his posi- 
tion. 

And, further, the efficient newspaper 
worker must have 'perception and adapta- 
bility to handle a piece of news when he 
hears it. The well-equipped man is he who 
can write intelligently of a technical legal 
ease as readily as of a midnight fire, of 
things financial with as much facility as 
of social matter. . He must be able to grasp 
instantly the essential details of any occur- 
rence thlat may be of value as news. Such 
a man has a smattering of legal knowledge, 
of the fine arts, of medicine, to say nothing 
of the intricate mazes of polities and politi- 
cal jobbery, of the wickedness of the under 
world and a hundred and one other phases 
of human action. 



REPORTING A FIRE. 

The actual course of a news story from 
the moment of the happening to the time it 
appears in print is something of a dra- 
matic affair. If it is a big fire, when the 
fire alarm sounds on the special bell in the 
newspaper office, the city editor locates the 
conflagration and dispatches from one to 
ten men, including artists and photog- 
raphers, to the scene. Generally these work 
under the direction of one man. Every 
detail possible is secured. The "office" is 
informed every few moments by telephone 
how the fire is progressing, and whether 
people are heing burned or saved, etc. If 
the hour is late and occasions extreme haste, 
one man will telephone a connected story 
of the event to his office, and there it is 
amplified by an inside man. Pictures are 
taken and hurried back to headquarters for 
engraving. 

"SCOOP" OST A STTICTDE. 

If the story, instead of being common to 
other papers, is to appear exclusively in one 
paper, great secrecy is maintained. For 
instance, the writer overhears in a popular 
Chicago cafe, shortly after midnight, a con- 
versation between two army officers about 
the suicide of a well-known military man 
at a fashionable hotel, on the eve of his 
wedding. Such news is "hot," and if true, 
would possibly be exclusive. Every effort 
is made to obtain the facts without arousing 
suspicion, and the next morning rival news- 
papers are filled with envy over a great 
"scoop." 

THE CITY EDITOR. 

After .the "copy" of a newspaper "story" 
has been prepared by the reporter it gen- 
erally passes through the hands of the city 
editor or one of his principal assistants, 



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183 



• who judges of its news value in order to 
decide how important a position it shall 
- hold in the printed paper. 
" THE COPY READER AND PROOFREADER. 

From him it is turned over to the copy 
readers*whose duty it is to correct all errors 
due to haste- — for haste is the one great 
requisite in newspaper work. They also 
write the large headings and intersperse 
sub-headings throughout the article. From 
the copy readers' desk the story travels to 
the typesetter, thence to the proofreader 
and back, in the shape of printed proof, 
to the editors and copy readers, who watch 
for errors which the proofreader may have 
overlooked. The course of the passage of 
the story through other processes will be 
found farther on, in the description of the 
other departments of the newspaper plant. 

THE COMPOSING ROOM. 

The composing room is the place where 
the typesetter, busy amid the hum of intri- 
cate machinery, puts into print the articles 
prepared by the advertising and editorial 
departments. The work done in setting the 
big display advertisements, which bring 
wealth to a newspaper, is done in much the 
same manner that typesetting was done 
years ago- — by hand. This also is the case 
with most of the big headings of news 
articles. The setting of small advertise- 
ments and of the body of the paper is done, 
however, by machinery. 

THE LINOTYPE. 

The linotype machine which, as its name 
indicates, sets a line of type by machinery 
is one of the greatest inventions of the age. 
Its basic features were developed by Mer- 
genthaler. This machine does the work of 
tnany men, and with such speed and accu- 



racy that it is worthy of special notice. It 
has the appearance of a gigantic typewriter, 
and has for its main principle the auto- 
matic dropping of tiny brass molds for 
certain letters and figures, when certain 
keys are depressed. These molds are called 
matrices, and when a line of them has been 
set, they are flooded b3 r a combination of 
molten lead and zinc, thus forming a line 
of type. 

The linotype operator sits before his key- 
board with his "copy" in front of him. 
With deft fingers he gently depresses the 
keys until he hears the warning of a bell, 
which tells him a line of matrices has been 
set. Then he presses on a lever at his side, 
the line is cast in metal, and a great arm 
reaches down, picks up the line of matrices 
and places them at the top of the machine 
for distribution. And here comes in one 
of, the most delicate functions of the ma- 
chine. Each matrix or mold, besides bear- 
ing the imprint of a certain character, is 
grooved much in the same manner as is a 
Yale key. Each of these grooves and their 
combination signifies the character the 
matrix represents. At the top of the ma- 
chine is a distributing bar, which resembles 
a constantly revolving screw. After the 
line of type has been molded and the arm 
has delivered the line of matrices at the 
top of the machine, this distributing bar 
seizes them. They travel along on the 
screw until the grooves of the various 
matrices find their mates at little openings 
above the magazines which hold the mat- 
rices before use. Thus as each matrix is 
sifted from its mates by means of the 
grooves, it finds its way into the magazine 
for that letter, and is once more in readi- 
ness to be released upon the pressure of its 
particular key. 



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185 



After an article or advertisement has 
been set up in type, it is hurried over to 
the "form" or "make-up" table, where it 
is assigned its particular place in the p&ge 
of type, is locked up in a great chase, and 
is sent to be stereotyped preparatory to go- 
ing on the press. 

STEREOTYPING. 

The stereotype department is the out- 
come of the necessity for rapid printing on 
cylinder presses. When the old-style hand 
or flat presses are used, type is frequently 
used just as it is set Where newspapers, 
however, are turned out by the half million 
copies daily, another method is necessary. 
As soon as the form of a page of type is 
delivered to the stereotype department, it 
is the duty of the workers there to cast a 
duplicate of it in type metal, but in the 
shape of a half cylinder. This shape is 
needed in order to fit on the cylinder rollers 
of the steam printing presses. 

The method of making this plate neces- 
sitates first the making of a mold which 
can be bent. This is done by taking an 
impression of the form in something that 
resembles papier mache. Thin layers of 
prepared tissue paper, with a sprinkling of 
a floury preparation between them, are 
placed on the page of type. Then the whole 
form is run through heavy steam rollers. 
This presses the paper well down into all 
the indentations of the type or illustrations 
in the page. In turn, this is run into a 
steam chest, where, in a very short time, 
the preparation is baked stiff. When the 
mold is removed, it resembles heavy paste- 
board, and is the exact facsimile of the 
page of type. This matrix can be bent 
readily and placed within a cylindrical 
chamber, when it is at once flooded with 



type metal. Almost before the metal is 
cool enough- to have congealed, the stereo- 
typers have opened the molding chamber 
and have placed the semi-cylinder or plate 
upon an apparatus where all the imperfec- 
tions may be chiseled out and the rough 
edges planed off. This work is so rapid 
that in a well-ordered department the plates 
are delivered hot to the press room. Dif- 
ferent plants use somewhat different meth- 
ods, some sending the plates by elevators 
down to the press room, and some of them 
being located in the basement of the build- 
ing, adjoining the press room, receive the 
type forms from the composing room, and 
send them back by elevator. 

THE PRESS BOOH. 

Everything so far in the passage of the 
newspaper story from reporter to pressman 
has worked on rush orders and on schedule 
time. This is necessitated because the 
presses must be started at just the same 
moment every day. Great newspapers have 
subscription lists containing names of read- 
ers hundreds of miles from the city of 
printing. The papers to these readers must 
be sent over certain routes by fast mail 
trains, and to miss a train means that a 
rival newspaper will be read in many a 
town the next day, to the exclusion of its 
competitor. Thus in the editorial room an 
hour is set, a "dead line," so to speak, after 
which nothing can be written which will 
appear in regular editions of the paper. So 
is it with the composing room. Certain 
pages must "go down" to the stereotype 
room at certain specified times. The whole 
process from writer to press in rush times 
is frequently less than half an hour, but 
this is not the constant speed of the 
plant. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



THE PRESSES. 

.Now, when the stereotyped plates are re- 
ceived at the press room the bustle begins 
in the great department of steam, machin- 
ery and noise. With almost lightning-like 
rapidity, the plates are clamped two on a 
cylinder of a press. The size of the paper 
to be printed regulates the speed of the 
press, as well as the number of cylinders 
to be used. Thus a great 20 or 24-page 
paper, coming from one press, means a 
dozen cylinders whirling. 

Before the cylinders have been clamped 
into place, orders have been issued as to the 
size of the paper. Great rolls of paper, on 
spindles like gigantic spools, have been 
rolled into place on traveling cranes, and 
grouped about the presses, ready for imme- 
diate use. Some of them are already in 
place in the presses, like several spools of 
thread in a sewing machine. When the 
plates are all in order a signal is given, 
every man gets out of the way of the dan- 
ger of crushed arms or legs in the immense 
rollers, and the steam is turned on by a 
great lever. 

FEEDING PAPER PROM GREAT ROLLS. 

The paper is fed from the rolls on the 
spindles down between the revolving cylin- 
ders and smooth steel rolls. This causes 
the impression, and prints the newspaper. 
In guiding the paper through the rolls cloth 
tapes are necessary, to prevent the paper 
from slipping. After the paper is printed 
it passes over certain knives, paste brushes 
and folders, which sever the paper from 
the continuous roll, paste the leaves in 
position, when this is necessary, and fold 
the paper ready for the street. All this 
is done so rapidly that it can be counted 
only by machinery. Papers with only a 



few pages can be run out, ready for de- 
livery, at the astounding rate of 48,000 an 
hour. An order was recently placed with 
R. Hoe & Co. for seven double octuple 
presses, equal to 28 quadruple machines, or 
112 ordinary single-roll presses. These 
will print on eight rolls of paper the width 
of four newspaper pages, and when running 
to the full capacity the output from each 
will be equivalent to 200,000 eight-page 
sheets per hour. Eighteen hundred feet of 
printed webs of paper will pass through one 
of these machines every minute. The 16- 
plate cylinders each carry eight stereotyped 
plates, and 64 pages can be printed at will, 
in black or -in colors. 

FROM THE PRESS ROOM TO THE 
READER. 

From the press room to the reader is 
comparatively as rapid as the other opera- 
tions of the plant. Bundles, of several hun- 
dred at a time, are seized from the presses 
and hurried by automatic devices — little 
traveling elevators and cars — to the deliv- 
ery room. Here crowds of newsboys and 
delivery men are eager to speed them on 
their way. Those papers that are to be 
read in the city of publication are hurried 
by fast wagons, elevated trains and street 
cars to every section, business or residen- 
tial, of the great metropolis. On the morn- 
ing newspaper this is done while the greater 
portion of the town still sleeps. The papers 
that are to be sent to suburban villages and 
distant towns take another course. The 
circulation department has already had pre- 
pared lists of all readers and dealers who 
get the paper. These lists indicate the 
post office address of subscribers, number 
of papers subscribed for and. date of - expi- 
ration of subscription. Long before the 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



187 



paper is printed, expert "mailers" have 
deftly pasted the little yellow slips from 
these lists on the wrappers in which the 
papers are to be mailed. This operation is 
done by means of a little machine called 
the "mailer," which can be used by one 
hand and made to paste the slips very 
quickly. When the papers are received 
from the press room, the workmen in the 
mailing room seize bundles of them, count 
them out accurately and swiftly, wrap 
them, bundle them into United States mail 
bags, and hurry them off in wagons to catch 
the fast mail trains. 

MAKING THE ILLUSTRATIONS. 

One of the great adjuncts to the latter- 
day journal is its illustrative features. A 
paper that does not print pictures, and 
many of them, is playing, as a rule, a losing 
game. This necessitates a photographic art 
and an engraving department. When an 
artist or photographer returns from an 
assignment to secure a certain picture for 
the columns of the paper, great speed is 
generally required. . If it is a sketch, the 
artist has been working out his idea on the 
way to the office, in his cab or in the street 
car. In his studio, he rapidly makes the 
drawing of fire, wreck or person. Fine 
white Bristol board is used, and India ink 
leaves the lines black, for the engraver. 
The photographer, in case a photograph is 
to be used, has hurriedly developed his 
plate, and from it has had a picture printed 
on sensitized paper. Perhaps the artist 
must retouch this picture or redraw its 
fainter lines in ink. This is hurriedly done 
and the results are taken to the engraver. 
Here either of two methods may be used. 
One is the half-tone process, which is used 
principally for photographs of persons, and 



the other is the zinc-line etching for black 
and white drawings, sketched by artists. 

In the latter method a "wet-plate" pho- 
tograph is made of the artist's work, pos- 
sibly of several sketches at once. This wet- 
plate photograph is much like the ordinary 
dry plate negative of the snap-shot photo- 
graph camera, excepting that the gelatine 
with which the glass is coated is yet wet 
when the picture is exposed. This gelatine 
is developed by ordinary photographic 
methods. Then the gelatine of several pic- 
tures is removed from the first glass used 
and pasted on heavy plate glass, a number 
of pictures in a group. After these have 
been dried hard by heat from a gas stove, 
this plate of pictures is enclosed in a frame 
with a sheet of zinc, sensitized after the 
manner of photographic paper. The plate 
is now exposed to the glare of an arc light. 
The sensitized zinc receives the impression 
from the light and negative, and after it 
has been developed and eaten down by 
acids, and by machinery which routs out 
imperfections, we have engravings of the 
pictures first drawn "or photographed, now 
ready for mounting on metal bases for the 
printed page. In half-tone work, the 
process is similar, but when the photo- 
graphs or artist's drawings are being pho- 
tographed, fine screens intervene between 
the plate and the pictures, in order to give 
the mellowed shadings of the finer engrav- 
ings. 

Besides the departments already de- 
scribed there are the distinctively business 
offices, without which no paper can thrive. 
The circulation department canvasses, 
schemes and plots to secure a large num- 
ber of readers for the paper. All sorts of 
devices are made use of. Prizes are of- 
fered, books and pictures are given away, 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



and great quantities of advertising matter 
are sent out by hand and by mail. Men 
are paid fabulous salaries for ideas to 
swell the circulation lists. 

THE ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT THE 
ONLY SOURCE OP PROFIT. 

Of equal importance is the advertising 
department, which secures the large and 
small advertisements that are printed in all 
great papers, and from which the publish- 
ers obtain their profits, or, at least, the 
means to operate the newspaper; for, be 
it known, few newspapers make great 
profits. In fact, many are run at a loss, 
to support political parties, or to give power 
to some great capitalist, or, possibly, even 
as playthings for rich people. The adver- 
tising department maintains a corps of 
solicitors and clerks to gain business for the 
paper. Argument is constantly used as to 
the great circulation of this particular jour- 
nal. Want advertisements, such as "ser- 
vants" wanted, or other similar business 
or domestic wants, have become such a 
great feature in the advertising department 
of the paper that, in laTge cities, branch 



telephone offices are established all over 
town to facilitate their collection and 
transmission to headquarters. The adver- 
tisements of the great department stores 
frequently serve as the support of a news- 
paper. Big stores frequently use $25,000 
worth! of advertising in a single paper in a 
year. 

The expenses of running a newspaper 
plant are very great. It should be known 
that hardly any large paper ever makes any 
money from its subscription list. The 
paper on which the journal is printed near- 
ly always costs more than the printed 
papers bring in return. It is the advertis- 
ing which counts, and the circulation list 
counts in turn only as it can give greater 
publicity to the advertising and thus serve 
as the means of securing much advertising 
matter and high advertising rates. It is 
figured, generally, that if a plant can de- 
liver its publication without losing money 
on its selling price, it is in excellent con- 
dition. This, of course, is seldom the ease 
with great Sunday papers, with their 50 
and 60 pages of expensively-written and 
illustrated articles. 




FOUR O'CLOCK A. M. — NEWSBOYS WAITING FOR THE ^AILT PAPERS. 

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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



in reclaiming land under water, which is 
the property of the operating company. 
The material used consisted of 3,500,000 
lineal feet of piles, 170,000 tons of con- 
crete and monolithic blocks, 90,000 cubic 
yards of sandstone masonry, 32,000 square 
yards of dry sandstone pavement, 260,000 
barrels of cement, used in all masonry, and 
24,000 square feet of iron roofing. 

LARGE TRACT OF NEW LAND MADE 
THROUGH EXCAVATION. 

Two hundred and sixty acres of land 
were reclaimed during the construction, be- 



ing filled in with the excavated material; 
2,800 lineal feet of navigation docks were 
built ; 22 miles of rails were laid and oper- 
ated. The excavation was carried on with 
an equipment of eight steam shovels, 24 
locomotives and 350 four-yard dump-cars, 
all work being carried on night and day, 
excepting Sundays. 

The approximate cost of the entire right 
of way, canal, power-house, equipment, 
docks and appurtenant works, developing 
57,000 horse power, is about $4,000,- 
000. 



THE WORLD'S STUPENDOUS GRANARY 



Fifteen million barrels of flour is the 
annual output of the world's greatest gran- 
ary, at Minneapolis. For some time this 
city of the Northwest has been recognized 
as the largest primary wheat market of the 
world, and also the greatest milling center. 

Thousands of persons make annual trips 
to Minneapolis to see the great mills, and 
observe the process by which several train- 
loads of wheat are turned into flour in one 



day. But the methods of flour making have 
undergone so many radical changes within 
the past few years that men who were once 
experts in the business would now be 
novices. 



GREAT INCREASE IN CAPACITY 
FLOURING MILLS. 



OF 



The number of flouring mills in Minne- 
apolis is no greater than it was 20 years 
ago, but the present annual output of 15,- 




WHEAT FIELD, DAKOTA. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



191 



000,000 barrels exceeds that of 20 years 
ago by more than 650 per cent, and this in 
the face of the fact that some of the larger 
plants manufacture, in addition to their 
flour product, immense quantities of the 
different kinds of breakfast cereals now so 



LARGEST FLOUR MILL IK THE "WORLD. 

As an illustration, the Pillsbury mill was 
constructed in 1880 with a daily capacity 
■ of 5,000 barrels, but it has been improved 
until its capacity is now 14,000 barrels. 
This is the largest flour mill in the world. 




A MAMMOTH GRAIN ELEVATOR— "THE GREAT NORTHERN," AT DULUTH. 



commonly used. The gain in capacity is 
due to the fact that most of the mills have 
been enlarged from time to time and 
equipped with the very best modern ma- 
chinery. 



MECHANICAL PROCESSES OF A GREAT 
PLOTJR MILL. 

The flour mills of the present are a won- 
derful triumph of scientific industry, and 
when in full operation one of them seems 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



almost a thing of life. The wheat is shov- 
eled by machinery from the car into a large 
pit, from which it is taken into the endless 
machinery of the mill. It is then hurried 
on, this way and that, through secret pas- 
sages, from one side of the big mill to the 
other, now up, now down, through this 
machine and that, until finally every kernel 
is divided into as many component parts 



ducts a portion of the Mississippi upon a 
big wheel, and all the intricate machinery 
in the giant mill responds with a harmony 
that seems almost human. 

DECREASE IN PRICE OF FLOUR. 

Incidentally it may be mentioned that 
while the mills have been increasing their 
capacity and improving their processes the 




DUST COLLECTORS AND PURIFIERS, PILX.SBURY "A" MILD, 



as the processes number, and each part 
drops into its own receptacle. It has been 
forced through all these by the mill's own 
machinery, without having been touched by 
human hands or seen by human eyes. No 
one is watching to see if it takes the proper 
course, or if any part of the machinery 
does its work j a lever is pulled which con- 



price of the product has been steadily de- 
creasing. In. 1880 the average profit on a 
barrel of flour was about Y5 cents, while 
now the millers think themselves fortunate 
when they figure np their profits and find 
that about 20 cents is realized after all ex- 
penses have been paid. 

It must not be inferred from this that 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



193 



the business of milling Las reached, a crisis^ 
or that the meager profits on a barrel of 
flour, as compared with those of the early 
days, have affected the milling industry. 
The price of flour has been reduced through 
natural causes, but the reduction has been, 
perhaps, more than offset by the increased 
capacity of the mills through the introduc- 
tion of modem madanery. Ihe lucrative- 



duced the price of grain carrying to ter- 
minal points in Minnesota nearly, if not 
quite, 66 per cent. But little more than 
ten years ago it cost twenty-six cents a hun- 
dred pounds to ship wheat from Min- 
neapolis to Chicago; to-day the same 
amount is carried for ten cents. Twenty 
years ago it cost from 15 to 18 cents a 
bushel to aMfi wheat from Duluth to Bui- 




GRINDING FLOUR, PILLSBURY "A" MILL. 



ness of all the large manufacturing indus- 
tries to-day depends upon the great volume 
of the output rather than upon the large 
percentages of profit. 

THE NE1W MONSTER ELEVATORS. 

Twenty years ago a car carried about 
four hundred bushels, but those now being 
built carry twelve hundred bushels. The 
building of new roads and improvements in 
methods of transportation have also Te- 



falo; to-day a rate of three cents a bushel 
would be excessive. At that time a good 
cargo was 30,000 bushels; now those fig- 
ures may be multiplied by ten. A great 
grain market, created and fostered by an 
extensive system like that at Minneapolis, 
ha3 made a radical change in the problem 
of storage construction. 
THE MODERN TERMINAL ELEVATOR. 

The modern terminal elevator, which is 
a child of necessity, has reached its present 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



development through as |iD 
many evolutions, per- 
haps, as those of the 
modern flour mill. 
There has been no 
change in recent years 
in the methods of oper- 
ating a terminal eleva- 
tor, except that in gome 
cases electricity has been 
substituted for steam 
as power, and that in a 
few instances, the grain 
is conveyed by pneu- 
matic tubes instead of 
by cup-belts. • But the 
shape and material of 
the structures have been 
completely revolution- 
ized. Some years ago, in this process of 
evolution, steel began to supplant wood as 
building material, and the Great [Northern 
steel elevator of Duluth, which is capable 





GRINDING FLOUR, PILLSBURY "A." MILL. 



By courtesy of the "Scientific American." 
BAKING BREAD IN ELECTRIC OVENS. 



of storing more grain under one roof than 
any other elevator in the world, is made 
wholly of steel. 

OUTSIDE STORAGE TANKS. 

Cylindrical 
tanks for storage 
next began to be 
erected outside 
of and separate 
from the eleva- 
tor, instead of 
the long bins in 
the elevator 
proper. Some 
are made of 
steel, some of til- 
ing and some of 
cement. A wide, 
flat, rubber belt 
carries the grain 
from the upper 
story of the ele- 
vating plant, or 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



195 



working house, to the tanks, and discharges 
it through a hole in the roof. When 
grain is shipped from a tank it is conveyed 
from the bottom of the structure through 
a subterranean passage to the elevator pit 
on a belt similar to the overhead belt which 
carries it to the tank. From the pit it is 
elevated to the shipping floor and spouted 
to a ear. 

It is possible to keep grain making this 
circuit continu 



ously, from the 
pit to the top of 
the "working 
house" by the 
cup-belt to the 
top of the tank 
by the horizon- 
tal belt, to the 
bottom of the 
tank by gravita- 
tion, and then to 
the elevator pit 
again by the un- 
derground pas- 
sage. Somtimes, 
damp grain is 
treated in this 
way to dry it. 



insurance. Being strictly fireproof no in- 
surance is carried on the structure or its 
contents. Thus, while the mills have passed 
from the primitive to the modern era, and 
the methods of transportation have been im- 
proved, the elevators have kept pace with 
these improvements. 

STATE SUPERVISION OF TERMINAL 
GRAIN MARKETS, 

In addition to the great industries al- 



A conveying belt 
is three feet 




TESTING SAMPLES OF FLOUR, PILLSBURY MILLS. 



wide, and the stream of grain which falls 
upon its surface is from six to seven inches 
in diameter. A six-inch stream will empty a 
tank of about five thousand bushels of wheat 
in an hour. Each plant consists of a dozen 
of these tanks, more or less, and their 
capacity is about 100,000 bushels each. 
These are much more expensive than the 
old-style houses, but the extra expense is 
offset in a few years' time by the saving in 



ready mentioned, Minnesota has a system 
of state supervision over the grain market 
at its terminal elevators, in which the grain 
dealers of the whole world are vitally in- 
terested. Other states adopt similar meas- 
ures, but do not compare in efficiency with 
this big cereal state of the northwest. Cer- 
tificates issued by Minnesota are accepted 
without question. In Illinois, the elevators 
are regulated by state commissioners. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



THE GRAIN PRODUCTION OF THE UNITED STATES, IN BUSHELS, FOB CERTAIN 
YEARS, IS AS FOLLOWS: 





Indian Corn. 


Wheat. 


Oats. 


Barley. 


Rye. 


1890 


1,489,970,000 


339,262,000 


532,621,000 


67,168,344 


25,807,472 


1895 


2,151,138,580 


467,102,947 


824,443,537 


87,072,744 


27,210,070 


1900 


2,105,102,516 


522,229,505 


809,125,989 


58,925,833 


23,995,927 


1901 


2,111,107,411 


531,645,723 


811,745,654 


59,634,156 


23,756,435 


1902 


2,412,110,376 


533,472,076 


812,465,000 


60,474,001 


24,656,374 




FILLSBURY "A" MILL. THE LARGEST FLOUR MILL IN THE WORLD. 

BARRELS DAILY. 



CAPACITY, 15,000 



From the following tahle, taken from the 
"Year Book of the Department of Agricul- 
ture," may he seen the relative food values 
possessed by various grades of flour, to- 
gether with the refuse matter. 



Components. 



i -a a 3 



lis 



°4i 



Water 12.75 11.75 12.25 12.85 

Proteids 10.50 12.30 10.20 10.30 

Ether Extract. . 1.00 1.30 1.30 1.05 

Ash 50 .60 .90 .50 

Moist Gluten. . . 26.00 34.70 24.50 26.80 

Dry Gluten 10.00 13.10 9.25 10.20 

Carbohvdrates . 75.25 74.05 75.65 75.30 



From the same authority are tabulated 
the following figures pertaining to a repre- 
sentative brand of self-raising flour. 



Components. ,52 fes 

Water 12.30 12.75 11.75 

Proteids (factor 6.25). 10.10 10.50 12.30 

Moist Gluten 27.00 26.00 34.70 

Dry Gluten 9.65 10.00 13.10 

Ether Extracts 70 1.00 1.30 

Ash 4.00 .50 .60 

Carbohydrates 72.90 75.25 74.99 



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197 



RAILWAYS, THE ARTERIES OF COMMERCE 

IMPROVEMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF RAILROADS. 



The entire steam-track mileage of rail- 
ways in the United States, in 1902, was 
204,787. To this must be added 70,105 
miles of second and side-track, making a 
total of 274,892 miles of track. In other 
parts of the world there were 300,000 miles 
more, which gives our own country about 
two-thirds of the entire mileage of the 
world. 

If the actual cost of construction and 
equipment, the production of the materials 
out of which the lines are built, the em- 
ployes engaged in railway operation, and 
the interests which depend for their pros- 
perity on the railway, are considered, it 
may be safely said that the 
railway is the greatest indus- 
trial factor in the world. 

In the handling of these 
great agencies of commerce, 
may be seen the handiwork 
of the skillful executive, and 
the able and efficient finan- 
cial management for which 
our American roads are 
noted. Then, too, ingenious inventors, are 
devoting their attention to the bringing for- 
ward of new ideas and new devices to pro- 
mote the construction of an up-to-date 
railroad. 

In every direction, East, "West, North or 
South, old roads are being reconstructed 
and new ones are being built, with the ut- 
most care to assure the permanency of their 
tracks, the economy of their administration, 
and the comfort and safety of passengers. 
Heavy, ninety-pound steel rails have sup- 



planted the light ones of iron, and rock 
ballast is now used instead of sand, as here- 
tofore. Steel bridges span the streams, 
where once wooden structures sufficed. Iron 
culverts lessen the danger of being burned 
away, and curves and grades are straight- 
ened or leveled wherever such a thing is 
possible. In the mountainous district, tun- 
nels are being dug through the earth that 
the trains may not have to surmount steep 
grades. In the large cities the roads are 
being elevated or are already elevated, thus 
eliminating grade crossings, and the perfec- 
tion of various block 
and safety signals and 



■ 




By courtesy of the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company. 
THE FIRST COAL-BURNING LOCOMOTIVE. 

safety switch systems, helps to give addi- 
tional security to traffic and make high 
speed possible. 

MODERN TRAIN EQUIPMENT. 

Train equipment has improved with the 
increase in travel and the railway journey 
may now offer comforts and luxuries at a 
moderate price. But recently have the east- 
ern railroads put on "Twentieth Century" 
trains, which make the run from Chicago to 
New York, a distance of 940 miles, in 20 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



Lours. Such, trains are equipped with pal- 
ace sleeping and dining cars, drawing room 
and observation cars, a library, barber shop, 
cafe, card room and music room. These 
trains are lighted with electricity and are 
considered the most handsome and com- 
modious in the world. 




Modern, Up-to-Date Dining Car on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul System, 

RAILWAYS ABROAD. 

In every part of the world a spirit of 
energy rules in railway construction. On 
our own continent, our neighbors to the 
!N"ortb and South are active. One transcon- 
tinental line crosses Canada, a second will 
soon be completed to Hudson Bay, and the 
Mexican Republic has, within a recent 
period, completed the construction of 



10,000 miles of railway within its borders. 

Surveys have also been made for an in- 
tercontinental railway to connect North and 
South America by way of the Isthmus of 
Panama. In South America, the Andes 
range of mountains has been a difficult ob- 
stacle for transatlantic lines to overcome, 
but already the moun- 
tains have been pene- 
trated and within the 
next five years the 
locomotive will be able 
to run from ocean to 
ocean. The Argentine 
Republic and Brazil 
have also been pene- 
trated with lines of 
railway, and even in 
Asia, the whole pol- 
itical and military sit- 
uation has been af- 
fected by the construc- 
tion of the Trans- 
Siberian railway, built 
by the Eussian gov- 
ernment. 

Trains on the Si- 
berian railway are equipped as our own 
railways in America are, with sleeping and 
dining cars of Russian pattern. These 
trains also have bathrooms, gymnasiums 
and a church car, which travels with the 
train at intervals, in which priests hold 
services for the benefit of the faithful while 
they are speeding through the heart of 
Asia. 




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199 



GREAT TUNNELS OF THE WORLD 



While America possesses several ingeni- 
ously constructed bores in the earth for 
means of transit, it does not claim a reputa- 
tion for great tunnels. The greatest length 
of any tunnel in the United States is the 
Hoosac tunnel, four and three-quarter miles 
long. Most others do not much exceed a 
mile. It consumed 21 years to build the 
Hoosac tunnel and cost 
$15,000,000. Of late 
years, rapid transit in 
the great cities has be- 
come such a serious 
problem, that its solu- 
tion, in some cases, has 
lain in the construction 
of underground rail- 
ways, so that the city 
streets may be relieved 
of their great conges- 
tion. For years, the 
engineers of the world 
have been at work to de- 
vise the best methods to 
construct these tunnels. 



struction a system that will rival that of 
London. The New York undertaking is 
marvelous. Twenty-one miles of tunneling 
has to be done under the busy traffic of the 
most congested city of this continent. The 
streets are threaded with conduits, sewers 
and gas and water mains, and, sadly 
enough, one great disaster has occurred 



t, '% " v 



■ ■ ----V. tin '<-. ' 



LONDON'S THREE 
TUNNELS. 



^Jpif- L Pi * fx 




London has been suc- 
cessful already, and now 
possesses three great un- 
derground railway sys- 
tems, besides having in 
projection several oth- 
ers. The systems cost over $200,000,000 
and were completed only after scores of con- 
tracts had been made and broken. The 
mileage of these systems is about 150 miles. 
BOSTON AND NEW YORK TTJNNEXS. 
Boston has a very good system for short 
distances, and New York has under con- 



By courtesy of Lawrence & Cj. 

SHIELD SHOWING MODERN METHODS OF CONSTRUCTING WATER 
CHANNELS FOR LARGE CITIES. 

Tunnel extends three miles under Lake Michigan to Intake. This picture is 
taken 200 feet underground by flashlight. The construction of the tunnel Is made 
by means of compressed air. 



through an explosion which cost many lives, 
and wrecked some of the great buildings of 
New York. When the subway is completed, 
it is expected that the 21 miles can be 
traversed in about 18 minutes. The time 
required at present is over an hour. The 
bore is 50 feet wide, reaching almost from 



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200 WONDERS OF INL 

curb to curb of the street above it, and is 17 
feet high. It traverses the city from the 
post office building to Ninety-sixth street, 
and is so constructed that it will accommo- 
date four tracks. Two of these will be used 
for express trains, and two, for locaL The 
cars will be equipped individually with mo- 
tors, and will be run by electricity. At cer- 
tain points the tunnel reaches near the sur- 
face, so that stations may admit people to 
the trains. Here the tunnel is flat-roofed, 
and is supported on pillars. From the post 
office to Thirty-third street there is one 
main tunnel, and at this point, it branches 
into two tunnels. At Forty-second street, 
the tunnels come together again, and so 
continue to the end. Enameled brick is 
used for lining the bore, electric lights, 
placed in niches in the wall, illuminate the 
place, and entrance to and exit from the 
tunnel are made by separate stairways. 

THE CHICAGO TUNNEL. 

Chicago is discussing at present the feasi- 
bility of subways for its crowded street car 
traffic. Already there is a bore constructed 
many feet below its principal thorough- 
fares, almost large enough to admit cars. 
This tunnel is to accommodate conduits for 
compressed air tubes for the transmission 
of mail and express packages, and for tele- 
graph, telephone, and electric light wires. 
It will probably be only a short time before 
the right will be given to widen this 'tunnel, 
and street cars will be run through it. 

PARIS METROPOLITAN RAILWAY TUN- 
NEL. 

Of city tunnels, that which the Paris 
Metropolitan Railway built for its three 
transverse lines, all of which, one above the 
other, run under the Grand Opera House in 



STRIAL PROGRESS 

Paris, is among the most notable. The 
stage portion of the "Opera" is 12 or 14 
stories high, four or five .of which are un- 
derground, and one wonders how much of 
a subterranean journey a passenger will be 
obliged to take to board a train on the neth- 
ermost of the transverse lines, that running 
from Autenil to La Madeline. 

The Alps are most notable for great tun- 
nels. There is the Arlberg, six and a half 
miles long; the Mount Cenis, seven and a 
quarter miles; St. Gothard, nine and a 
quarter miks, and Simplon, which will be 
1214 miles long when the builders get 
through the mountain. 

THE ST.. GOTHARD TUNNEL. 

About 1855, when the people of the 
Alpine country tired of packing their goods 
by mules over the mountains, they resolved 
upon a tunnel. Work was begun, in 1857, 
with pick axes and crowbars. The work 
was done both in France and Italy, but so 
slow was the method that from two to eight 
feet a day, only, could be bored. After 
driving at the rocks for five years, a 
Frenchman, named Sommeiller, invented a 
drill that could bore a hole in 20 minutes 
which men could not dig in two hours. 
After that the work went on at a greater 
pace, and the tunnel was finished in 1871. 

RAILROAD THIRTY-ONE MILES LONG-, 
COSTING 352,000,000. 

Communication by tunnel had hardly 
begun between France and Italy when work 
was begun on the St. Gothard railway. 
This necessitated more tunnels, and the re- 
sult was the most stupendous system in ex- 
istence today. The St. Gothard tunnel has 
its northern entrance near the small village 
of Goeschenen, Switzerland. It is 14,920 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



201 



meters in length, and has a double roadway. 
It "vvas finished about 1881, and the time 
consumed in its construction was eight 

.'years. This road, though a short one, was 
built at an expense of $52,000,000, passing 
through one of the most mountainous coun- 
tries of the world, crossing 14 viaducts, 115 
bridges, and traversing 79 tunnels, with an 
aggregate length, of about 31 miles. The 
railway follows the valley of the Reuss 
River, running southward from Lucerne, 
and rising gradually as it passes the jagged 
Spannorter, and the glacier of Schlossberg. 
Every mile of progress entails tedious as- 
cent, for the route lies past the Britenstoek, 
Oberalphstock, arid the Grosse Windgall, 
mountains, over 10,000 feet high. When 
the grade becomes too steep for the moun- 
tain-climbing locomotive, the road dives 
through the heart of the mountain and 
winds spirally upwards in constant ascent. 
In one of the tunnels, called the Pfaffnes- 

, prung loop, a rise of 155 feet is attained, 
and the road then comes out upon a terrace, 
where the climbing is easier. Next comes 
the Wattinger tunnel, where another in- 
cline takes the road for an ascent of 75 feet. 
At this point the line turns upon itself in a 
long loop until the Liggestine tunnel is 
reached, and another ascent of 82 feet is 
made. Shortly, the great St. Gothard tun- 
nel is reached, and the road plunges through 
nine and a quarter miles of solid rock. 
From this point, gradually, it begins its 
downward course through the interiors of 
four mountains, at last reaching the plains 
more than 3,000 feet below. The tunnel of 
St. Gothard passes under a mile of solid 
earth, to say nothing of the Lake of Sella, 
which lies about two-thirds of a mile above 
its roof. Towering 6,000 feet above the 
tunnel, is the Kastlehora. So great is the 



pressure of the earth on the tunnel that 
twice it crushed in. Eow the roof and walls 
are held in place * by huge arches of ma- 
sonry, 15 feet thick at the sides, and ten 
feet, at the roof. The building of the tun- 
nel took one year for each mile and the cost 
was $11,350,000. With the most improved 




MINE TUNNEL, COLORADO. 



drills, compressed air, etc., the workmen 
could progress only 14 y 2 feet in a day. 

THE AKXBERG TTTNTJEL. 

Another great bore through the Alps is 
the Arlherg. This is about as long as Mt. 
Cenis, — six and a half miles, — yet it took 
only about one-fourth of the time to bujld 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



it. It wa8 begun in 1880, and progressed 
at the rate of 27% feet a day, finishing in 
1884. This tunnel facilitates trade in Aus- 
tro-Evungary by connecting the province of 
Von Arlberg, through the Arl mountain, 
with the rest of the Austrian Tyrol. 

Prince Torlonia built one of the earliest, 
successful, European tunnels, between 
1854 and 1876, over the route used by 
Emperor Claudius, of Rome. The old em- 
peror is said to have used 30,000 laborers, 
for 11 years, on this tunnel, to drain Lake 
Fucino, which at that time covered 48,000 
acres of fertile land. Soon after it was 
first completed, however, it fell into ruins. 
Prince Torlonia rescued it at an expense 
of $4,800,000. It is three and a half miles 
long, and in some places, runs 400 feet 
below tbe surface of the ground. 

MT. CENTS TUNNEL. 

JUt. Cenis Tunnel is situated 16 miles 
from Mt. Cenis between the province of 
Turin in Italy and the Department of La 
Savoie, in France, at the junction of the 
Graian with the Cottian Alps. Its total 
length is 40,084 feet or 7.6 miles. The 
elevation of the southern entrance above 
the sea is 4,237 feet; of the northern en- 
trance, 3,802 feet; of the terminating 
point, 4,247 feet. The tunnel is broad 
enough for two double lines of tracks. It 
was begun August 31, 1857, completed De- 
cember 26, 1870, and cost $1,500,000. 

The first tunnel built in the United 
States was that on the Union Canal, con- 
structed between 1818 and 1821. It was 
450 feet wide, 20 feet high and 80 feet 
wide, but has since been made an open cut. 
Twenty months' building put through a 
noted subwater tunnel for the Grand Trunk 
Railway under the St. Clair river. This 



bore is 6,050 feet long, and cost $3,000,- 
000. Many of the western railways of 
the United States have tunnels that they 
may well be proud of, although generally in 
this country, tunnels are avoided where pos- 
sible by making detours. The Great 
Northern Railway has a tunnel in Mon- 
tana over 6,000 feet long, and Mullen's 
tunnel, on the route of the Northern Pa- 
cific Railroad, strikes through the Conti- 
nental Divide of the Rocky Mountains. 

At Idaho Springs, Colorado, is being 
constructed, to facilitate mining operations, 
a tunnel which starts at the base of the 
mountain, and will penetrate the range at 
a depth of many thousand feet below the 
mines, which are worked far up toward 
the summit. Its course lies through about 
86 of the best known and most productive 
gold and silver veins in Colorado. 

THE SIMPLON TUNNEL. 

As to the Simplon Tunnel, the longest 
in the world, The "Engineering Record" 
says: "The northern terminus of the tun- 
nel is readily reached by railway from 
Geneva. Its purpose is to save about 
seventy-seven kilometers in the railway dis- 
tance between Paris and Milan, as com- 
pared with the Mont Cenis and St. Gothard 
routes. This saving is between seven and 
eight per cent of the total distance, and to 
effect it will involve the expenditure of 
69,500,000 francs. 

"The total length of the main tunnel will 
be 19,770 kilometers; elevation of first 
portal, 686 meters; second portal, 634 
meters; summit height of tunnel, 704 
meters ; summit height of mountain, 2,840 
meters; surcharge of tunnel, 2,135 meters; 
maximum rock temperature, cent, degrees, 
40.0." 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



SCIENCE THE BENEFACTOR OF THE FARMER 

WONDERFUL ACHIEVEMENT BY THE IOWA EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 



"How can I best feed my corn to increase 
its feeding value V has been a leading ques- 
tion -with thousands of fanners for years. 
The idea of marketing the grain on the 
hoof in the form of beef or pork, instead 
of in a bag, is not a new one, but while 
corn is conceded to be the greatest of all 
meat-forming cereals, there is something 
lacking. In order to secure this something, 
the farmer mixes with hi3 corn some con- 
centrated feed such as cottonseed meal, 
linseed meal, blood meal, gluten meal or 
gluten food. 

PROTEIN AN ESSENTIAL IN CATTLE 
FEED. 

The element lacking in raw corn is nitro- 
gen, commonly termed "protein." Protein 
is necessary to form bone, muscle, lean 
meat, tissue, the hair on animals and the 
feathers on fowls. It is most difficult to 
grow economically; hence the use of con- 
centrated feeds which contain from two to 
four times as much protein as corn in its 
raw state. The corn and other grains fed 
in connection with these concentrated feeds 
form what is known as the "balanced ra- 
tion/' the value of which was discovered 
in 1864 by Dr. Emil von Wolff, the emi- 
nent German scientist, who published, for 
the first time, standards based upon the di- 
gestible nutrients of feeding stuffs. It was 
Dr. Wolff's idea to determine the feeding 
ration that would supply in the correct pro- 
portions the carbonaceous, nitrogenous and 
fatty elements necessary to secure the best 



growth and development of our farm ani- 
mals, without the waste of any of the nu- 
trients. 

Farmers did not take kindly to the idea 
at first, — "nothing can improve corn," they 
said; but the agricultural colleges proved 
that Dr. Wolff's methods were not only 
practical, but absolutely necessary to in- 
sure the greatest profit in the development 
of young, growing animals., and finishing 
cattle, hogs and sheep for market. To-day, 
thousands of progressive farmers use, and 
understand the value of, the "balanced ra- 
tion," but, large as the growth of the idea' 
appears, it ia nothing compared with what 
the future will bring forth. The work of 
Dr. Wolff, aided by our own scientists, has 
been worth millions of dollars to the Amer- 
ican farmer, and these millions will be in- 
creased tenfold as the adoption of the bal- 
anced ration grows apace. 

When the hot winds of the summer of 
1891 seared the growing corn and de- 
stroyed a large portion of the crop, the 
fanners and feeders were confronted with 
the most serious problem in the history of 
their business. A short corn crop, no grass, 
and a heavy demand for beef and pork, 
brought them face to face with an almost 
insurmountable difficulty, unless they could 
feed the grain then rapidly advancing in 
price, at a profit. Farmers who had adopt- 
ed the balanced ration began to think and 
figure more closely as to the probable value 
of concentrated feeds, — which of them con- 



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WON DEBS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



tained the highest percentage of digestible 
protein, — which of them would produce 
the greatest gains in flesh f yr the amount 
of feed consumed? This S'.rious study of 
the feeding question has undoubtedly re- 
sulted in greater progress and enlighten- 
ment during the year 1892 than in the pre- 
vious ten years combined. 

PATENT MEDICINAI STOCK FOODS. 
People -who talk about the beef trust and 
complain about trust prices, have not the 
remotest idea of the trials and tribulations 
of the man who produces the beef. One 
of the greatest evils with which the farmer 
has to contend is the patented, medicinal 
stock-foods, manufactured at a cost of less 
than $30 per ton, and sold at prices rang- 
ing from $150 to $200 per ton, or more. 
These mixtures usually consist of the cheap- 
est of mill feeds, such as bran, low grade 
corn meal, wheat middlings, etc, to which 
has been added a small amount of sulphur, 
Epsom salts, charcoal, fenugreek and other 
drugs. The manufacturers claim that these 
mixtures will not only promote digestion 
and increase the appetite, but will cure 
every ill that the animal is heir to ; the same 
mixture that is recommended to cure gapes 
in fowls is also recommended to cure hog 
cholera, and guaranteed to make cows give 
more milk. The makers of the so-called 
foods with all the force of the English lan- 
guage at their command, played upon the 
credulity of the farmer to such an extent 
that thousands bought heavily, hoping to 
make their corn crop of 1901 last longer 
and fatten the stock quicker, but in a major- 
ity of cases the result was the opposite from 
what was expected. Other disturbers of the 
farmers' tranquillity were the scarcity of 
feed, and thie high prices of animals suit- 
able for finishing at a profit. 



THE IOWA AGBICULTTJUAIi COLTjEOB 
EXPERIMENT. 

In January, 1901, the question of feed- 
ing cattle in such a way that would net the 
farmer a profit became almost a national 
issue. To settle the question of feeds, and 
especially, medicinal stock foods, the Iowa 
College of Agriculture decided to plan and 
conduct a feeding test that would deter- 
mine the feeding value of the various con- 
centrated feeds, as well as the several makes 
and brands of stock foods on the market. 
It was the idea of its promoters to make 
this test the most extensive of its kind. 
There hkd been numerous other tests, but 
all had been on such a small scale as to be 
of no practical value to the farmer. 

The test as planned was carried to a suc- 
cessful termination on a famous Western 
farm. From a herd of over 700 range 
steers, 220 representative animals were se- 
lected, and all were of as uniform quality 
as it was possible to get them. The bunch 
of 220 was divided into eleven lots of 20 
head each placed in separate feed lots 
under conditions such as can be secured on 
any farm in the corn belt. Wheat straw 
was the "roughness," and corn the only 
grain fed throughout the entire test. Lot 
No. 1 received a daily ration of corn and 
wheat-straw; the other lots were fed on 
concentrated feeds and medicated stock 
foods, as follows : Lot No. 2, linseed oil meal ; 
lot No. 3, cottonseed meal ; lot No. 4, glu- 
ten meal; lot No. 5, gluten feed; lot No, 
6, germ oil meal; lot No. 7, blood meal; 
lot No. 8, Iowa stock food; lot No. 9, Inter- 
national stock food; lot No. 10, Standard 
stock food; and lot No. 11, corn and green 
pasture/ 

The feeding test extended over a period 
of 94 days. The steers had previously been 



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205 



fed a partial grain ration for several 
months, and were just good average ani- 
mals. At the conclusion of the test the 
cattle were sold on the Chicago market, and 
the results published by the Iowa experi- 
menters in an official bulletin. In the table 
of profits as given by the bulletin, a wide 
variation is shown; the rations of gluten 
meal, and corn and wheat straw, returned 
a net profit of $3.50 per steer, more than 
was returned by the ration of corn and 
wheat straw alone; the gluten feed and 
corn returned a net profit of $3.11 more 
than the straight com ration. The medi- 
cated stock foods proved to be a detriment 
to the feed of corn, the net profit, per steer, 
being from $1.40 to $8.16, less than was 
returned by the straight corn ration. There 
was an advantage of 97 cents per steer in 
feeding dried blood, 48 cents, in green pas- 
ture, and 36 cents, in oil meal. Cotton- 
seed meal resulted disastrously; after 42 
days, several of the steers died suddenly, 
and the rest went blind and were mar- 
keted. 

The test further proved that corn worth 
around 60 cents per bushel on the open mar- 
ket, actually returned a net value of 93 
cents per bushel, when fed alone ; $1.04 per 
bushel, when fed in connection with gluten 
meal ; and $1.03 per bushel, when balanced 
with gluten feed ; but the value was reduced 
21 and 22y 2 cents per bushel, when the - 
medicated stock foods were used. 

Professor W. J. Kennedy, vice director 
of the Iowa station, and instructor in Ani- 
mal Husbandry, originated the experiment 
and with the aid of his assistants, Pro- 
fessor F. R. Marshall and B. J. Kinzer, a 
graduate student, had entire charge of 
the work. All are young men, yet in 
the "twenties," and are enthusiastic in 



their work of teaching the fanner how. 
to feed along scientific (common-sense) 
lines. Professor Kennedy says that 
this was undoubtedly the greatest feed- 
ing experiment ever undertaken in this 
or any other country. It proved that no 
matter how high or low the price of corn 
may be, its value may be increased by add- 
ing the by-products of the grain known as 
gluten meal and gluten feed. The fanner 
may now sell a portion of hi3 corn crop, 
feed these "concentrates" liberally, and not 
only save a part of the money made by the 
sale of his own corn, but realize a greater 
profit from his fat cattle. This, though 
astonishing, is nevertheless a fact. 

BY-PBODUCTS OP CORN. 

In the march of scientific progress, the 
farmer has received a good share of the 
benefits. Corn, the most versatile of all 
our farm crops, is made to yield nearly 100 
separate and distinct products, of great 
value to art and science. Of these by-prod- 
ucts gluten meal is made by first soaking 
the grain; then, by mechanical devices, the 
different parts of the kernel are separated. 
First the germ is taken out, and then the 
hran, which is the husk of the corn, is sepa- 
rated from the gluten and starchy portions ; 
the gluten and starch are then separated by 
a filter process; the starch, being the 
heavier, sinks to the bottom, while the 
gluten runs off, and is kiln-dried and 
ground into meal. Gluten feed is a mix- 
ture of gluten meal and fancy corn hran. 
Both of these products are highly concen- 
trated and contain a high percentage of 
digestible protein, the element lacking in 
raw corn. The fanner can buy in one ton 
of either of these feeds, as much flesh mate- 
rial as there is in three tons of corn, and at, 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



practically, the same price that a single ton consider the Odebolt test the greatest 
of grain will cost. achievement in the history of the cattle in- 
Prominent feeders throughout the West dustry. 

POULTRY KILLING BY MACHINERY 

Poultry-killing by machinery is the THE fattening BOOM. 

latest innovation made by the big packers In describing this twentieth-century 

at the Union Stock Yards, Chicago. In method of slaughter, let us begin at the 

olden times the method used for slaughter- time when the chicken or turkey reaches 

ing fowls was to catch them, and wring the packing house. The fowls arrive in ear 




KILLING 10,000 CHICKENS, 8,000 DUCKS AND 6,000 TURKEYS PER DAY. 



their necks or chop off their heads with an lota and are at once transferred to the 

ax or large cleaver. To-day that process "feeding-room," where they are kept for 

has been superseded by one that, while it ninety days, to "fill out." Then, if at 

may not seem humane, is by far the most the end ,of that period they are found 

rapid method ever introduced for killing to be fat enough to slaughter, the killing is 

chickens, ducks, geese or turkeys. begun. 



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207 



THE KILLING FLOOR. 

From the feeding room to the "killing 
floor" there is a chute through which the 
fowls are "shot" into a cage which acts ag 
a receptacle on the floor below. Standing 
directly in front of this cage is a man 
whose duty is to lift the birds from the 
cage and place them upon an endless chain, 
which runs directly in front of him. In 
placing the fowl upon the endless chain it 
is turned upside down, both feet being 
placed in small prongs, spread a sufficient 
distance apart to make picking possible. 

Then a weighted tin can, which weighs 
about eight ounces, is attached to the bill 
of the fowl by a "snap." The bird is still 
alive. 

This ends the man's duty at the cage, 
and the bird moves along to the next man, 
who sticks an awl into its gullet, which kills 
it. Then the blood drips down into the 
weighted can and later finds its way to the 
fertilizer works, where it is xitilized. After 
this operation the bird continues on its 
way, passing en route 20 men, each of 
whom, in turn, removes a few of the feath- 
ers as it passes along. Eight of these men 
are stationed inside a great iron cage, and 
it is their duty to pick off the best feathers, 
which are saved and sold to pillow manu- 
facturers. 



When the fowl has reached the end of the 
chain it is taken off by a man and passed 
over to an inspector. Should there still 
remain any small feathers upon it, it is 
taken to a hook which projects from the 
wall, and there gone over by a "cleaner." 
At the conclusion of this operation, if the 
inspector is satisfied, it is placed upon the 
racks, and within a few minutes, is wheeled 
into the big coolers. This is what is known 
as the dry picking process. 

THE SCALDING- PROCESS. 

There is also a scalding process, which 
is operated upon a similar plan, only that 
after the bird has been "stuck," it is drawn 
along on an endless chain, which carries it 
through a "scalding tub," where the feath- 
ers are removed. It then goes into a "cool- 
ing tub," and later, finds its way to the 
cooler. 

So rapid is this method of killing fowls 
that in a day of ten hours, 10,000 chickens, 
8,000 ducks and 6,000 turkeys may be 
slaughtered. The average wages earned by 
men in this department are $1.75 per day. 
It is not an uncommon thing for the pack- 
ers to have 40,000 fowls in the "feed room" 
at one time. This enables the shippers to 
cool and pack to advantage. 




GIGANTIC ICEBERG OF NORTHERN GREENLAND. 



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208 



wonders of industrial progress 



HOW GLASS IS 

Glass making has come to be one of tLe 
fine arts. Not only is much of our domestic 
ware made of glass, but bric-a-brac costing 
thousands of dollars, exquisite colored win- 
dows, and even delicate scientific instru- 
ments come from the hands of the glass- 
maker. 

MELTING THE SILICATES. 

The minerals used nowadays for glass 
manufacture consist principally of sili- 
cates, such as lime, potassium, lead and 
soda, and other ingredients are used, in- 
cluding phosphorous, magnesium, tin, iron 
and bismuth. These ingredients are mixed 
after a proper formula and are heated for 
weeks in great porcelain crucibles, spe- 
cially prepared for the occasion and ending 
their service with one baking. 

For weeks, a terrific heat is kept up 
within a great furnace, and this mixture is 
finally brought to its proper molten con- 
sistency. The master workman repeatedly 
tests the glass by means of a stirring pad- 
dle, through what is called the "glory" 
hole. When the mixture is just right, a 
large iron mold, which is to receive the 
fiery mass, is brought up ready for the 
pouring, and placed between the heating 
furnace and another furnace known as the 
"cooler/' The inside of this iron mold is 
dusted with a quantity of fine sand, to pre- 
vent the absorption of impurities from the 
iron by the glass. After these preparations 
have been made, a signal is given, a num- 
ber of workmen tear down the walls of the 
furnace, and by means of a huge pair of 
tongs on wheels, the crucible is lifted and 
drawn from the furnace. The workmen, 



MADE TO-DAY 

lest the glass lose too much of its heat, cover 
the crucible over with a mat of asbestos 
until it has been brought to the iron mold. 
The grappling irons on the crucible are 
changed so that by means of pressure on a 
bar, the pot may be overturned. The sec- 
ond signal is given, and gently, without 
great splutter or noise, the fiery liquid 
flows into the mold. 

This mold is covered by an iron lid, and 
a crane picks up the whole thing and run- 
ning it along a portable tramway, slides 
the cast glass into the cooling furnace. 

FINISHING LENSES. 

Gradually, during several weeks, the 
glass gives up its heat within this furnace. 
When it is removed, it looks more like 
sanded glass than a future object glass for 
a great telescope. Polishing now must be 
done until the lens becomes clear. Even 
then it is not ready for scientific uses, for, 
after the testings to which it is put, it must 
go back once more to the furnace for a bet- 
ter heating, and be perfected to anneal. The 
next cooling takes about two months. Then 
the real lens makers set to polishing it to a 
degree of extraordinary fineness. When 
the bare glass, free from serious flaw,- 
reaches the hands of the lens maker it is 
worth about $5,000; when it leaves him 
it has grown in value very much — some- 
times as much as $28,000. 

MAKING THERMOMETER TUBES. 

Of other kinds of glass manufacture, 
that of. making thermometer tubes is very 
interesting. The heating of the glass is 
much the same as in other methods. The 



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209 



furnaces are within a long corridor. At 
the right temperature, a "workman plunges 
a blow pipe into the glass, attaching a small 
lump of the molten material to the end of 
it. This for some time is blown and 
whirled, until it grows to about the size of 
an apple. A little more glass is then 
added, and the lump is rolled and kneaded 
on an iron kneading board. When the 
proper amount of rolling has been done, 
another workman quickly attaches the end 



of his blow pipe to the glass, and runs 
rapidly backwards away from the other, 
down the corridor. Eoth men all the time 
blow fiercely into their pipes. In a trice 
they have a small glass tube about the size 
of one's finger, and perhaps 300 feet long, 
lying on the floor of the corridor. This can 
readily be broken up into desired lengths 
for use in thermometers, barometers and 
other scientific instruments. 



IRRIGATION OF THE NILE REGION 



BARRAGE AT ASSIOTJT— 2,750 FEET LONG. 




SOUTH OR UPSTREAM SIDE OF THE DAM AT ASSOUAN, FROM WEST BANK. 

Total length, VA miles; maximum height above foundation, 130 feet; difference of water level above and 
below, 67 feet. Total weight of masonry, over 1,000,000 tons. 



The monumental dam at Assouan, which 
is by far the greatest achievement of its 
kind in ancient or modern times, forms a 
reservoir in the Nile valley capable of stor- 
ing 1,000,000,000 tons of water, practically 
creating a lake more than 140 miles long. 
The foundation stone was laid by the Duke 
of Connaught on February 12, 1899. At 
times fifteen thousand men have been em- 
ployed, and work has gone on day and 



night. At other times, when the Kile was 
in flood, labor had to be suspended for sev- 
eral weeks. 

One gains a clearer idea of the magni- 
tude of the task by recalling the first step 
taken; that was, to divert the channel and 
excavate in the rocky river-bed a trench one 
hundred feet wide and as many feet deep, 
in which to lay a concrete foundation for 
the massive piers. 



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At its best, and controlled, the Nile is 
very generous, as befits the majesty of its 
three thousand miles". Joseph the Israelite 
drew some of his prosperity from it. One 
of the irrigation canals he planned for 
Pharaoh's people is still in use. But in 
most moods the Nile is a sullen and incon- 
stant stream, and even in the days when 
Egypt was the granary of imperial Home 



until, of recent years, the British recon- 
structed them. This work consists, in 
effect, of two brick arched viaduets cross- 
ing the Bossetta and Damietta branches of 
the Nile, having, together, 132 arches of 
16-feet-four-inches-span, which were en- 
tirely closed by iron sluices during the sum- 
mer months, thus heading up the water 
about 15 feet and throwing it at a high 




THE GREAT DAM AT ASSOUAN. 
Entrance to locks of navigation channel from the south. 



there seems to have been no comprehensive 
attempt to govern it. 

Napoleon had a faint perception of the 
thing that needed to be done when he sug- 
gested a dam near Cairo. That, he real- 
ized, would double the cultivable area 
around the river's mouth. In the earlier 
portion of the 19 th century two barrages 
were actually built at that spot by a French 
engineer — badly built, however, and useless 



level into the six main-irrigation canals be- 
low Cairo. In the summer months the 
whole flow of the Nile is arrested and 
thrown into the aforesaid canals. 

The most important of the works con- 
structed to enable the water stored up in 
the great reservoir to be utilized to the 
greatest advantage is the barrage across the 
Nile at Assiout, about 250 miles above 
Cairo, which was commenced by Sir John 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



211 



Aird & Company in the winter of 1898, 
and completed in 1902. In general prin- 
ciple this work resembles the old barrage 
at the apex of the delta; but in details of 
construction there is no similarity, nor in 
material, as the old work is of brick and 
the new one is of stone. The total length 
of the structure is 2,750 feet, or rather 
more than half a mile, and it includes 111 
arched openings of 16 four-inch spans, 
capable of being closed by steel sluice- 
gates 16 feet in hight. 

The object of the 
work is to improve the 
perennial irrigation of 
lands in Middle Egypt 
and the JFayoum, and 
to bring an additional 
area of about 300,000 
acres under such irriga- 
tion by throwing more 
water at a higher level 
into the great Ibrahim- 
ick Canal, the intake of 
which is immediately 
above the barrage. 

The total length of 
the dam is about a mile 
and a quarter ; the maximum height from 
the foundation is about 130 feet; the 
difference of level water above and below, 
67 feet; and the total weight of masonry 
over 1,000,000 tons. Navigation is pro- 
vided for by a "ladder," of four locks, each 
260 feet long by 32 feet wide. As with 
the ease of Assiout, the difficulties in dam 
construction are not in design, but in the 
carrying out of the works. When "rotten 
rock" in the bed was discovered, Sir Ben- 
jamin Baker frankly reported to Lord 
Cromer that he could not say what the 
extra cost and time involved by this and 



other unforeseen conditions would be, but 
that, however bad the conditions, the job 
could be done. He was told to go ahead 
with the work. 

The' first channel was successfully closed 
on May 17, 1899, the depth being about 
30 feet and the velocity of the current 
about 15 miles an hour. In the case of 
another channel, the closing had to be 
helped by tipping in railway wagons them- 
selves, loaded with heavy stones and bound 




THE NAVIGATION CHANNEL ENTRANCE LOCKS PROM THE NORTH. 

together with wire ropes, making a weight 
of about 50 tons — this great mass being 
necessary to resist displacement by the tor- 
rent. These rubble dams were well tested 
when the high Nile ran over them ; and on 
work being resumed in November, after the 
fall of the river, water-tight sand-bag dams, 
or "sudds," were made around the site of 
the dam foundation in the still waters above 
the rubble dams, and pumps were fixed to 
lay dry the bed of the river. 

This was the most exciting time in the 
early stage of the operations, for no one 
could predict whether it would be possible 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 




LOOKING TO THE EAST ALONG THE TOP OF THE 
DAM. 

Regulating gear for sluices to the right. 

to dry the bed, or whether the water would 
come pouring through the fissured rocks in 
altogether overwhelming volumes. Twenty- 
four 12-inch centrifugal pumps were pro- 
vided to deal if necessary with one small 
channel; but, happily, the sand bags and 
gravel and sand embankments staunched 
the fissures in the rock and the interstices 
between the great bowlders covering the 
bottom of this channel, and a couple of 
twelve-inch pumps sufficed. 

ABMY OF WORKERS. 

The masonry of the dam is of local gran- 
ite, set in British, Portland-cement mortar. 
The interior is of rubble set by hand, with 
about 40 per cent of the bulk in cement 
mortar, four parts of sand to one of cement. 
All the face work is, of course, rock-faced 
ashlar, except the sluice linings, which are 
finely dressed. The maximum number of 
men employed on this dam was 11,000. 

OLD SYSTEM OF IRRIGATION. 

The old system of irrigation was little- 
more than a high Nile flooding of different 



areas of land or basins surrounded by 
embankments. Less than a hundred years 
ago, perennial irrigation was first at- 
tempted to be introduced by cutting deep 
canals to convey the water to the lands 
when the Nile was at its low summer 
level. When the Nile rose, these canals 
had to be blocked by temporary earthen 
dams, or the current would have wrought 
destruction. As a result, they silted up, and 
had to be cleared of many millions of tons 
of mud each year by enforced labor, much 
misery and extortion resulting therefrom. 

Moreover, the old canals and the dams at 
the delta barely touched the surface of 
Egypt's irrigation problem, the problem of 
avoiding drouth and making waste lands 
fertile. The great dams at Assouan and 
Siut, "inaugurated" in the summer of 
1903, go to the bottom of things in more 
than one sense of the word. 

At Assouan, near the First Cataract) 
nearly six hundred miles from Cairo, 
the Nile is a mile wide. The dam 
is a quarter-mile wider, a great granite 
wall that rises ninety feet above the 




EARLY IRRIGATION IN EGYPT. 
Most primitive methods ot farming prevail. 



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213 



level of low Nile, and is sixty feet wide at 
the top. 

« When the river is in flood, its waters 
gush through one hundred and eighty mas- 
sive sluice-gates. In autumn the sluice- 
gates are closed until the reservoir thus 
formed is full, ready to be distributed 
through canals and ditches over the agri- 
cultural land on either side. In April and 
August, when the water is most wanted for 



the crops, the supply in the lower river is 
increased from the reservoir. 

THE DAM AT SITTT. 

At Siut, about half-way between Assouan 
and Cairo, is a subsidiary dam a half-mile 
wide, with more than one hundred sluice- 
gates. Broadly speaking, the two reservoirs 
add $400,000,000 in land values to the 
region covered by their operation. 



OLIVE CULTURE ON AN EXTENSIVE SCALE 

THE WORLD'S BIGGEST OLIVE ORCHARD. 



The United States has no rival as far as 
climate and other resources are concerned. 
In the West India Islands which we have 
acquired, in Samoa, in the Hawaiian 
Islands, and in the Philippines, can be 
produced every tropical product tbat has a 
commercial value. Hereafter, we may grow 
our own spices and tropical fruits, our 
coffee and our hemp, and numerous other 
peculiarly tropical productions, which are 
not produced iu the United States proper. 

RESOURCES OF THE DOTTED STATES IN 
CLIMATE AND SOIL. 

In our own country, between the Atlantic 
and the Pacific, from British America on 
the north, to Mexico on the south, we have 
such a variety of resources from the soil 
and the mountains, from the forests and 
the plains, as to make us almost absolutely 
independent of the world's markets, if by 
chance we should be isolated from them. It 
is true that no part of the United States is 
in the tropics, yet in Southern California 
and Florida the balmy climate makes the 
cultivation of most of the more important 
tropical plants possible. 



In Southern California is located the 
largest olive orchard in the world. There 
are also others that outclass the olive 
groves of the Mediterranean in size. Only 
in a limited area of central and southern 
California, and in New Mexico and 
Arizona, can the olive be produced, in this 
country. It is quite certain, therefore, 
that there will not be an over production. 

ORIGIN OF THE OLIVE IN CALIFORNIA. 

Olive orchards in Italy are looked upon 
as perpetual fountains of wealth. It is 
more than a hundred years since the first 
of these orchards was planted by the Span- 
ish mission fathers of California, who did 
so much to influence the early industries 
and life of that state when it was a part 
of Spanish Mexico. The success of their 
olive-tree cultivation proved the adapta- 
bility of the climate, and ever since that 
time the industry has been steadily grow- 
ing. From the olives that are grown in 
California is produced from 24 to 31 per 
cent of oil. They are richer and more 
palatable, when pickled, than are the im- 
ported green olives from Italy, ' The de- 



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W0NDSR8 OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



mand for ripe olives is steadily on the 
increase, and in the year 1902 it was about 
30 per cent more than in the preceding 
year. 

THE OLIVE TREE MORE VALUABLE 
WHEW OLX>. 

The older the olive tree becomes, the 
more valuable it is to its owner, because of 
its prolific bearing. The wood of olive 
trees is highly prized by cabinet makers, 
for it is exceedingly hard and susceptible 
to a high polish. 

THE WORLD'S BIGGEST OLIVE ORCHARD. 

This mammoth enterprise is located at 
Sylmar, twenty miles from Los Angeles, 
California, in a beautiful amphitheater in 
the Sierra Madre mountains. 

The ranch contains more than 120,000 
trees. There are 1,200 acres under cultiva- 
tion, covering an area whose greatest length 
is three miles and whose breadth is two and 
one-half miles. Each acre contains 110 
trees, and it is estimated will produce 2,000 
gallons of olives yearly for the next 20 
years. This amount will make 250 gallons 
of oil, which, at $2 per gallon, will make 
the revenue $500 per acre. There are forty 
miles of roads within the ranch. Two hun- 
dred and ten thousand dollars has been in- 
vested in the orchard and $15,000 in the 
factory. The crop of 1903 is valued at 
$225,000. 

TEN TIMES LARGER THAN SPAIN'S 
GREATEST. 

Although the olive tree has been culti- 
vated for more than 4,000 years, and olives 
have formed a staple food of some of the 
oldest races of earth, yet the young orchard 
at Sylmar is ten times as large as the 
largest olive orchard in Spain or the Holy 
Land. 



One hundred and fifty men are employecl 
in gathering the olives in harvest time, 
which is throughout the months of Novem- 
ber, December, January, and on into Feb- 
ruary. The olive berries frequently weigh 
down the branches until they touch the 
ground. Two hundred pounds is a good 
average day's pick, at an average wage of 
about $1.50 per day. 

The' Sylmar ranch was planted about 
1894, and the trees yield about 50 pounds 
of olives each. An olive tree does not come 
into bearing until it is four or five years 
of age. As the trees are supposed to live 
4,000 years, indeed, some of the trees on 
the Mount of Olives, in the Holy Land, are 
known to be over 3,000 years old — an olive 
orchard may be reckoned on permanently. 

BILLOWY EXPANSE OF SILVER GRAY. 

The big olive orchard at Sylmar presents 
a vision of surpassing loveliness. As far as 
the eye can reach it is one sweeping, bil- 
lowy expanse of silver gray. The olive 
trees themselves are not unlike willows in 
their graceful, somewhat drooping, sil- 
houette. The trees are arranged in orderly 
rows, and near at hand one sees the pecul- 
iarly beautiful shade known as olive green, 
which becomes a silver gray whenever a 
breath of wind discloses the under side of 
the leaf. In the distance the perspective 
reduces the size and assembles the trees, 
producing an effect much like a waving 
field of grain. 

The earth on the surface is always care- 
fully pulverized, and, consequently, the 
water has been drawn up by capillary at- 
traction. There is a strong underground 
seepage from the surrounding hills. 



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215 



MAMMOTH SICILIAN OLIVE TREES. 

In Sicily, olive trees have been known to 
."attain enormous size, one having grown to 
the dimensions of 26 feet in circumference, 
with an expanse at the top of fully 150 
feet. 

Italy produces, annually, 70,000,000 gal- 
lons of olive oil; Spain, 23,000,000, and 
the United States, about 7,000,000. 

The olive berry always grows on new 
wood, and, in order to increase the yield, 
the tree is "cut back" and new wood springs 
out, which bears fruit the second year. It 
is said that the roots of the olive tree extend 
as far into the earth as the branches rise 
above the soil. 

GATHERING THE CROP. 

The olives are carefully gathered in can- 
vas buckets made for this purpose, and are 
brought to the factory in spring wagons, to 
keep them from bruising. The berries are 
gathered when ripe, although "ripe" olives 
are frequently "green" in color. After they 
reach the factory the olives are graded into 
"ones," "twos," or "threes," according to 
size. They are then put into a solution of 
one pound of lye to ten gallons of water. 
This takes out the bitterness. Here they 
remain a week to ten days. Then the lye 
is soaked out by fresh running water, and 
if they are for table use they are put into 
a solution of brine, where they remain per- 
manently until bottled up or shipped away. 

The olives to be used for oil are gath- 
ered from the tree a good deal riper than 
those used for the table. The oil is ex- 
tracted by a series of "crushers" and hy- 
draulic presses, which are composed of 
materials that will not absorb odors, stone 
arid metal being used as much as is possible. 



CRUSHING AND PRESSING. 

In- Italy the olive fruit is crushed and 
pressed by a simple process. A platform 
of strong masonry is made about 40 inches 
high and ten feet long, the surface of the 
top being slightly hollowed. At the center 
a strong, vertical, wooden axis is erected, 
to which is affixed, at right angles to the 
platform, a millstone about 12 inches broad 
and weighing about 1,600 pounds. By 
means of a shaft and yoke beam, a donkey, 
or ox, slowly moves the stone around. The 
olives are emptied into the mill trough and 
crushed to pulp, one attendant constantly 
turning the mass over with a shovel. In 
half an hour about 200 pounds can be thus 
crushed. The thick pulp is then put into 
soft flat rush baskets, each having only a 
small aperture in the top, and these are ar- 
ranged in the press in layers, one above 
another, up to 15, mouth upwards. 
"Wooden boards are then laid across, and 
then comes the strong cross beam of the 
press. To this is attached a strong wooden 
screw, worked by a lever in the hands of 
six or eight men, first slowly, then faster, 
and finally screwed home. The oil flows 
readily, and runs through a shoot into a 
hogshead below, filled up to four-fifths of 
its capacity with water, so that as the oil 
runs in, the heavy impurities may be de- 
posited and the soluble matter taken up 
by the water, leaving the oil to collect on 
the surface. The pulp is thus passed 
through the mill, two, three or four times, 
and the final residue, amounting to about 
70 per cent of the original fruit, is mostly 
sold to the. largo oil works, where it is 
worked over again. Formerly, it was dis- 
posed of to the bakers for heating their 
ovens. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



HOW RUBBER IS MADE TO-DAY 



But two centuries have elapsed since 
rubber was known only as a curiosity; to- 
day it is in common use in nearly every 
industry and household. 

THE PROCESS OF KNEADING. 

The system by which crude rubber is 
brought down to merchantable condition, is 
a simple method of kneading by steam 
rollers. First the crude rubber is soaked 
in bot water for several hours. After this 
operation, it is cut up into pieces of con- 
venient size and run through a washer, 
which is a machine equipped with heavy 
corrugated steel rollers. Here it passes 
through and through until it is crushed and 
mangled, all the time being washed clean 
of bugs and other impurities, that get into 
the rubber tree. The rubber is very sticky 
and after the washer has completed its 
work, one sees nothing but a sticky mass in 
long sheets. These are allowed to dry and 
then are run through heavier rollers. 

THE PROCESS OP MIXING. 

After this process the rubber is run 
through the "mixers," which consist of 
large hollow steel rollers having steam 
pipes inside of them, to furnish heat in the 
operation of mixing, and also a set of water 
pipes by which the rubber may be cooled 
when necessary. Through the rollers the 
rubber passes. So adhesive is it that it 
sticks fast to the rollers and has to be con- 
stantly cut off by means of a sharp knife, 
and thrown back, for another rolling. Great 
power is needed for this process because the 
sticky mixture retards the rollers. When 
the kneading is all but completed, a color- 
ing compound is added to the mass to give 



it the tint desired in certain kinds of uses 
for which it is intended. 

THE PROCESS OF COMPRESSING. 

After this, the rubber is run through four 
polished steel rollers, one above the other, 
and here it gets its proper thickness. These 
rollers or "calenders" are used also for 
crushing the rubber into cotton ducking, 
for making Tubber cloth, etc. - 

Manufactured rubber goods are made by 
this method of compression instead of by 
melting and pouring into molds. 

THE PROCESS OF VULCANIZING. 

Charles Goodyear discovered the process 
of vulcanizing rubber, a process which con- 
sists in changing the chemical composition 
of rubber by heat, whereby its sticky and 



YQUNG RUBBER TREE!, 




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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



217 



elastic properties are removed and the rub- 
ber is given, greater durability. This 
-process consists in submitting the rubber 
to a great pressure under heat, by means 
of hydraulic presses. Generally, about 
2,000 pounds are brought to bear, and the 
presses are connected with steam so as to 
secure the desired heat. 

ODD METHOD OF VULCANIZING RUBBER 
BELTS. 

An odd method is employed to vulcanize 
rubber belts. A stretcher is used to take 
the stretch out of the belts. This is made 
up of two sets of heavy clamps, and a great 
hydraulic ram which exerts a pressure of 
2,000 pounds to the square inch. In this 
manufacture, the belting has already been 
made by pressing the rubber into the cotton 
duck. This is now cut into strips of de- 
sired length, and the strips are laid, one 
over the other, until the thickness of the 



desired belt is obtained. Then a strip of 
thin, pure rubber is wrapped about the 
several folds. The whole belt may then be 
put into a steam press and vulcanized. 

RUBBER HOSE. 

When rubber hose is made, a rubber tube 
is first slipped over a mandrill, and cotton- 
duck stripping is wrapped about it until 
the desired thickness is attained. Then, a 
thin sheet of rubber is rolled about it all. 
This is covered with strips and sent to the 
vulcanizing press. The press consists prin- 
cipally of an iron pipe which is thrust into 
the hose. Steam is admitted to the pipe 
and the hose is heated. When the process 
is over, compressed air is blown between 
the hose and the pipe to remove it. Fire- 
men's hose, with its cotton outside, is made 
by drawing a rubber tube within the cotton 
tubing, and then the whole is charged with 
steam. 




RUBBER TREE IN U. S. BARRACKS, KEY WEST, OVER 100 YEARS OLD, 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



HOW SALT IS PRODUCED 



While salt is mined in many foreign 
countries, much of the supply of the United 
States comes from the wells of Kansas and 
New York, from. Salt Lake, in Utah, and 
from Michigan, Louisiana, Ohio, West 
Virginia, Nevada and California. Salt 
blocks are often erected in the vicinity of 
forests where there are sawmills, so that 
the refuse from the mills may be used as 
fuel. 

THE MANISTEE (MICHIGAN) SALT WELL. 

One of the best equipped plants for salt 
manufacture is located near Manistee, 
Michigan. Under the great forest near 
Manistee is a stratum of salt nearly 30 feet 
thick, lying about 2,000 feet from the sur- 
face of the earth, 

PUMPING 8,400 BARRELS OF BRINE IN 
24 HOURS. 

After a derrick has been built about 80 
feet high, the process of manufacturing 
salt in this vicinity is some- 
what as follows. A well is 
driven by means of pipes and 
a sand pump, until by the 
pressure of air pumps brine 
can be forced to the surface. 
This brine is pumped at the 
rate of about 2,400 barrels in 
24 hours. As the brine is 
brought up it is stored in great 
cisterns. From these cisterns 
the brine is drawn to settlers, 
where it is subjected to a heat 
of 170 degrees F. Then it 
is allowed to cool and let the 
impurities settle. Gypsum is 
the principal impurity, and 



if it were not drawn off it would form a 
coating on the machinery of the plant and 
would clog it. 

THE "GRAHTER." 

The brine now is taken into a long box 
over what is called a "grainer." This de- 
vice consists of a long, shallow tank in the 
bottom of which are several steam pipes. 
When the brine has been admitted to this 
the steam is turned on, the brine is heated 
and evaporation rapidly takes place. To 
assist in this operation paddles are at work 
stirring the brine. As rapidly as the brine 
cools, the salt forms at the bottom of the 
grainer, and in 24 hours a layer will be 
found nearly eight inches deep. From this 
point the salt is lifted by perforated shov- 
els to a runway, and as soon as it is drained, 
it is shoveled into eaTs and taken to the 
storage bins. 

One of the plants near Manistee has five 




By courtesy o£ the "Little Chronicle.' 
PLOWING SALT, WITH THE TEMPERATURE AT 140°. 



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219 



wells, three cisterns, each 100 feet long, 8 
feet deep and 18 feet wide, and six settlers 
capable of holding 24,000 barrels of brine. 
' These cisterns and settlers when filled hold 
enough brine to make 10,000 barrels of 
salt 

THE VACUUM METHOD. 

Another process for salt making is called 
the "vacuum-pan" method and consists in 
heating the brine in a large air-tight 
cylinder, where it is boiled by steam. The 
aiT pressure is removed to some extent in 
this boiler and at 150 degrees T\ the evap- 
oration is very rapid. The grains of salt 
fall to the bottom of the cylinder, or "pan," 
and by means of an endless-bucket belt the 
salt is taken automatically to bins for 
draining. After it has drained about 18 
hours, it is stored away. Some plants have 
two pans working, one for day and one for 
night, for it is necessary to clean the pans 
every 12 hours. The capacity of each pan 
is 600 or 7Q0 barrels of salt daily. 

COMPRESSED AIR DRILLS BREAKING 
PACKED SALT. 

Salt plants generally have a great supply 
of salt on hand. It is stored in great sheds 
several hundred feet long, and frequently 
become so hardly packed that it is difficult 
for the laborers to break it up. Coarse salt 
does not pack so tightly as the vacuum salt. 
The latter kind often gets as hard as a wall 
of marble. Then men must work at it with 
pickaxes, shovels and even compressed air 
drills. These drills are about ten inches in 
diameter and are mounted on trucks, so 
that they may be wheeled about easily. To 
bring down a quantity of packed salt, a row 
of holes is drilled about six feet into the 
wall, a few inches above the floor. Enough 
will then fall in to keep a gang of men 
packing for a number of days. 




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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



The following paragraph is taken from 
the "Little Chronicle," of Chicago: 

STEAM PLOW TURNS UP SALT CRUST 
EIGHT INCHES THICK. 

In the southern part of California, in a 
region known as the Colorado Desert, near 
the Colorado River, is a deposit of salt cov- 
ering 1,000 acres. It lies over 250 feet 
below sea level and was formed by salt 
springs. Over this area a crust of crystal- 
lized salt, eight inches thick, has formed so 
hard that, it has to be turned up by a steam 
plow. A company has been taking out salt 
for fifteen years undisturbed, but last De- 



cember the United States got out an injunc- 
tion against it for mining on public land. 
The suit is still pending in the courts. 
When the question is settled there will be 
great activity in the region. Only ten acres 
have been touched. A great drying and 
milling plant has been erected at Salton, 
an artesian well sunk, and a big town of 
Japanese and Indian workers built up. 
White men could not work in temperatures 
of 140 degrees over the glittering white 
field. The Indians wear colored goggles 
and suffer intolerable thirst, which the alka- 
line water of the single artesian well fails 
to quench. 



HIGH-GRADE TOBACCO GROWN UNDER MAMMOTH TENTS 

A SHREWD YANKEE'S SCHEME TO REVOLUTIONIZE THE TOBACCO MARKET. 



In Connecticut is found a remarkable 
innovation in tobacco culture, consisting of 
a tent covering eight acres, devoted to this 
purpose. 

EXTRA FINE QUALITY BRINGS 43 CENTS 
PER POUND EXTRA. 

There are others in the same district, and 
under these broad canopies Sumatra leaf 
tobacco is grown, so much finer in quality 
than that raised in the open fields that it 
commands 68 cents per pound, while the 
latter brings but 25 cents. 

In 1892, Ariel Mitchelson, of Tariff- 
ville, Connecticut, inaugurated the idea of 
growing tobacco under cover. At a cost of 
$250 per acre he tented 18 acres of his 
best tobacco land with cheesecloth and pro- 
duced a crop of Sumatra leaf far superior 
to any theretofore grown in the United 
States. 

First, posts, nine feet high, were put 



up, one rod apart, on spaces of tobacco 
land aggregating 18 acres. Over and be- 
tween the posts stringers and lines of gal- 
vanized wire run, and then cheesecloth was 
spread and drawn taut over all. 

ONE HUNDRED AND NINETY-SIX TENT- 
POSTS TO THE ACRE. 

The tents were of unexampled hugeness* 
and were very strong, for they were forti- 
fied 196 posts to the acre, and with an 
abundance of snap hooks, rings and cloth. 

In the tents, Sumatra leaf tobacco was 
planted, the rows being set out in the dif- 
ferent tents at different times, in order that 
the several crops would ripen one after the 
other. As soon as the plants began to grow 
the advantages of the cheesecloth covering 
began to manifest themselves. 

First, there was the freedom from in- 
sects; all the evil from that source was" 
quite destroyed. 



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The soil kept soft. It did not harden nor 
cake. 

In a word, the tents united all the ad- 
>antages of the open-air and of the hot- 
house. The plants had the hardy vigor of 
their out-door brothers, and at the same 
time they had the fineness that a hothouse's 
protection gives. By the time early sum- 
mer had arrived they had reached so great 
a height that their 
leaves touched the nine- 
foot roof. 

Men came from all 
quarters then to ad- 
mire them. jSIever had 
such Sumatra leaves 
been seen. They were 
from twenty to twenty- 
four inches long, thin 
and of the best imagin- 
able shape and size for 
wrappers, since each 
promised to yield two 
full cuts without waste. 
The Secretary of Agri- 
culture appeared, and 
could not praise enough 
the enterprise of Mr. 
Mitchelson. Companies 
for the growing of to- 
bacco in tents began to 
form and land began to be bought, and land 
values began to go up amazingly. 

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS OF TOBACCO 
PER ACRE. PRICE, 68 CENTS 
PER POUND. 

Meanwhile the tobacco was harvested. 
The first trial field of a third of an acre 
yielded TOO pounds, and sold for $473.70, 
an average of 68 cents a pound. This price 
compared well with the 25 cents a pound 



that was being paid at the time for leaf 
grown in the old way. 

And the tobacco itself compared well 
with the tobacco grown in the old way. It 
yielded 2,000 pounds to the acre — an un- 
precedented yield — and the leaves were of 
an unprecedented size, an unprecedented 
shape, and an unprecedented quality. Uni- 
versally they were admitted to excel the 




METHOD OF DRYING TOBACCO. 

leaves that are grown in Sumatra itself. 
Sumatra does with America a business in 
cigar wrappers that amounts annually to 
$6,000,000. In Connecticut and in Massa- 
chusetts, since a way has been found to 
excel the imported crop, they expect now to 
take from Sumatra all that business. That 
is why tents are going up all over the Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts tobacco country 
— why green field's are coming to resemble 
great aggregations of colossal circuses. 



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WON DEBS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



The accompanying cut illustrates the 
method of planting tobacco in the tropics. 
It is not materially different from that 
followed in the United States. Although 
a perennial plant, tobacco is grown annually 
from seed. It flourishes best in tropics, but 
acclimatizes itself in any country. It- is 
estimated that nearly 2,000,000 acres of 
the earth's surface are devoted to tobacco 



GRADES OP LEAF. 

The leaves of the tobacco plant naturally 
grow in three grades. Those nearest the 
roots are the strongest, since they have the 
first call upon the sap of the plant. Leaves 
half way up the stem are of medium 
strength, while the topmost are the mildest 

About the beginning of September the 
crop is gathered. Sometimes leaves are 




PIiANTlNO TOBACCO. 



culture. Its cultivation is a matter of great 
care, requiring constant and experienced 
attention. The rich, moist soil which yields 
the best, is exhausted of its mineral con- 
stituents by tobacco in a greater degree 
than by any other plant. These minerals 
form the ashes of burning tobacco. It 
absorbs from the soil even the chlorine of 
common salt, which it does not require, and 
which injures it for use. 



gathered at intervals in order to obtain 
uniformity of quality. As a rule, the plant 
is cut down at once by severing the stem 
in the morning, and then is carefully laid 
on the ground and exposed to the heat of 
the sun during the day, the juicy, brittle 
leaves thus becoming wilted or plaeid, and 
bendable -without breaking. Before even- 
ing, the leaves are carefully collected and- 
stored in sheds* 



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WONDERS OE INDUSTRIAL FROGRESS 



223 



MONSTER SHIP CANALS 



The necessity of a canal to connect the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans has long been 
apparent and great amounts have been ex- 
pended in efforts to accomplish it. 

THE PANAMA CANAL PROJECT, 

From the standpoint of many expert 
scientific engineers the Panama route is 
more feasible than that across Nicaragua. 
It is already cut about two-thirds of the 
way across the isthmus, 
from Colon on the At- 
lantic coast to Panama 
on the Pacific side. The 
cost of completing it 
would be about $102,- 
000 ; 000. When this 
route was first laid out 
it included 25 miles of 
river, and eight miles 
of the Cordillera moun- 
tains that had to be cut 
down from a minimum 
of 100 to a maximum 
of 325 feet, to say noth- 
ing of digging in the 
bottomlands. The floods 
of the angry Chagres 
river and the great amount o£ sickness 
caused by turning over the malaria-laden 
ground forced the projectors of the canal 
to change its route. 

THE NICARAGTTAN ROUTE. 

The Nicaraguan route was to run from 
Greytown on the Atlantic side to Brito on 
the Pacific, and included the use of the 
San Juan river and Lake Nicaragua. It 
was to be 169 miles long. The United 
States government finally decided upon the 



Panama route and accordingly opened ne- 
gotiations with the Columbian government, 
which are still pending. 

THE SUEZ CANAL. 

The Suez canal, connecting the Medi- 
terranean and Ked seas, is 100 miles long 
and was constructed in ten years at a cost 
of $100,000,000. The idea of such an 
artificial waterway first came to Napoleon 




HOW CANALS ARE MADE. 

Bonaparte, but was given up when it was 
supposed that the Bed Sea was thirty feet 
above the Mediterranean. In 1841, when 
British scientists proved this to be an error, 
Ferdinand de Lesseps began to investigate 
the problem of a canal. In 1856, by per- 
mission of the Khedive of Egypt and the 
Sublime Porte the Universal Company of 
the Maritime Suez Canal was formed. 
Half the capital for conducting the work 
was raised by popular subscription, mostly 
in France. The other half was raised by 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



— - 




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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



225 



the Khedive. Work' was begun April 25, 
1859, and on November 16, 1869, the canal 
was opened for navigation. The route of 
this canal includes Lake Menzaleh, Lake 
Titnsah and the Bitter Lakes. Originally, 
the canal was from 150 to 300 feet wide 
at the surface of the water, and 72 feet 
wide at the bottom, with a minimum depth 
of 26 feet. In later years it has been con- 
siderably widened and deepened to 28 feet. 



backwards the' water of the Chicago river 
that for years polluted Lake Michigan and 
Chicago's drinking-water supply with the 
filth of the city's sewers. For years the 
Chicago river served as a sewer for the city, 
draining every factory, slaughter house and 
cesspool of the district. Sanitary engineers 
believed that a wide canal connecting the 
Chicago river with the Desplaines river 
and thus flushing off the water through the 




DRAINAGE CANAL VIEW AT LOCKPORT, ILLINOIS. 



The British government now owns the 
shares originally owned by the Khedive. 
From 486 vessels and $1,031,865 earned 
the first year of the canal's history, its busi- 
ness has increased nearly twenty fold. 

THE CHICAGO DRAINAGE CANAL. 

A work of recent construction and great 
importance is the Drainage Canal of Chi- 
cago. The purpose of this canal is to turn 



Illinois river into the Mississippi would 
remove this great danger to health. From 
this canal some day will develop a great 
waterway from the Great Lakes to the Gulf 
of Mexico, for, all that is needed is the 
further dredging of several streams along 
the route. The water from Lake Michigan 
flows up stream in the Chicago river and 
out through a cut that connects with the 
south branch of the river, to Lockport, 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



Illinois, -where, through a great dam and 
controlling works, it runs into the Des- 
plaines river, to Joliet, and through the 
Illinois river into the Mississippi. The 
cut is 160 feet wide, is constructed of mas- 
onry six feet thick, has a capacity of 600,- 
000 cubic feet of water a minute, and will 
admit ocean vessels. The whole sewer 
system of Chicago is being reversed to flow 
into the canal. 

A great agitation was raised in towns 
along the Mississippi river when the sew- 
age of Chicago was turned into the canal, 
because of fear that it might contaminate 
the Mississippi, which furnishes the water 
supply for those cities. Bacteriologists, 
however, proved that there was no danger 
from this source. 

THE KILE OAS' Ali. 

One of the greatest ship canals of the 
old world, when completed, will be the 
Kile, connecting the Baltic with the Blaek 
Sea. Work was begun on this in 1898 by 



the Russian government. The route lies 
along the River Dnieper which flows into 
the Black Sea and connects this river with 
the Dwina river which empties into the 
Baltic sea at Riga. It begins at Riga, runs 
along the Dwina as far as Duneberg where 
it is connected with the Beresina by a great 
cut across country. Thence the Beresina 
and Dnieper complete the connection with 
the Black Sea. The total length of the line 
is about 1,000 miles and about 125 miles 
of the distance is through an artificial cut. 
The canal is 307 feet wide and about 30 
feet deep, thus allowing vessels of greatest 
draught to pass from one sea to the other. 
The cost of the enterprise will be about 
$120,000,000, allowing for the use of con- 
vict labor by the Russian government. The 
whole canal will be under Russian sov- 
ereignty, thus being of great political sig- 
nificance. Seventeen large ports will be 
established along the line to enable vessels 
to make harbor when so desired. The route 
can be traversed in six days. 




CORINTH CANAL — GREECE. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



227 



GREAT STRIDES IN THE OIL INDUSTRY 



The problem, of cheap fuel for steam- 
ships, railways and great industrial plants 
calls particular attention to what has been 
achieved in the last few years towards the 
production of oil in the United States, and 
its use for steam-making purposes. Many 
years ago the discovery of oil in Ohio and 



will by a few men and were generally regu- 
lated upward. 

TEXAS OIL DISCOVERIES STIMULATE 
THE USE OF OIL FOB FUEL. 

With the discovery of oil in the Beau- 
mont distoict of Texas, however, came the 
movement to use oil for fuel in many locali- 




OIL FIELD NEAR LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. 



the Central Western states, gave rise to 
the great industry of refining oils into ker- 
osene and lubricating oils. From year to 
year, oil was discovered in other states and 
in foreign countries, so that as an illumin- 
ant, it became a household word. But oil 
was still too expensive to be used in great 
quantities, and moreover, its output was so 
completely controlled by the Standard Oil 
Company, that prices could be regulated at 



ties, in place of coal and wood. This re- 
sulted from the cheap price at which prac- 
tically unlimited quantities could be se- 
cured. Thus many steamships which left 
Southern ports where little or no coal was 
obtainable except at a high price, equipped 
their furnaces for oil. *The Southern Pa- 
cific Railway was probably in the van in 
this respect, and now uses oil almost 
exclusively in its engines throughout the 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



Southwest. Many other instances of the 
great value of the oil industry to the 
Southwest can be recited. Breweries, mills, 
cotton presses and an almost endless chain 
of power plants now use oil. Naturally, 
the steam plants that furnish power to drill 
new oil wells, use oil from neighboring 
wells. There are many settlements through- 
out the country to which the discovery of 
oil has brought much prosperity. Ohio 
thrives greatly from this industry, as do 



history of this little place, and of its great 
oil boom. 

STORY OF THE TEXAS OIL FEVER. 

Numerous reasons have been given for 
the discovery of the oil at Beaumont. Pos- 
sibly the most picturesque is that men drew 
conclusions that a stream of oil flowed un- 
der the great state and pointed, as proof, 
to the oil up north, at Corsicana, and 1 - W 
an oil pool that was constantly swirling 




By courtesy of the Detroit Photograhic Co. 
OIL TEAM CROSSING THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY, CALIFORNIA. 



Indiana and sections of neighboring states. 
California has recently shown great oil de- 
posits, and so productive is the spout in 
northern Texas, at Corsicana, that a visitor 
views the town as an aggregation of im- 
mense derricks, — an oil well in every door- 
yard. But since Beaumont, away off in 
the southeastern corner of Texas, has made 
so noticeable a revival in oil well specula- 
tion, it may suffice to tell something of the 



in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, off 
the coast. Howbeit, in January, 1901, 
prospectors struck oil. The well proved to 
be. of immense flow. At once the news of 
the discovery was noised about over the 
South. More prospectors came to the dis- 
trict, to drill, and before long, a thriving 
city took the place of the sluggish town of 
Beaumont. 

A boom struck the town. A short dis- 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



229 



tan.ce away, on a small elevation known as 
Spindle Top Hill, derricks began to go up 
until a veritable forest of them appeared. 
The price of land mounted fabulously, as 
new oil wells "came in." Fortunes were 
made in a day. The streets of the little 
town were thronged with visiting specula- 
tors, who were looking for chances of snap 
investments, or for opportunities to unload 
stock in any of the numerous oil companies 
that sprang up. One caught the speculative 
fever from the atmosphere. It may be 
well to relate some of the instances of 
lucky strokes made by the first specula- 
tors. 

As soon as the news came of the first oil 
struck, there was one man who had faith 
in the oil bearing properties of the district, 
but he had only $20 to his name. Nothing 
daunted, however, he gave that sum for 
the option on the purchase of a large plat 
of ground near where the oil was first dis- 
covered. Then, going to New Orleans, he 
interested several capitalists and expert en- 
gineers in the project, organized an oil com- 
pany, and after drilling some time, came 
upon a big "gusher." A few months later, 
without having sold any oil worth men- 
tioning, the company sold the well to an- 
other company, for $1,250,000. Immedi- 
ately after, this, drilling was begun on 
some of the land still retained, and another 
paying well was found. People of all sorts 
and means got the fever and invested their 
money in oil stock, or land. Oil companies 
by the hundreds were organized within a 
few months, some of them with no other 
idea than getting money out of guileless 
country people, for prettily engraved cer- 
tificates of worthless stock. Shares in 
companies were sold over the whole country, 
some as low as ten cents a share. Rich and 



poor alike became enthusiasts. Even the 
street urchins speculated. The writer, one 
day during the boom, met a bootblack in 
Beaumont, who offered to sell to him for 
$800, stock which had cost him only $30, 
and upon being refused, sold it a few min- 
utes later, at the desired price. 

THE NEWSPAPER MAN'S SPECULATION. 

A young newspaper man who was well 
known to several stock promoters, was given 
an opportunity to buy stock of one of the 
companies before oil was struck. Not hav- 
ing the money he was given the stock on 
credit. Within two weeks, half this man's 
purchase was sold, and after paying for 
the whole purchase, he had several thou- 
sand dollars profit and the other half of 
his stock. This half of the stock was sold 
at a high price, but the company's well 
proved to be only a "duster" — that is, a 
pocket of gas, but no oil — and the shares 
were not worth the paper they were printed 
on. 

The speculation in land went on at a tre- 
mendous rate. A few wise countrymen, 
who had barren lands which were not 
worth more than $2 an acre, sold them for 
as many thousands. There was little trou- 
ble taken to prove ownership, or to record 
purchases. Transactions involving the 
transfer of hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars took place in hallways, and corner 
drug stores, or saloons. One case is known 
where a plot of land changed hands in a 
cigar store, for $15,000. A man was 
standing at the cigar counter lighting his 
cigar, when he overheard the deaL Casu- 
ally, he asked the purchaser what he would 
take for the land he had just bought. On 
being told $30,000, he snapped the land 
up as a bargain. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



POOR PEOPLE MADE BICE IN A NIGHT. 

Many poor people who never knew what 
riches were, found themselves wealthy in a 
night. Some of these were thrifty and 
saved their money. Others spent it fool- 
ishly at New Orleans and large neighboring 
cities. Some of the land owners refused 
big prices for their lands, expecting still 
higher figures. Most of these were later 
disappointed to find their land valueless. 

But, aside from the unusual prosperity, 
of a short-lived nature, as a result of the 
oil boom, there was the serious and valu- 
able side of the enterprise. As a matter of 
fact, the wells near Beaumont are capable 
of giving far more oil than all other known 
wells. How long this will last, is not 
known. 

A STORAGE TANK HOLDING 500,000 
GALLONS. 

Already the flow has been so enormous 
that the pressure has subsided to a great 
extent. Yet there are 'still many com- 
panies that have arranged big storage tanks, 
of 500,000-gallon capacity, in some in- 
stances, to receive the oil, have built pipe 
lines to the Gulf, and are arranging for 
tank line steamers to export the oil. 

A serious misfortune overtook these oil 
fields in 1902. A fire ignited the oil in 
one of the tanks, and the conflagration 
spread until all Spindle Top Hill was badly 
damaged. The damage, however, was re- 
paired. 

DRILLING FOR OIL. 

The actual drilling for the oil is an in- 
teresting work. Derricks, from 75 to 100 



feet high, are built of wood. A drill at- 
tached to steel tubing, about 12 inches in 
diameter, is driven into the ground. The 
tubing is in sections, and as it gradually 
disappears into the ground, other tubing of 
slightly smaller diameter is fitted into it, 
and the drilling is continued. Thus, if 
the oil is not found until a great depth 
is reached, the diameter of the well ia 
likely to be small. Samples of the earth 
and gravel through which the drill is bor- 
ing are examined from time to time, and 




FLOW FROM r &y-h 
S"Q BARREL WEtl 



FLOW FROM A 50- BARREL. OIL WELL. 

the proximity of oil can often be foretold 
very accurately. When the well does 
"come in," the oil often bursts forth with 
great velocity, spouting, sometimes, over a 
hundred feet into the air. Then there is a 
hurry and bustle to fit onto the tubing a 
head with a stop cock in it, to regulate the 
flow of the oil, and to run it into storage 
tanks. One of the great advantages en- 
joyed by the Beaumont wells is, that so 
far, the oil flows of its own accord, and 
does not have to be pumped. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



231 



THE MODERN PIANO 



The most popular 
musical instrument to- 
day is the piano. Not 
many years ago it came 
under the head luxury, 
but the increasing cul- 
ture and education of 
the people have changed 
all this and made the 
piano an every day ne- 
cessity. Ten years ago 
there were manufac- 
tured in this country 
considerably less than 
100,000 pianos. Last 
year (1902) there were manufactured 
225,000. These figures tell the whole story. 

With the rapid development of the re- 
fining influences of life has come a demand 
for soulful music. The young girl's educa- 





By courtesy of the Lawrence Co. 
GETTING MATERIAL READY FOR MAKING PIANQS, 



By courtesy of the Lawrence Co. 
UP-TO-DATE METHOD OF MAKING PIANOS. 



tion is hardly considered complete without, 
at least, a moderate knowledge of the pi- 
ano. 

With such a demand there has come the 
supply, and the strife of competition has 
resulted in various im- 
provements in the man- 
ufacture of pianos that 
have kept the art of the 
builder thoroughly up 
to date. The old square 
piano has been almost 
entirely superseded dur- 
ing the past 15 or 20 
years by the upright, 
and tonal qualities have 
been so vastly im- 
proved that the cheap- 
est piano, to-day, would 
rank well with the best 
of 20 years ago. By 
the introduction of a 
better quality of feet in 
the hammer, by the" use 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



of a large hammer and the production of a 
better wire, the musical quality of the piano 
tone has been improved even as it has been 
given greater volume. 

In order to bring the piano up to its pres- 
emVday artistie worth, innumerable inven- 
tions have been patented, each ambitious 
manufacturer being 
constantly on the alert 
to devise a remedy for 
any suggested imperfec- 
tion. One of the latest 
important inventions 
relates to the keyboard, 
and in an exceedingly 
simple way makes such 
a thing as a "sticking 
key" an impossibility. 
The average pianist 
will be glad to learn 
that such an improve- 
ment exists because 
everybody has had more 
or less trouble on that 
score, caused by damp- 
ness or careless con- 
struction. This new 
keyboard does away f 
with all that difficulty, 
and by giving a firm, 
elastic touch, enables 
the performer to produce a more mu- 
sical tone. Among piano manufacturers 



this keyboard is considered one of the 
most marked improvements of late 
years. 

In the general construction of the piano 
there have lately been devised many im- 
provements. 

America produces finer pianos, and a far 




By courtesy of Reed & Sons' Piano Mfg. Co. 

View of the interior of Cabinet Baby Grand Upright Piano ; showing the 
action, keys, sounding board, mouse-proof pedal construction with patent grand 
metal plate in position ready for use, also patent wheel agraffe. 

greater number of them, than any other 
country in the world. 




By courtesy of Steger & Sons Piano Mtg. Co. 
THE MOST DURABLE PIANO KEY MANUFACTURED. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



233 



MAKING LEAD PENCILS 



COMPOSITION OF THE LEADS. 

The "leads" of lead pencils are made of 
a mixture of German pipe clay and "black 
lead", which is not lead, but graphite. But 
the first pencils were made of real lead and 
the name has clung to "lead" pencils ever 
since. Graphite, or plumbago, is a nearly 
pure form of carbon and most of the pencils 
made in this country use the graphite 
mined at Ticonderoga, Vermont, where the 



a number of tanks, collecting at the bottom 
of these reservoirs. It is packed in barrels 
in the form of dust and sent to the factory, 
where tens of thousands of lead pencils are 
turned out every day. 

The pulverized graphite is so fine that it 
really is dust; it is dingy in color, and 
smooth and oily to the touch. _ It is divided 
into various grades of fineness by floating 
it on water from one tank to another. The 




SORTING OUT GRAPHITE (PLUMBAGO). 

For making Lead Pencils. 



only graphite mine of any consequence in 
the United States is located. 

GRAPHITE. 

The graphite is taken in the lump from 
the mines and carried to the reducing mill, 
where it is ground or pulverized in stamp 
mills under water. The fine particles of 
graphite float away with the water through 



coarse dust sinks to the bottom of the first 
tank, the next finer, to the bottom of the 
next and so on down the line, the finest 
powder, for the finest pencils, settling in 
the last tank. 

GERMAN PIPE CLAY. 

In another series of tanks the German 
pipe clay, which is mixed with graphite to 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



secure the different grades of hardness, is 
graded in the same manner by floating. 
The finest clay is mixed with the finest 
graphite, and the hardness of the pencil is 
secured by increasing the proportion of 
clay in the mixture. For medium grades 
seven parts, by weight, of clay are mixed 
with ten parts of graphite. 

PROCESS OF MIXING. 

The mixing is done under a grinding 
mill similar to that used in mixing paint, 
and water is added to facilitate the mixing. 
The grinding stones are about two feet in 
diameter and only the upper one revolves. 
After the graphite and clay are ground to- 
gether the mixture is put into canvas bags 
and the water is squeezed out under hy- 
draulic press, leaving the mass the con- 
sistency of putty. This plastic material is 
placed in the forming press, which is a 
small iron cylinder in which a solid plunger 
or piston works up and down. A steel plate 
having a hole the size and shape of the 
"lead", is put under the open end of the 
cullender, and the plunger, pressing down, 
forces the graphite through the hole, mak- 
ing a continuous thread or wire of graphite. 

As long as this thread is moist it is pli- 
able, but it becomes brittle when dry, so it 
is handled rapidly. It is cut in three-lead 
lengths, straightened out, and then hard- 
ened in a crucible over a coal fire. The 
leads when taken from the crucible are 
ready for the wood. 

DIFFERENT KINDS OF WOOD FOR 
PENCILS. 

Pine is used for cheap pencils, an ordi- 
nary quality of red cedar is used for better 
pencils, and nothing but Florida Key cedar 
is used in the best. 



CUTTING CEDAR STRIPS. 

The sawmills at Tampa, Florida, cut the 
cedar blocks about seven inches long, and 
these are sawed into strips wide enough for 
six pencils ; but as pencils are made in 
halves, each strip is thick enough only for 
a half pencil. "When these strips are re- 
ceived in the factory they are run through 
a machine which cuts in each one six 
grooves, round or square, and at the same 
time smooths the face of the wood. 

FILLING THE STRIPS WITH LEAD. 

The filling of the strips is done by girls. 
The first one takes a grooved strip of wood 
in her left hand and a bunch of leads in 
her right. She spreads the leads out fan 
shape, and with one motion fills the six 
grooves with leads. Next to her sits an- 
other girl who takes the filled strip, and 
quickly and neatly lays on it another 
grooved strip, which has just been given a 
coat of glue by a third girl. 

THE FINISHING PROCESS. 

The filled and glued strips are piled up 
and put in a pTess to dry. The ends 
of the strips are evened off under a 
sanldpaper wheel, and then the strips are 
fed into a machine which cuts out 
the individual pencils, shapes them and 
delivers them smooth and ready for the 
color polish in six streams. The color- 
ing is done in liquid dyes, after the pencils 
have been sent through the varnish ma- 
chine. Then follows the stamping, finish- 
ing and counting. This latter work is done 
by quickly filling a board having 144 holes 
in it, thus counting out a gross of pen- 
cils, 



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235 



ARTIFICIAL ICE 



-* In this day of progress, when everything 
in nature is being reproduced by man, 
it is little wonder that the demand for ice 
has resulted in the discovery of methods 
of manufacturing it. While the natural 
ice crop is still depended upon for the 



the method of artificial refrigeration which 
will permit great ocean liners to store away 
tons of perishable food for transportation, 
without taking on a supply of ice. This 
same method also saves much time and ex- 
pense in all great, cold-storage plants, such 




By courtesy of the SmHb-Vatle Co., Dayton, Ohio. 
MAKING ICE, 



greater portion of the civilized world's ice 
supply, yet so far have the devices for ice 
making been perfected that artificial ice is 
now a strong competitor of the natural 
product in all large cities. 

But of even greater value than the sup- 
ply of man-made ve for domestic use is 



as egg houses, beef coolers and breweries, 
to say nothing of the plants which store 
thousands of spring chickens, turkeys, etc., 
from one year to another. 
THE PRINCIPLE OP REFRIGERATION. 
The principle upon which artificial ice 
is made and refrigeration produced is that 



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WON DEBS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



of absorption of the heat in the surround- 
ing atmosphere. This is done in a number 
of ways. In making liquid air, which is 
the coldest substance known, the process 
consists in making use of the law of nature 
which insists that compressing a gas warms 
it and then liberating it quickly cools it 
Thus air is compressed and all the surplus 
warmth taken from it by spraying the 
pipes which contain it with cold water. 
Then when this cool and compressed air is 
liberated it expands with such rapidity that 
the warmth in the surrounding atmosphere 
is absorbed and a great cold is produced. 
This same principle is applied in a little 
different manner in the practical use of 
ammonia in making ice for commercial use. 

WARMTH TAKEN FROM THE WATER. 

The idea is that anhydrous ammonia, 
which freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit — 
so cold is it — upon being brought in con- 
tact with water, will take from the water 
its warmth, 

THE CAN SYSTEM. 

The ammonia method is the one most 
universally in use both in making cakes of 
ice and in keeping down the temperatures 
of cold storage wai'ehouses. One method 
for using ammonia is called the can system. 
In its use, water in cans the size of the 
cakes of ice to be manufactured, is exposed 
to the ammonia circulating through coils of 
pipe laid in a tank of salt water. The am- 
monia absorbs the heat from the salt water 
and the salt water in turn freezes the water 
in the cans by absorbing its heat. Where 
storage rooms are to be cooled with making 
ice, the ammonia is pumped through pipes 
which run about the rooms and thus ab- 
sorb the warmth in the air at first hand. In 



this process the air around the pipes, of 
course, is the coldest in the room. Thus 
the moisture that may be contained in the 
air nearest the pipes will be precipitated on 
the outside of the ammonia pipes in the 
form of thick snow ice. 

ICE MAD E FOR 50 CENTS PER TON. 

One of the most efficient methods for ice 
manufacture is called the Holden system. 
By its use ice can be made for 50 cents a 
ton in a very small plant as against a cost 
by the can system of nearly $2 a ton. 
THE PLANT NECESSARY. 

The plant necessary in this system con- 
sists of a device for circulating the am- 
monia without loss and the ice machine. 
The former consists of three vertical pipes, 
12 inches in diameter, and 40 feet high. 
These are called the still, the absorber and 
the condenser. Besides these there are 
two shorter pipes called the interchanger 
and the cooler, while an ammonia pump 
furnishes the power for circulating the am- 
monia. 

PROCESS OF MAKING ANHYDROUS 
AMMONIA. 

Strong ammonia liquor of 32 degrees, 
Bane intensity, is pumped through the in- 
terchanger to the stop of the still. In the 
interchanger, it is practically heated. In 
the still, which is a device full of pipes 
which break up the ammonia into small 
drops, the ammonia is heated by steam and 
allowed to trickle down, giving off, the 
while, a strong ammonia gas. This gas 
passes out to the top of the absorber which 
is filled with pipes carrying circulating 
water. Here the gas is converted into anhy- 
drous ammonia of exceedingly low temper- 
ature, and is ready to pass to the ice ma- 
chine to do its-work in the making of ice. 



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THE ICE MACHINE AND ITS OPERATION. 

The ice machine consists of a hollow 
cylinder supported by hollow trunnions, the 
"whole affair revolving in a tank of water. 
The anhydrous gas passing into this cylin- 
der through one trunnion creates, a very low 
temperature which at once takes up the 
heat that is in the tank of water. All the 
time the cylinder is revolving a thin film of 
ammonia clings to its inside walls. On 
the outside the water changes to a coating 
of ice. This is removed by knives which 
scrape off the ice in the form of "spawls." 
These "spawls" naturally rise to the top of 

A SUBSTITUTE FOR 

Cement as a substitute for iron is being 
tried with considerable success in the 
building world. For years it had been 
thought that nothing but iron could be used 
in the construction of buildings, but it re- 
mained for a Chicago architect to devise a 
cement which, it is claimed, will, in many 
instances at least, make an excellent sub- 
stitute for iron. 

This cement is made like ordinary ce- 
ment, but does not have for its ingredients 
the same amount of sand, water and cement 

COMPRESSED AIR— WHAT ! 

In this latter day, when every known 
method of time and labor saving is being 
tested and rapidly put into use, the value 
of compressed air has become so apparent 
that every large city, and many smaller 
places, are making some use of this power. 
Some of the larger cities use it as a means 
of transmission of mail, packages, etc., 



the water in the tank, and as they accumu- 
late, are conveyed by a screw propeller to 
great presses. These presses are hydraulic 
and are so arranged that all the water and 
air which is carried to them with the 
"spawls" of ice are squeezed out, thus leav- 
ing blocks of ice clear and solid as crystal. 
After the ammonia gas has done its work, 
it passes out through the other trunnion of 
the ice cylinder, finds its way through the 
absorber, receiver, etc., and, mixing with 
the weaker ammonia water of the first op- 
erations, begins its journey again with the 
pump to the still. 

: IRON IN BUILDING 

as that used in preparing mortar for the 
building of sidewalks. When a beam has 
been made of cement it is tested by being 
subjected to a weight placed anywhere be- 
tween the supports upon which the beam 
rests. In one of the big buildings recently 
erected at the University of Chicago, 60,- 
' 000 square feet of cement flooring takes 
the place of the same number of feet of iron 
girders, and there are a number of 25-foot 
spans which have successfully stood all 
tests to which they have been subjected. 

IT MEANS TO THE WORLD 

about the city, from place to place. This 
type of pneumatic tube is the most ad- 
vanced and it is only of recent develop- 
ment. 

PNEUMATIC TUBES. 

The most common use to which com- 
pressed air is put for carrying purposes is 
that in pneumatic tubes in the great stores, 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



hotels and newspaper offices. By means of 
brass tubes leading from a central station 
to every section of a store, or to the 
numerous rooms of a hotel, power is con- 
veyed. At the central station there is a 
pump which develops an air pressure of 
about 2 pounds to the square inch of pipe 
surface. For long distances and for great 
speed, where much use is made of the sys- 
tem, greater power is necessary. 

In each station where the tube is used 
there is a receiving and sending apparatus. 
Two pipes complete the circuit, one with 
air traveling away from the central station 
and the other with it rushing toward the 
home plant. The sending device differs 
according to the necessities of the occasion. 
Many plants which do not need heavy 
pressure simply have an opening in the 
tube covered by a lid. When it is desired 
to send something, a small leather or metal 
box, conical in shape, and with furry ends 
to make it fit closely to the tube, is opened, 
and the article is enclosed, after which the 
sending box is closed and dropped into the 
tube. It takes only a few minutes for this' 
box to travel about a mile. When it reaches 
its destination it falls into a box which is 
provided with a door, and is so arranged 
that the power may be cut off before open- 
ing it to take out the carrier. Some re- 
ceivers simply have a lid held in place by 
a strong spring, so that when the carrier 
is forced against it, it gives way and the 
carrier falls out upon a desk. 

ITS SERVICE IN GREAT HOTELS AND 
STORES. \ 

By means of these pneumatic tubes 
money for payment of articles is carried in 
stores from sales clerk to cashier and the 
change and receipt for the purchases are 



returned. In hotels, mail is delivered over 
the entire building, sometimes over 15 
floors or more. Newspapers, calling cards, 
etc., are also sent to guests. 

ITS RELATION TO NEWSPAPER WORE. 

In newspaper offices, these tubes play an 
invaluable part. All the copy for news 
matter, advertisements, etc., is "spouted" 
to the composing room with great rapidity, 
thus saving the bother of a host of mes- 
senger boys, as well as doing the work with- 
out loss of time. One feature of the news- 
paper work is the great pneumatic tube 
service in the large cities, in use by news- 
paper associations. Such bureaus as the 
great Associated Press, which sends out 
tens of thousands of words of news matter 
daily, could never do so speedily were it 
not for the great serpentine tubes that wind 
about below the city pavements connecting 
its headquarters with every newspaper 
office which receives its service. By this 
means the "hottest" news is shot over to the 
newspapers in time for publication, where- 
as were messengers used, the delay might 
be vital. 

USEFUL IN THE POST OEPICE. 

Of late years the United States Post 
Office Department has been an active user 
of compressed air. Several cities are now 
served by pneumatic tubes and are able to 
send mail from postal headquarters to 
branch stations with very little loss of time. 
Packages weighing several pounds may also 
be sent. One of the greatest of these sys- 
tems will shortly be in operation in Chi- 
cago. The cost will be many millions of 
dollars,- but the improved service in dis- 
patching mails and in collecting them will 
amply repay for the outlay. 



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239 



CLEANING FURNITURE, CARPETS AND 
RAILWAY COACHES. 

Aside from the use of compressed air in 
pneumatic tubes, this agent has been found 
valuable in many other capacities. One of 
the most common uses to-day is that in 
cleaning. A hose is attached to a com- 
pressed air pump and by means of a nozzle 
which may be opened or closed at will, a 
stream of compressed air is directed against 
upholstered furniture, carpets and many 
such articles that gather dust readily. The 
effect is a cleaning operation of marvelous 
rapidity. In this manner are the coaches 
of a railway cleaned after every trip. In 



the large cities it is no uncommon sight 
to see a van drive up to a large office build- 
ing. From this vehicle is unreeled a hose 
attached to a compressed air machine. The 
hose is pulled up through a window on, 
perhaps, the twentieth floor, and carpets are 
cleaned on the floor, and chairs, sofas, etc., 
are renovated. 

FOR MOTIVE POWER. 

Compressed air serves many other pur- 
poses, where power is needed. By it lad- 
ders are raised or lowered, elevators and 
automobiles are operated and engines are 
run by this means. 



SUGAR CANE IN SUGAR MAKING AND PAPER MAKING 




SUGAR CANE. 



The main development of the cane sugar 
industry began about 1885, although it had 
attained large proportions before the Civil 
War. Originally, the Jesuits brought cane 



from San Domingo in 1757. The ribbon 
cane now cultivated, however, was brought 
from the island of St Eustatius to Georgia, 
whence it was introduced into Louisiana. 
Over 100 varieties of cane are being ex- 
perimented with at the Louisiana sugar 
experiment station at New Orleans. But 
two kinds are commonly cultivated in 
Louisiana — the Purple or Black Java and 
the Purple Striped Ribbon Cane, which 
were introduced about 1825. 

AREA OF CANE GROWTH IN LOUISIANA, 
AND METHOD OF PLANTING. 

The area of cane in Louisiana is con- 
siderably more than 300,000 acres. From 
four to six tons of cane are necessary to 
plant an acre. It is common to plant a few 
acres, use the entire crop of the next year 
in planting a larger area, and take the 
entire crop of the third year to plant the 
whole plantation. 

Several sugar houses in Louisiana work 
from 1,000 to 1,500 tons of cane daily or 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



from 60,000 to 70,000 tons during the sea- 
son of from 60 to 90 days. The cane, which 
grows best in a sandy loam, does not seed. 
It produces a crop of 20 to 30 tons per 
acre. Where used only for sugar, the fod- 
der and tops, the bagasse from the mill and 
the ashes from the sugar house are carefully 
returned to the soil. In some localities, 



conveyed by a third carrier to the bagasse 
furnace, where it is consumed as fuel and 
supplies steam power and steam heat to the 
sugar house. 

The juice as it runs from the mill is 
strained and limed and passes into the 
clarifiers where the temperature is raised 
and the lighter impurities, coming to the 




SUGAR CANE SUGAR ON THE LEVEE AT NEW ORLEANS. 



however, the waste is being utilized in a 
new way, as hereafter mentioned. 

PROCESS OF MAKING SUGAR. 

From the field cane is carried to a mov- 
ing platform which drops it end. on into a 
chute abutting upon a three-roller mill giv- 
ing two pressures. A conveyor then takes 
the crushed cane to a second mill where it 
gets a final squeezing and is ejected in a 
pretty dry state (called bagasse). This is 



surface, are skimmed off, while the heavier 
sink to the bottom. The clear juice is then 
drawn off and sent to the boiling-down 
apparatus. There it is concentrated into a 
syrup which is boiled to a grain in the 
vacuum pan. 

SEPARATING THE SUGAR FROM THE 
MOLASSES. 

The contents of the pan are then sent to 
the centrifugal machines, which separata 



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241 



the sugar from the molasses and the former 
is put into barrels. The latter undergoes 
another process before the final molasses 
is produced. 

PAPER MADE FROM SUGAR CANE. 



The manufacture of sugar 
paper has taken practical form, 
and mills for this purpose are 
being erected in various parts 
of Honolulu. 

The advent of crude petro- 
leum for fuel upon the plan- 
tations is making it of little 
value as a fuel. With the 
coming of the cane paper 
mill begins a new epoch in 
the paper trade. 

Experiments made with ba- 
gasse have proven that paper 
can be successfully manufac- 
tured from it. In the near 
future sugar-cane paper will 
be a strong competitor of its 
rival, "pulp," or rag paper. 



cane into 



PAPEB, FROM THE PALM LEAF. 

In this connection it may be stated that 
paper is also being made from the palm 
leaf found so plentifully in the Southern 
States. Mills are here and there going up 
and are converting into profit what was 
once considered a total waste. 




By courtesy of the McCormick Division, International Harvester Co. 
CUTTING SUGAR CANE, LINCOLN, NEBRASKA. 



WINING COAL AND MAKING COKE 



Coal min- 
ing is one of 
the great in- 
dustries of the 
world. The 
recent strike 
in the anthra- 
cite coal re- 
gions gave an 
impetus to coke making that will have a 
tendency to make this also one of the great 
industries of the present age. 




MINER, AND CAR "NOT FILLED,* 
According to Operator. 



FATALITIES IN COAL MINING. 

Coal mining is hazardous, and the loss 
of life, by accident, in the mines of the 
United States averages eight per day. This 
is not to be wondered at, for, deep in the 
bowels of the earth, thousands upon thou- 
sands of men are working day and night, 
mining the coal which is an essential factor 
in the industrial activities of the world. 
COAL INDISPENSABLE. 

With all the new forms of power that 
have been devised by ingenious inventors of 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 




ONE OF THE BIG BREAKERS 
At WHkeshnrre, Pennsylvania. 

late years, it has not yet proven possible 
to eliminate coal or even greatly to reduce 
its usage. Electric power, except in those 
isolated instances -where it is generated by 
a water-fall, requires that great furnaces 
and boilers shall be employed to produce 
it. Electric light may partially supersede 
gas, and thus somewhat lessen coal con- 
sumption in this direction, but the coal 
■must be hurned to generate the power which 
drives the dynamos. 

The amount of wood hurned for fuel has 
been greatly decreased, owing to the defor- 
esting of large areas, and a greater demand 
upon the coal bearing regions has resulted. 
The settlement of our vast prairie states, 
where cold rules throughout a long winter, 
has likewise shared in stimulating coal 
mining. To-day we note the enormous 
growth of manufacturing enterprises and 
the extension of railway systems. These 
alone mean much to the coal mining in- 
dustry. In days gone by, scientists ex- 
pressed alarm over the threatened exhaus- 
tion of the world's coal supply. And yet 
it appears true that the economical utiliza- 



tion of coal through improvements in power 
application, will more than counterbalance 
the increased consumption of this essential 
fuel, and after all, nature will preserve a 
balance in some way. 

THE WOEXiyS SUPPLY OP COAIi. 

Everywhere are great fields of coal as 
yet untouched by the hand of the miner. 
Siberia and the Chinese Empire are note- 
worthy examples of this. Petroleum fields, 
yielding apparently limitless quantities of 
fuel oil, have been discovered in many 
parts of the world, and, except on the shores 
of the Caspian Sea, have hardly been used 
at all. Texas, the Mexican Peninsula, 
Lower California, Central Siberia, the 
Eas. Indies, and the Mid- Australian 
Deserts, come into this category. Such 
natural forces, eternal and world-wide as 
the winds, the tides of the ocean and the 
heat of the sun, are attracting the atten- 
tion of great scientists as offering a rich 
supply of power for man's mechanical use 
as soon as science finds the way. 

Under such conditions as these, thus 
briefly outlined, it seems a needless anxiety 




MINER'S HOUSE, 
Near Hazleton, Pennsylvania, 



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243 



to concern ourselves to-day, with the pos- 
sible exhaustion of the world's fuel supply 
■ in the course of a dozen centuries. 

The first use of coal for industrial pur- 
poses in England was in the year 1234. 
After more than 100 years England still 
leads in the production of coal, being the 
only country exceeding the United States, 
in this respect. 

OUTPUT <W COAL IN GREAT BRITAIN 
AND IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The annual output of coal in Great 
Britain is more than 200,000,000 tons, 
while that of the United States is approxi- 
mately 195,000,000 tons. Our American 
mines, being of more recent development, 
have not penetrated so deep into the earth 
as some in the old world. 

THE TWO DEEPEST COAL MINES. 

The deepest coal mine known is near 
Tournay, Belgium, extending 3,542 feet 
into the earth. The deepest coal shaft in 
England is in 'the Dunkirk mine, of Lanca- 
shire, which is 2,824 feet deep. 
PENNSYLVANIA'S COAL PRODUCTION. 

Pennsylvania leads in the matter of coal 
production in the United States. Its total 
product is always more than half that of 
the entire American yield from all the 
mines, and exceeds annually 105,000,000 
tons. So commanding is this industry in 
the Keystone State that the popular mind 
always associates the state with the product, 
and Pittsburg has gained the name of the 
"Smoky City" on account of the great 
manufactories and mines operating in its 
vicinity. 

THE DISCOVERY OP COAL. 

Coal was first discovered in the Schuyl- 
kill district in 1790. Thirty years later the 



first shipment was made to Philadelphia. 
Two kinds of coal are mined, anthracite 
and bituminous, or, more popularly speak- 
ing, hard and soft coal. 

AREA OP ANTHRACITE AND BITUMI- 
NOUS COAL. 

The area from which the former is pro- 
duced measures less than 500 square miles, 
and that of the soft coal, nearly 9,000 
square miles, but the former excels the lat- 
ter in tonnage produced, and by its greater 
value per ton, which is more than double 
that of the latter. 

THE PROCESS OP MINING COAL. 

The process by which the coal is mined 
is an interesting one. Down deep in the 
earth stands a grimy miner. He is dressed 
in homespun clothes, and upon his head 
is a small cap, to which is attached a small 
lamp. This light throws a faint gleam 
around him and permits him to see the 
black walls against which his efforts are 
being directed. The lamp, which rests 
upon the peak of the cap of the miner, is 
the invention of Sir Humphrey Davy, and 
is so constructed as to prevent explosion. 

With pick and shovel the miner breaks 
down the coal, gradually enlarging the sub- 
terranean chamber in which he is working. 
At stated intervals, giant powder is used to 
blast out great chunks of coal, which fall 
around the shaft in great profusion. Min- 
ers, in most mines, are compelled to use 
both vertical shafts and horizontal tunnels, 
or "drifts," in the course of their opera- 
tion. If the first opening is in the side 
of the hill then it will be some time before 
it will be necessary to sink a shaft. From 
the shaft the tunnels or drifts radiate in 
whatever direction the coal measurers lie, 
and at different levels, so that work may be 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



carried on in many places at the same time. 
Tracks are laid in all these tunnels, or 
"drifts," and on these little tram or dump 
cars are run back and forth to carry the 
coal to the surface. When they reach the 
shaft, they are placed on powerful elevators 
and brought to the surface of the earth. 
Horses and mules are used in the United 
States to operate such cars, but in England 
women and children are employed to push 
these cars back and forth. In some places 




MINERS. WITH POWDER. 



locomotives, operated by compressed air, are 
substituted for mules and horses. 

GUARDING AGAINST FIRE-DAMP. 

One of the greatest dangers the coal 
miner has to guard against is the explosion 
of fire-damp, which may at any time be 
set off by a single tiny spark. It would 
therefore be impossible to use an engine 
that has a fire-box. The machinery of these 
engines is different from that of any other 
locomotives. The air supply is gained from 
great tanks carried over the driving wheels. 



These tanks have a storage capacity of 600 
pounds to the square inch, from which 200 
pounds working pressure is maintained 
upon the engine cylinders. The supply can 
be readily replenished with nozzles attached 
to high pressure pneumatic tubes, placed at 
points convenient for this purpose. 

When the coal reaches the surface, either 
by tunnel or shaft, it passes rapidly through 
a series of processes necessary to clean it, 
sort it into various sizes or grades for the 
market, and bring it to the railway cars 
by which it is to be shipped to its destina- 
tion. 

SORTING COAL. 

In a great coal "breaker," there is much 
noise and plenty of dust. There are 
rickety sheds, inclined planes, screens and 
.chutes, without number. The loaded cars 
right from the mines reach the breaker 
high in the air, and are tilted so that they 
dump their cargo into chutes provided for 
that purpose. As the coal rattles down 
through the winding way provided for it, 
the various chutes sort the grades and sizes, 
and when it reaches the bottom it falls into 
bins or coal dumps and is ready for the 
market. 

THE "BREAKER." 

In preparing coal fdr the market, the 
"breaker-boy" plays an important part, for 
it is he who stands guard and removes each 
piece of slate from among the coal. The 
"breaker-boy," or coal picker, gets hi9 first 
lessons in mining by sorting out the slate. 
The miners in many of our mining districts 
are foreigners, with but little education, 
and it is this class of labor which forms one 
of the most difficult problems to deal with. 
COAL TRANSPORTATION. 

In the transportation of coal from mine 
to market, many of the great railways find 



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245 



their greatest revenue. In Pennsylvania, 
are a number of railroads which control the 
output of the mines, and it was these roads 
that, during the strike of 1902, held out so 
long against the demands of the miners. 
Hundreds of trains are run daily from the 
coal fields to the great manufacturing cities 
of that region. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF COKE. 

Much of the coal output of the Keystone 
State is converted into coke for use in steel 
mills and manufactories. It is thus that 
the coke furnaces become a part of the coal 
industry, and they have accordingly grown 
to enormous proportions. 

The manufacture of coke is now in an 
almost perfect process. The mechanical ap- 
pliances used have been improved, so that, 
virtually, all the work from the mine to the 
railway car can be carried on by machinery. 
The coke is drawn from the furnaces where 

NEW METHOD OF 

Before entering into a description of the 
process of artificially feeding chickens, it 
will be necessary to understand properly 
the term "fattening." The process is an 
ancient one. Pliny recorded the fact that 
the inhabitants of Delos engaged in it, and 
the luxurious Eomans fed and fattened 
poultry. 

POULTRY FEEDING 2,000 YEARS AGO. 

The same process was followed in Italy 
2,000 years ago. Fattening poultry is a 
very important industry in England, 
France and Belgium. In many * places, 
whole families follow poultry fattening as 
a business. The word "fattening," aa used 
in this connection, is. a misnomer. It im- 
plies fat or grease, whereas the results 



the coal has undergone the charring pro- 
cess, by an ingenious mechanism which 
works like a great iron hand, on the end of 
a long steel arm. This is carried on a heavy 
car, which runs back and forth on a railway 
track, , in front of the row of furnaces. An 
engine mounted on the same car operates 
the gigantic hand. Afterward, the coke is 
raked into a long trough, where an endless 
chain or belt carries the product direct into 
cars, ready for shipment. 

Pennsylvania is in the lead, with a rec- 
ord of being able to furnish half of the 
total yield of coal for the United States, 
and practically all of the anthracite. Illi- 
nois follows, a close second, with a total of 
20,000,000 tons of bituminous coal; and 
West Virginia is in third place. Other 
states in which the coal industry has as- 
sumed large proportions, are" Ohio, Indiana, 
Virginia, Iowa, Missouri and Colorado, 

FATTENING POULTRY 

aimed at in chicken feeding are directly 
opposite. 

FATTENING GEESE. 

In the case of the goose, an abundance 
of fat or oil is the prime object to be at- 
tained. The food necessary to produce this 
is of a highly carbonaceous, or fat-pro- 
ducing nature ; what is termed a very wide 
ration, has this particular effect. The basis 
of this feed is corn, which has a special 
tendency to deposit its fat or oil around the 
internal organs, as well as in layers under 
the skin. If the feeding be prolonged a 
sufficient length of time, it produces an ab- 
normal growth of the liver. This is not 
desired in chicken-fattening.- Layers of 
fat should not be seen under the skin- 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



The poultry producers and middle men 
are awakening to the possibilities in poultry 
raising, and many new methods of fatten- 
ing are being tried. 

There are two ways of feeding, one by 
machine, and the other from a trough. The 
only difference in them is that in the latter, 
the birds, if left to their own inclination, 
will not consume half as much as they are 
able to digest and assimilate, and therefore 
do not take on flesh so rapidly. 

MACHINE AND TROUGH FEEDING. 

The machine feeding is a very complete 
operation, and one that a 15-year-old boy, 
or a woman, can conduct successfully. The 
birds are cooped, five in a compartment, 
20x30 inches in dimensions, there being a 
row of 50, or more, of these coops, with V- 
shaped slats for the bottom, and slat or 
wire fronts, with doors. 

If the chickens are to be fed from troughs, 
these are hung in front, and after morn- 
ing and night feeding, are removed and 
cleansed. In machine feeding, the feeder 
begins the night before by taking a suffi- 
cient quantity of sour milk, or buttermilk, 
and stirring into it what is known as gren- 
adier meal, until it reaches the consistency 
of thick cream. This is left to stand over 
night in order to start a slight fermention, 
when a diastase is formed that greatly aids 
digestion. 

In the morning the feeder, with a helper 
to hand him the birds, begins work. As 
the bird is handed to him he places it un- 
der his right elbow, to hold the legs and 
wings firm, and then opens the mandibles, 
at the same time depressing the tongue with 
one finger, to prevent injury, he inserts 
the tube into the bird's throat. Then, 
drawing the neck straight, he slides the 



bird on the tube until, with his right hand 
on the crop, he feels the end of the tube 
touch his thumb. He then places his foot 
on the treadle and gives a slight pressure, 
when the crop is filled. The quantity is 
regulated by the age, adaptability and 
condition of the bird,— one gill being an 
average for a three-pound bird. This feed- 
ing operation is perfectly harmless, and 
does not cause the birds the slightest pain 
or inconvenience. On the contrary, they 
soon learn to look forward to feeding time, 
the same as if at libertv on the farm, where 
they all assemble at the usual hour, at the 
customary feeding place. 

This feeding process is repeated morning 
and night for 21 days, when, after 24 
hours' fasting, the bird is killed and dressed 
for market. 

PROFITS IN FATTENING FOWLS. 

The profits the fattener can expect to 
make are easily figured and are based on 
existing conditions. A three-pound bird, 
as it comes from the farm in August or 
September, usually sells for from 25 to 30 
cents in the West, say 30 cents. This bird 
carries about six ounces of bone, and 18 
ounces of offal, and after cooking, has 13 
ounces of edible meat. Special feeding for 
21 days at a cost of eight cents for feed, 
turns it out a five-and-a-half-pound bird, 
and now it carries 40 ounces of edible 
meat. If sold at the same price per pound 
paid for the common carcass, it would bring 
35 cents, or quite a handsome profit on a 
three weeks' investment. There is no oc- 
casion, however, for selling it at any such 
price. There is an abundance of discrim- 
inating buyers who will gladly pay a good 
advance for fancy stock. In any event, the 
buyer is willing to pay as much per ounce 



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247 



of edible meat in the finished bird as in This rule applies to all farm animals, 

the thin one, if not more. In that case he The first question the butcher asks is how 

should pay 92 cents for the bird. He will the animal dress? What is the per- 

would then be getting precisely as much for centage of meat to offal ? Where this is not 

his outlay as in buying the thin bird. considered, economy is not practiced. ■ 

IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING 



America, with its great mountains of 
iron ore, furnishes most of the steel of the 
world for bridges, high office buildings, 
railway rails, wire, and the manifold forms 
of steel and iron which, commercially bring 
thousands of -dollars to the manufacturers. 
Let us see how crude iron ore changes its 
shape and quality at the hands of man. 

THE CUPOLA MAN. 

In an iron foundry the "cupola man" or 
"melter" is a person of considerable im- 
portance, for he "makes" the iron, and the 
presence of more or less of this or that 
metalloid in his pig iron, too much sulphur 
in his coke, too little air coming through 
the blast-pipe, or a heavy atmosphere, are 
circumstances beyond his control, which 
may turn all his plans to naught. 

THE CUPOLA. 

The cupola is the vertical, cylindrical- 
shaped furnace, in which the iron is melted 
from "pig" or scrap, to be cast in the sand 
molds, into all of the different forms and 
shapes taken by cast iron. The real bot- 
tom of the cupola is made of sand, and 
this sand bottom rests on a false bottom 
which is made of iron, and so swings on 
heavy hinges that it may be dropped, 
emptying the cinders on the floor of the 
foundry. This false bottom is held in place 
by a heavy piece of wood, which stands on 
the solid foundation that supports the legs 



of the cupola. The "tap-hole" of the cupola 
is the opening through which the molten 
metal runs into the "spout" and then into 
the ladle. It is generally about four feet 
above the floor of the foundry, for it must 
be high enough to clear a large ladle, to 
catch the iron. In the back of the cupola 
is the cinder hole. This hole is used to tap 
the cinder and to give the alarm should 
the molten metal rise to the "tuyere" line. 

THE TUYERE. 

"Tuyeres" are the openings for admit- 
ting the air blast into the cupola, and they 
are generally placed high enough from the 
bottom to give a bed of molten metal, 
weighing from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds. The 
air, driven by a revolving fan, is carried 




DRIVING NAILS BY MACHINERY. 



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W0NBEB8 OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



to the cupola through the blast pipe. 
Around the base of the cupola and on a 
line with the tuyeres, is the "wind box," 
which carries the blast to the tuyere open- 
ings. The "charging floor" is a platform 
on which the coke, pig iron and scrap iron 
are piled, and on which the men stand when 
charging the cupola. The pig iron is 
usually broken into short pieces to facilitate 



heated, and a fire of eoke is started. The 
cupola man places on the bottom of the 
cupola a bed of coke and, frequently, a 
certain proportion of hard coal in large 
lumps, with the coke. This bed is placed 
there as a reservoir, and is supplied, at in- 
tervals between charges of metal with fresh 
fuel. When this bed is burnt through and 
the cupola is heated, a fresh amount of coke 




By courtesy of the Detroit Photographic Co. 
UNLOADING ORB AND LOADING FUEL, LACKAWANNA ORE DOCKS, BUFFALO, NEW YORK. 



handling, and to expose more surface to 
the heat. 

CHARGING THE CUPOLA. 

To charge a cupola is to place in it 
alternate layers of fuel and iron. Before 
charging, however, the cupola must be 



is thrown in through the charging door, and 
then a layer of pig iron, or a layer of pig 
iron and scrap iron, in varying proportions, 
is put on the coke. More coke is then 
thrown-on top of the iron and then another 
layer of metal is put in, and these alter- 
nate charges of fuel and metal are put into 



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249 



the cupola until it is full. Then the blast 
• is turned on. When the iron becomes 
heated it gradually melts. There is a peep- 
hole, through which the cupola man can 
see when there is a quantity of molten iron, 
and when there is enough the tap-hole is 
opened and the liquid metal, throwing off a 
shower Gf sparks, flows out into ladles, to be 
poured into molds. The ladles vary in ca- 
pacity from 50 pounds for the smaller ones, 
to 12,000 pounds for the big clay lines, — 
"bull" ladles, — which are handled by 
traveling cranes and machinery. 

CHEMICALLY PURE IRON VALUELESS. 

Chemically pure iron is of no value to 
the foundryman, and it is of most use when 
mixed in certain quantities with metalloids 
such as manganese, carbon, silicon, sulphur 
and phosphorus. Carbon should exist in 
iron mixes to about 3 per cent. Sulphur 
should be present in very small quantities, 
and when there is too mueh in the mix, 
lime is mixed with the iron and coke in 
the cupola. The limestone takes up the 
superfluous sulphur, and renders the iron 
more fit for molding. 

MAKING PIG IRON DIRECT FROM THE 
IRON ORE. 

In making pig iron direct from the iron 
ore, much the same principle is used as 
just described. In that work, however, the 
ore, limestone and coke are placed in the 
cupola instead of the iron refined. When 
the supply of molten metal in that case is 
sufficient for a flow, the plug is knocked out 
of the tap-hole, and the molten metal runs 
out into a sand floor into "pigs." The sand 
floor has been prepared in long troughs, not 
unlike plowed furrows, and when the hot 



metal has been run into them the sand is 
thrown over the top to help congeal it. In 
order to make the pigs in a form that can 
be handled readily, workmen walk about 
over the top of this hot bed of metal, their 
feet protected from the heat by great 
wooden shoes, or blocks of wood tied to the 
shoes, and with long handled hammers, 
strike the bars of cooling metal, breaking 
them up into convenient form for ship- 
ment. 

STEEL ROLLING. 

Sometimes the pig-iron mill is adjacent 
to the steel rolling mills, and in that event 
it is desirable to roll the metal while it is 
yet hot and thus save reheating. This is 
done by taking the liquid metal in little 
brick or clay line-carts or ladles to the great 
steel mixing blasts. These are like im- 
mense cupolas without any cover. The iron 
is poured into these great upright cylin- 
ders, with a quantity of "spiegel iron." 
This is a combination of metalloids men- 
tioned before, being principally carbon, to 
give a certain quality of brittleness. The 
more carbon is mixed with iron, the more 
brittle it is. When the mix is proper and 
the combination has been blasted by a fierce 
blaze, it is run off into great ingots. When 
these ingots have been cooled a little, but 
are yet very hot and red, they are carried 
about through the different processes of 
manufacture. If it is steel rails that are 
to be made, the ingots are thrown into great 
series of heavy rollers, which reduce the 
width and thickness of the billets but 
lengthen them out and shape them properly. 
By the time the steel is cool, they are 
straightened and complete for doing their 
part in great railways for the transporta- 
tion of the world's products. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



SILK COCOONS, AND THE SILK INDUSTRY 

The Illustrations In this article are furnished by the coartejy of Beldlng Bros. A Co. 



The art of reeling, or producing raw 
silk, has been carried on in China for ages, 
and so well did the orientals guard the 
secret of silk culture that the nature of the 
fibre was unknown in Europe for more 
than a thousand years after silk fabrics had 
been introduced there. China still takes 
the lead in the production of raw silk ; but 
large quantities also 
are obtained from 
Japan, India, France 
and Italy. Every silk 
article ever made or 
exhibited was origin- 
ally in the cocoon con- 
dition, and the fibre 
had to be put through 
a great variety of pro- 
cesses before it was 
finally ready to be 
woven into fabrics. 
The idea is quite com- 
mon that the silk 
threads or fibres as 
they come from the 
cocoon are ready for 
the weaving loom 
without further work 

or preparation, but the fibres, after coming 
from the cocoon, must be manufactured 
befoTe they can become of any value. 

THE SILK MOTH AND THE SILK WOKL- 

The little bright colored silk moth de- 
posits from 400 to 600 eggs, and then dis- 
appears and soon dies. The eggs, on being 
exposed to a temperature of 65 or 70 de- 
grees, hatch rapidly, each one producing a 
short brown worm, which, with a ravenous 
appetite, feeds upon the leaves of the mul- 



berry tree, consuming double its weight 
daily. In five weeks, it attains its full 
growth, having increased 8,000 times in 
weight. It is then three inches long, and 
as thick as a large, lead pencil. 

THE SILK COCOON. 

The worm now seeks a convenient place 




FEEDING THE SILK WORM. 

to begin the formation of its cocoon, which 
is to protect it in the changes incident to 
caterpillar life. Having selected a site, it 
ejects from two small tubes near the mouth, 
a liquid, gummy substance which adheres to 
whatever may be within reach ; thus an- 
chored, the next move of the body in the 
opposite direction draws out the silked 
fibre. The worm then turns over and over 
toward the center of the cocoon, and pays 
out the silked cable as it goes, until it has 
spun itself almost to death, and has built 



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251 




COCOON— END VIEW. 
(Enlarged.) 

around itself a cocoon of silked thread 
about a quarter of a mile long. 

Thus imprisoned, the insect remains, if 
undisturbed, for about 15 days, when the 
end of the cocoon is moistened, and it 
emerges in the form of a moth. This, how- 
ever, causes the fibre of the cocoon to be 
badly tangled and twisted, so that it is 
necessary to kill the insect before it comes 
from the cocoon. This is done about eight 
days after the coeoon has been finished, by 
exposing it to the direct rays of the sun 
at a temperature of 100 to 125 degrees. 
HEELING THE COCOON INTO RAW SILK. 

The cocoons are now 
ready to be reeled into 
raw silk. This is a 
very important opera- 
tion, as everything de- 
pends upon the reeling, 
and the quality of the 
silk will be good or bad, 
according to the man- 
ner in which it is done. 
In silk countries the 



making of the cocoons is carried on as a 
separate business, distinct from the raising 
of silk worms, the cocoons being sold out- 
right to the reeling establishments, which 
are known as "filatures." 

If the reeling has been indifferently per- 
formed, the silk may not sell for more than 
$4: a pound, but if well reeled it may bring 
$6 to $7, and even more, depending upon 
the demand at the time. It is also a pe- 
culiar fact, that of two reelers, each reel- 
ing half a pound of cocoons of the same 
quality, one will be able to obtain but 6 or 
%y. 2 ounces, and another will obtain 8 
ounces. 

The filaments of the cocoon are cemented 
together with a gum, and to dissolve this 
gum requires the aid of hot water. The 
cocoons are placed, from 6 to 10 at a time, 
in a basin of hot water, and sunk by the 
aid of a whisk broom below the surface, 
where they are allowed to remain from two 
to three minutes. This softens the gum and 
loosens the fibre ; then, moving the whi;=k 
broom very lightly over the cocoons, the 
ends of the fibres will adhere to it and are 
easily found. 

The ends of the fibres from each cocoon 
in the basin are then collected together to 
form one thread, which is passed through a 




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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 




RAW SILK. 
First Process, Winding. 

guide eye and tied to one of the barbs of 
the reel, and the reeling begins. 

The reels are usually turned by hand, al- 
though, occasionally, electric power is used. 
The reel must be so far away from the basin 
that the gum of the fibres has a chance 
to dry and cool before it passes onto the 
reel, otherwise the fibres would become 
firmly cemented together. It is also im- 
portant that the reel should be moved at a 
certain uniform rate of speed. The whole 
operation is tedious and necessarily ex- 
pensive, as five ounces of well-reeled silk 
represents about ten hours' labor by an ex- 
pert Teeler. 

The reels are usually about 70 inches in 
circumference and have a traverse rod 
which properly distributes the thread over 
a surface two or three inches wide. So fine 
are the fibres which come from the cocoons 
that they are almost invisible to ah inex- 
perienced eye, and the reeler does not de- 
pend upon seeing them, but gets notice of a 
broken subdivision by discovering one of 
the cocoons at rest on the water, while the 
others are still in motion. 

This rupture must be instantly repaired 



if a uniform thread of raw silk is to be 
obtained. A supply of cocoons is kept 
close at hand so that as fast as the fibre in 
one is exhausted, another is put in its place. 
The ends are joined by a dexterous move- 
ment of the reeler, who carries the end of 
a reserve cocoon fibre to a point just below 
the guide eye, where the natural gummy 
substance found on the silk, assisted by the 
movement of the reel, causes adherence to 
the main thread. 

Thus no tying of knots takes place in a 
single fibre of the silk while reeling, al- 
though in case of a break in all of the fibres, 
which is not common, a fresh start must be 
made, and a small knot is made, hardly 
perceptible in the after stages which the silk 
passes through. The skeins of raw silk are 
reeled from one to several ounces, as de- 
sired, and, on being removed from the reels, 
are dried and neatly packed into books or 
bundles weighing from 5 to 10 pounds. 
These books are then packed and sold in 
bales containing 133 1-3 pounds each, 
which is the way in which the raw silk 
reaches this country. 




DYEING SILK. 



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253 




THE TWISTING PROCESS. 

SPINNING IN THE FACTORY. 

On reaching the factories where the 
manufacture of this raw silk is carried on, 
the skeins are soaked in tepid soapsuds for 
several hours to soften the gum, after 
which they are placed on light "swifts" and 
wound off onto bobbins. This makes the 
raw silk soft and pliable and gives a certain 
lustre to it These bobbins are placed 
upon pins projecting from the bobbin 
board of a doubling frame, and from two to 
ten threads, or even more, are drawn off col- 
lectively onto one bobbin, which is next 
placed upon a rapidly revolving spinning- 
frame spindle. The threads, while being 
drawn from the bobbins to the spindle, are 
given the requisite amount of twist. These 
spindles revolve so rapidly as to appear to 
be motionless, a speed of 10,000 revolutions 
a minute not being at all unusual. 

The thread is now drawn from the 
spindles and doubled and twisted/ and for 
some purposes is again doubled and twisted, 
so that in an ordinary three-cord sewing silk 



it is quite possible to have 200 or even more 
of the original, gossamer threads which 
came from the cocoon, and the lightest 
grades of thread contain, at least, from 75- 
to 80 of the fibres. 

DYEING AND SPOOLING THE SKEINS. 

The next operation is reeling the silk 
into hanks of skeins for dyeing, which is 
one of the most important of the various 
processes, and requires experience as well 
as knowledge. After being dyed the thread 
is wound on spools, as desired, this opera- 
tion being performed with great rapidity 
and accuracy by automatic machinery. 

The silk cocoons vary in color from a 
delicate whita to a dark yellow, depending 
to a great extent on the food of the worm^ 
and the locality in which it grew. 




WEAVING SILK. 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



BEET SUGAR AND ITS COMMERCIAL VALUE 

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES PROMISING GREAT RESULTS— THE GERM OF A 
STUPENDOUS INDUSTRY. 



The United States imports yearly an 
amount of sugar valued at $100,000,000. 
Every fifteen years this quantity is doubled. 
We gather the following figures in this 
connection from a work entitled the "Amer- 
ican Sugar Industry:" "Talcing the im- 
ports for 1895-6, say 1,720,000 long tons 
annually, to produce this quantity would 
require 920 factories, each working up 350 
tons of beets during a campaign of 100 days 
of 24 hours. Each factory would need 
2,000 to 2,500 acres of beets, or about 2,- 
• 000,000 acres in all. As the crop should 
only be grown on the same ground every 
third year, three times as large an area 
would be needed. 

GREAT GAIN FOR THE FARMERS POS- 
SIBLE. 

At an average of only ten tons per acre, 
the total crop would approximate 20,000,- 
000 tons. At o'nly $4 per ton net for beets 
delivered to the factory, the farmers would 
receive $80,000,000 for this new crop. 

COST OF A BEET SUGAR FACTORY AND 
EXPENSE OF RUNNING. 

Each factory would cost about $350,000 
—in all over $300,000,000. For running 
each factory, the cost of labor and mate- 
rials, aside from beets, would be about $500 
per day during the season, or $50,000 for 
the whole period, making the annual dis- 
tribution for labor and materials about $45- 
000,000. 

DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH THROUGH 
THE BEET SUGAR INDUSTRY. 

Each of these 900 sugar mills means the 
yearly distribution in its immediate vicin- 



ity of $150,000 to $200,000, for 30,000 to 
50,000 tons of beets; $50,000 to $75,000, 
for factory labor and supplies; $10,000 to 
$25,000, for repairs, salaries, etc. 

The profits and reserves remaining would 
be from $25,000 to $75,000. Under aver- 
age conditions it is safe to calculate on a 
yearly turn over by each factory equal in 
amount to its capital. The factories at 
Watsonville and Salinas, California, repre- 
sent an investment of from $1,000,000 to 
$3,000,000 each, and from them the farm- 
ers will receive $2,500,000 yearly for the 
necessary supply of beets. 

When the sugar beet was firpt cultivated 
in the late "seventies," other crops paid 
better. The first factories were not well lo- 
cated, the beets were of poorer quality, and 
the price of wheat was high, making it more 
valuable to cultivate than beets. 

Then 11 per cent of sugar beets was con- 
sidered a fair average. !Now the average is 
from 14 to 15 per cent, and from 18 to 24 
per cent has been shown in tests. In 1884, 
the world's production of beet sugar was 
2,500,000 long tons. Since 1892, the aver, 
age yearly production has almost doubled. 
In 1898, nearly two-thirds of the sugar con- 
sumed in the world came from beets. 

SUGAR BEETS A PROFITABLE CROP. 

An acre of corn at the West yielding 40 
bushels of grain, worth 15 cents a bushel, 
will buy about 100 pounds of granulated 
sugar at the grocery. The same acre, de- 
voted to sugar beets, will produce 2,000 to 
3,000 pounds of refined sugar. Sugar beets 
yield $25 to $50 per acre, and leave net 
profit of $10 to $25 per acre. 



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255 



NEW INVENTIONS IN FLOOR COVERINGS 



MATTING. 

Emile Berliner, the inventor of many 
electrical and mechanical devices, in ex- 
perimenting with the matting on his floors, 
found that the dust filtered through it in a 
short time, and that if a break occurred it 
was almost always necessary to recover the 
entire floor. To remedy these defects, he 
conceived the idea of cutting the matting 
into small squares or other designs, and lay- 
ing them like parquet. The inventor took 
ordinary Chinese or Japanese matting and 
backed it up with linoleum paste, which has 
a tendency to strengthen the fibre. The 
squares were then pressed on heavy card- 
board, after which they were laid on the 
floor and fastened with a few tacks. A coat 
or two of varnish was then added, which en- 
hanced the brilliancy of the pattern, and 
made it possible to rub the floor with a 
damp cloth when it became, dusty. As one 
square wears out, it can be easily removed 
and a new one inserted. 

LINOLEUM. 

Waste cork, from the big factories, that 
turn out the various products of this ma- 
terial, is utilized in the making of linoleum. 
Perhaps the greatest linoleum manufactur- 
ing center in the world is Pelmenhorst, 
Germany, which town is also the greatest 
cork center of Europe. 

PAPYROLITH. 

An innovation in the construction of 
floors was invented by one Otto Kraner, of 
dior"nitz. O^nnnTiv. in 1896. Tt was a 
special preparation of paper pulp which the 
inventor called papyrolith. It was prepared 



as a dry powder, which was to be mixed 
with water. When this mixture was spread 
on a foundation of gtone, cement or -wood, 
it dried in a short time, after which it was 
planed and polished down to a smooth sur- 
face. The wearing qualities of a floor of 
this description are said to be remarkable. 
Some of the chief advantages claimed for 
papyrolith were the facts that it was solid 
and left the floor without a crevice ; that it 
was a non-conductor of heat, and possessed 
a tendency to deaden noise. It was also said 
to be almost fireproof. 

Papyrolith never gained a foothold in the 
United States.' 

CARPETS FROM NEW RAGS AND REM- 
NANTS. 

There is a large concern in Pennsylvania 
which makes carpets from new rags and 
remnants. This firm gathers its materials 
from the big cotton weaving mills and from 
the large jobbing houses throughout the 
country and they are woven into carpets 
that sell for a good price. This carpet is 
woven in the same maimer as the old-fash- 
ioned rag carpets, and the remnants after 
being cut into strips are sewed together by 
the country folk of the neighborhood about 
the factory. Some of these carpets are made 
in solid colors and the effect is excellent. 
On account of the rags being entirely new 
and strong, this texture is often as. durable 
as the old time rag floor covering. 

ORIENTAL CARPETING. 

Undoubtedly the star innovation in car- 
pet floor covering wns th«it rnqdr; by Frnnl< 
F. Hodges, who was originally a manufac- 
turer of straw goods in Boston, when he 



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WONDERS OF INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 



tried to introduce in 1892 a fabric which 
he termed "Oriental carpeting." This fab- 
ric was woven to all intents and purposes 
after the manner of ordinary carpeting, but 
instead of the warp being of wool or jute 
fibre, it was made of twisted tissue paper. 
The opposition which this fabric met in the 



beginning was exceedingly strong and per- 
sistent, but after years of laborious and ex- 
pensive experimenting, Mr. Hodges was 
able to produce a fibre from which he has 
since successfully made rugs and carpet- 
ings which were durable, sanitary and very 
sightly. 



ELEVATED RAILROADS 




THE GREAT CURVE OF THE N] 
At its highest poiut, 116th Street and 8th 

Among the means contrived within a 
recent period for facilitating urban travel, 
the elevated railroad is not the least impor- 
tant. Elevated railroads are most popular 
in the United States, tunnel railways being' 
the more common means of intramural 
conveyance in the large cities of the old 
world. The latter method has recently 
been introduced, however, in !New York, 
and will doubtless soon be in vogue in 

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T YORK ELEVATED RAILROAD. 

'enue, A steel structure upholds the track. 

Chicago and other large cities. The first 
elevated railroad in the United States was 
built in New York, in 1875. At present 
a large proportion of the passenger traffic 
within the respective limits of both of the 
above-named cities is conducted in this way. 
Four extensive lines are in operation in 
Chicago. What effect the advent of the 
tunnel system will have on these enterprises 
is a problem for the future to solve, 

Adventist Research 



BOOK III 



VIVID ARRAY OF FACTS CONCERNING 
DIFFERENT NATIONS 

Objects Famous the World Over— Impressive Scenes Far and Near— Peculiari- 
ties and Products Distinguishing Widely Separated Localities 



THE nineteenth century is notable 
for two phases of geographic re- 
search, which excels any of its 
predecessors. To-day the whole of 
North America, south of sub-arctic lat- 
itudes, has been carefully explored, 
and the 13 large areas in Northern 
British America, to which Dr. Dawson 
referred as unknown, some ten years 
ago, have passed out of that category 
or been greatly reduced in size by such 
work as Ogilvie has done on the upper 
Yukon, Low, in Labrador, and the 
Tyrrell Brothers, in the Barren Lands. 



TkeEastemi 

Hemhmotuc 
m iaoo 





DARK SPOTS THAT THE LAST CENTURY WIPED 
OFF THE EARTH. 
Charts *howlng what the world did not know about 
geography In 1800; what has been discovered and what 
Is Mill in doubt. 

257 



Next to Europe, North America is the 
best explored part of the world, al- 
though less than 60 years ago, more 
than half the continent was not so well 
known as most of Africa is to-day. 

It is only a question of time, when 
all the habitable territory of the United 
States and Canada will be as thor- 
oughly studied and mapped as that 
of European states. 
VOLCANOES IN" CENTRAL AMERICA. 

That Central America still offers a 
large field to the explorer is shown by 
the fruitful work of Carl Sapper, who 
in his notable journey in recent years, 
has added to the map 81 volcanoes, of 
which 23 axe still active. The long, 



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THE STORY OF A CENTURY OF EXPLORATION 



gentle slopes from the Central Mountains 
to the eastern coast of Central America, 
continually drenched by the Trade Wind 
rains, have a luxuriant and almost im- 
penetrable vegetation and are still very 
little known. 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Most of the additions which the nine- 
teenth century made to South American ex- 
ploration are the work of European and 



and particularly to the last three decades, 
to explore these rivers, and we now have 
an excellent idea of all the large features 
of the drainage system of that region. 

ECUADOR. 

European explorers have made Ecuador 
better known that Colombia simply because 
they have been attracted to the Ecuadorian 
Andes as a specially inviting field. Polit- 
ical or military influences have mainly 




PLOWING A PATH TO THE POLE. 

Quadruple Screw Ice-breaker "Errnack," crushing her way through field ice. This unique craft 
is an enlarged copy of an American lake ice-crusher, and was built by Armstrong, Whitworth & 
Co., for the Russian government, with the object of keeping the harbor of Kronstadt free for navigation 
during the winter. Her success in the work prompted an attempt to reach the North Pole under 
Admiral Manakoff. 



North American explorers, many of them 
poorly equipped and paying their own way. 
Their most conspicuous service has been 
the mapping of the drainage and explora- 
tion in the northern and central parts of 
the Cordilleras. 

THE AMAZON AND LA PLATA. 

The Spaniards long ago revealed the 
courses of the Amazon and La Plata, but 
they paid little attention to smaller streams 
and tributaries. It was left to this century, 



invited exploration, so far as the states have 
participated in it. Thus the important 
wars, that Argentina waged, in 1879 and 
1880, with the Indians of the South, and in 
1884-1885, with those of the North, had the 
incidental result of making large parts of 
Patagonia and the Gran Chaeo fairly well 
known. 

ARGENTINA. 

Explorations in South America are of 
very uneven merit. Many are only crude 
route surveys. Argentina is, by far, the 



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259 



best mapped state for its geological and 
meteorological departments, and the staff 
of foreign professors in the higher schools 
placed exploration and mapping, after 
1882, on a high plane. The Brazilian gov- 
ernment has never promoted scientific ex- 
ploration, and all official work in that line 
has been done by a few states, mainly by 
Minas Geraes, Sao Paulo, and Para. Most 
of the far interior, away from the rivers, is 
still unknown. The Amazon basin is one 

of the 



the upper Niger, 
continent. 



It was indeed the dark 



TEE POLAR. REGIONS. 

.In Polar exploration, the nineteenth 
century did not excel that of former cen- 
turies, although it has added many new 
islands to the maps, attained the farthest 
point north, and, what is perhaps most im- 
portant, has perfected the art of living and 
traveling in comparative safety in the high 
latitudes. It may be that the Archipelago 
north of this continent will be considerably 
extended by later explorations, but there 
are good reasons for believing that the still 
unknown Arctic area contains no great land 
masses. The unknown part of the Antarctic 
regions is twice as large as Europe, and is 




DURING THE LONG ARCTIC NIGHT. 



for, although steamers sail regularly 
on the main stream and its many tributa- 
ries, the stretches between the rivers have 
not been visited. The inland parts of the 
Guianas and of the Cordilleran states from 
Venezuela to Bolivia are still in the crude 
and early stages of exploration. 

A hundred years ago the world knew lit- 
tle or nothing of Africa and had knowledge 
only of its coasts, Egypt, some of the Bar- 
bary Coast lands, bits of Senegambia, and 



now the largest unexplored area in the 
world. 

Every Arctic expert now believes that the 
attainment of the north pole is only a ques- 
tion of time; and it is probable that the 
century just opened will fully complete 
explorations of the entire world, which the 
century lately closed so wonderfully ad- 
vanced. 

The directors of the Baldwin-Ziegler 
expedition, which recently returned, report 



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260 FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATTONS 



that they succeeded in getting nearer to 
the pole by at least 400 miles than any 



previous explorers; but still they did not 
succeed in reaching the much coveted goal. 



RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES 



THEIR AGENCY IN DISTRIBUTING WEALTH. 



Railroading holds a position of 
importance in the United States 
■which few people realize. As great 
distributers and circulators of 
wealth, the railroads of the United 
States which, in 1902, were 204,- 
787 miles in extent, are absolutely 
unexcelled. 

In the popular mind a railroad 
corporation is always associated 
with the idea of abundant means. 
There are not many, however, who 
pause to calculate the part the va- 
rious railroad systems play in the 
economic affairs of the country. 

GROSS RECEIPTS OP ALL THE 
SYSTEMS. 

When it is realized that , during 
the year 1901 the gross receipts of 
all the systems amounted to $1,589- 
526,037 some slight idea can be had 
of the enormous activities which their op- 
eration represents. Of this amount enough 
was available after paying operation ex- 
penses to devote $156,746,536 to dividends, 
and leave a balance of $87,764,781 to be 
carried to the surplus account. This avail- 
able fund was enough to give almost every 
man, woman and child in the United 
States $3. 

OPERATING EXPENSES. 

The operating expenses amounted to 
over $1,000,000,000. That colossal sum 
was distributed among the multitude of 




DINING ROOM ON THE PENNSYLVANIA LIMITED TRAIN. 

employes, among the various factories 
which provided equipment, and among the 
different interests which furnished sup- 
plies. In other words, the railroads ex- 
pended throughout the country enough to 
give every man, woman and child about 
$12 apiece. That one item alone gives 
some slight idea of what splendid dis- 
tributers of wealth the railroads are. 
NUMBER OP PASSENGERS CARRIED. 
These ■ immense sums were earned by 
transporting 607,278,112 passengers, and 
1,089,226,440 tons of freight. The list <* 



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FACTS CONCEHNINd DIFFERENT NATIONS 261 



passengers is equal to the population of 
China, the United States, the British Isles, 
and Trance and Germany combined. If 
the freight total were reduced to men, put- 
ting the average -weight of man at 150 
pounds, it would be equivalent to 145,229,- 
686,000 men. In other words, the tonnage 
weight of freight for this one year very 
largely exceeded the combined weight of 
the entire population of the globe. 



These few figures will afford the reader 
some glimmering of the work accomplished 
by our various railroad systems. Every- 
body feels the effect of their operation, and 
everybody gathers benefits from their 
activity. There is no other line of en- 
terprise in our eountry which involves 
so much capital, so many men and such 
a tremendous aggregate of general busi- 
ness. 



rHE CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



Since the birth of man there has been differ as much to-day, possibly, as at any 
government of some form. Certain lines time in the history of the world. We still 
of conduct have been laid down for the find government of the selfish order, where 




THE SENATE CHAMBER. IN THE CAPITOL. WASHINGTON. 



individual, the family, the city and the the town, family, or even country, ia ruled 
country, — yes, even for the family of na- for the benefit of the few. In the main, 
tions. These rules of conduct, or laws, however, the great benevolent idea of the 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



brotherhood of man lias penetrated to most 
corners of the world, so that the dominating 
principle of civilized peoples is that the 
benefits of the few must be subordinate to 
the welfare of the many. And yet, there 
exist, practically, all forms of government, 
from the crude barbaric up, through 
despotic autocracy, to wisely self-governing 
systems of rule. By observing the present 
governmental methods of all nations, one 



look more closely into the methods of gov- 
erning the different peoples of the world. 

Contrary to the general impression the 
government of the United States of 
America is not founded on an instrument 
so marvelous as some people would think. 
The constitution of this country was by no 
means the inspiration of the brains of one 
set of men wrought to an excessively 
patriotic pitch by the exigencies of trying 




THE HALL OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 



discovers a page out of almost every epoch 
of history. He finds the savage with his 
revolting ideas of family ties, the nomadic 
hordes, not unlike the Israelites of old, the 
despotism of the orient, the powerful yet 
narrow civic life of Russia, with its inane 
curb on public speech and the press, and 
the highest type of self government, in 
England and the United States. Let us 



times. This idea should at once be eradi- 
cated from the minds of those who think 
this great civic document was turned out at 
white heat in a flash. Nothing is farther 
from the truth. 

Great as the constitution is, it was con- 
sidered "far from perfect at the time of its 
drafting. The downtrodden people of the 
thirteen colonies that struck for independ- 



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263 



ence had long been gradually working out 
the measures of just such an instrument, 
in their daily life. Many of them, driven 
from their mother countries by persecu- 
tion, to enjoy freedom in America, found 
an enveloping mass of restricting laws. In- 
dividually, many of the people sought con- 
cessions from the different countries which 
ruled them, as the years went on. Grants 
of public lands to colonists generally con- 
ceded something of democratic government. 
So did the charter of the colonies from the 
English crown, as England gradually 
gained control over most of the new world. 
In spite of restrictions, the people at large 
fought hard for their democratic principles. 
Ideas were at variance in various districts, 
but in the main the aim was toward some- 
thing more neai to self-government. The 
colonists insisted on councils from their 
number to confer with the crown-appointed 
governors, and held religiously to the right 
of their town meetings. Such incidents 
as the hiding of the charter in the old 
Charter Oak mark the spirit of those times. 
^Naturally, this spirit, these experiences, the 
charters, town laws, petty constitutions, 
etc., would have an influence, great indeed, 
upon the framing of a document on which 
the federation of states was to be estab- 
lished. Such was the case. Discussion at 
the time of the constitutional convention, 
called in 1787, was rife. Many present 
clauses in the great constitution of to-day 
were called "royalistic," toryistic and any- 
thing but democratic. The papers of that 
day discussed at great length propositions 
for the embodiment of certain features in 
the instrument. When the body of men 
who framed the constitution had completed 
their work, it was far from being what 
some of them had hoped for. In the end, 



it was a mass of concessions, paring here, 
curtailing there — in short an excellent 
document, but only such an one as was 
simply the outcome of the experience of 
the people. This was marked by the man- 
ner in which some of the states hesitated 
about becoming parties to the agreement 
under the constitution. Tet so well 
thrashed out was the experience of our 
forefathers that the constitution has with- 
stood assault or change except in but few 
particulars. And yet again, these few 
changes, such as the first ten amendments, 
commonly called the bill of rights, attest 
the spirit of democracy, concession and 
compromise, which brought forth the 
instrument. 

CONGRESS. 

The constitution is the highest law of the 
land. By its provisions the government 
of the United States is divided into three 
main branches — legislative, executive and 
judicial. The first has to do with the mak- 
ing of the laws for the United States as 
a whole. It is divided into two houses, the 
senate and the house of representatives, 
known jointly as Congress. The upper 
house is made up of a body of senators, 
two elected from each state, in such man- 
ner that one-third of the entire body is 
chosen every two years. These senators 
are chosen by the legislatures of their re- 
spective states, save where appointments 
are made by governors, to provide for 
emergencies when legislatures are not in 
session. Thus it will be seen that the 
senate represents the dominant party in the 
various states, and only indirectly is the 
servant of the people. The senate is an 
extremely conservative body, and acts as a 
salutary check against hasty legislation. 
Yet so widespread is the feeling that this 



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MEN ON PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE WATCHING THE TIME BALL ON THE NAVY 
DEPARTMENT. WASHINGTON. 




Man in Naval Observatory touching the clock which makes the ball on the Navy Depart- 
ment fall and gives the time to all America by Western Union Telegraph, The ball falls 
ftt noc-n each day. 



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265 



body is not truly democratic, that constant 
efforts nave been made to elect its members 
„by popular vote. 

The bouse of representatives is a much 
larger body, being made up of representa- 
tives elected directly by the people of the 
congressional districts of each state, accord- 
ing to population. These members serve 
two years. 

The two houses of congress are largely 
co-ordinate in their powers, although bills 
for appropriations can he introduced only 
in the lower house, while the senate has 
the power of ratifying treaties gnd ap- 
pointments made by the president. 

The executive branch has for its head the 
President of the United States. His term 
of office is four years, and while in general 
intent he is the popular choice of the ma- 
jority of the people of the country, yet the 
manner of his election by the electoral col- 
lege sometimes frustrates this idea. In 
voting indirectly for a president, the peo- 
ple of each state choose a number of 
electors equal to the number of representa- 
tives and senators of that state. It is the 
duty of these electors to meet at the capitals 
of their respective states, on a day ap- 
pointed by law, and to cast their votes for 
their choice for -president and vice-presi- 
dent. These votes are sent to Washington 
and counted. The men receiving the high- 
est number of votes are elected to the two 
highest positions of the land. This method, 
in 1889, resulted in placing in the presi- 
dential chair Benjamin Harrison, when, as 
a matter of fact, the total count of the bal- 
lots of the whole country favored Grover 
Cleveland. Legally, placing an electors' 
man on a parly ticket does not bind him ■ 
to vote for any particular candidate, and 
while cases are known where men have 



violated their party faith, custom rules 
otherwise. 

The President's duties are to enforce the 
laws of the land, to initiate legislation by 
sending a message to congress each term 
suggesting needed reforms, and to veto or 
approve new enactments. As the leader 
of his party, he is generally the dominating 
influence with the majorities of the two 
houses of congress. His veto power ef- 
fectually nullifies any given legislation 
unless overruled by a two-thirds vote in 
both houses. He is the commander-in-chief 
of the land and naval forces of the United 
States, and is accorded as much deference 
by foreign powers as the ruler of any other 
nation. In aid of his administration sev- 
eral departments were created — the de- 
partments of state, war, navy, treasury, the 
interior, agriculture, postofHce, and jus- 
tice, the heads oi which make up his cabi- 
net. These men are his closest advisers, 
chosen by him with the approval of the 
senate, and, as specified in the constitution, 
are in line of succession to the presidency, 
in case of the accidental removal from 
office of the president and vice-president. 
These men undertake directly to manage 
the machinery of the several business de- 
partments of the government, such as the 
coining of money by direction of the secre- 
tary of the treasury, the management of 
the postal service by the postmaster general, 
etc. They are directly responsible to the 
President for their acts, and censure or 
request for resignation would lead to their 
relinquishment of office, although this is 
not compulsory, except on the demand of 
the senate. These men, besides conducting 
the departments of which they are the 
heads, serve a great purpose in being the 
frequent advisers of the president. Pi- 



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FAGT8 CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



rectly responsible to the President, or to 
the heads of their respective departments, 
are the numerous employes of the United 
States government. 

THE JUDICIARY. 

The judicial department consists of the 
supreme court of the United States and its 
subordinate tribunals, which are entirely 
independent of the other two branches of 



laws are deemed unjust or unconstitutional, 
these courts are appealed to for interpreta- 
tion. While it is not the policy of the 
judiciary to set at naught the laws framed 
by the legislative department, or the acts 
of the executive, yet such action has many 
times been necessary, and thereby the sys- 
tem of checks and balances has been pre- 
served between the three branches of the 
government. The president needs Con- 




the government, although co-ordinate with 
them. It is the business of these courts 
to determine the construction to be placed 
on all laws framed by the federal Congress, 
and on laws made by states and cities of 
the Union which may conflict with the con- 
stitution of the United States or laws made 
under it. The district, circuit and appel- 
late courts take up certain phases of judi- 
cial work for the federal government If 



gress to pass beneficial laws; Congress 
needs the approval of the executive to make 
its laws effective; and then the judiciary 
determine the validity of the triple legisla- 
tion. So much for the organism of United 
States government. 

From the working of these co-ordinate 
branches, the constructions put upon the 
constitution and general enactments has 
sprung a body of laws. The fabric of these 



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267 



laws is the result of experience throughout 
the states and municipalities of the coun- 
-try. It should be borne in mind that the 
law of the land is divided quite markedly 
into three divisions: municipal law, which 
may be said to govern nearest home, in the 
towns and cities; state law, which is not 
effective outside the state, and constitu- 



others have been worked out, and conse- 
quently should be treated first. 



HOME RULE. 



It is a common latter-day saying among 
locally independent voters who still cling 
to the great parties in national affairs, that 
state or national politics should not intrude 




Printing money at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The plates are engraved by the 
finest engravers in the world, and are turned over to the printers. When the money is printed it is 
sent to the Treasury under guard and deposited in the vaults. 



tional or federal law, which is law enacted 
by Congress, and is based on the constitu- 
tion of the United States. Although the 
last of these is the highest in point of 
authority, when authority is in question or 
there is a conflict of authority, the first in 
some respects is the basis upon which the 



themselves upon municipal or town affairs. 
This tells how closely the town or city gov- 
ernment, the home government, appeals -to 
the tax-payer. And well is it that such is 
the ease. The matter of preserving local 
order, making laws for the home district, 
collecting and disbursing taxes, and other 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



kindred affairs, should be kept strictly 
within local limits. So important is this 
self-government and so fully is it recog- 
nized on all sides that the state governments 
give charters to the cities empowering them 
to act in even wider circles than is usually 
their wont. Therefore we see it a pretty 
hard and fast custom that villages, towns, 
and cities are left to work out their own 
laws through the medium usually called 
police power — that is, the preserving of the 
peace and kindred duties of a government 
for the immediate welfare of the people. 

But there are some functions of the body 
politic that must be broad enough to pro- 
tect and govern not only the people of one 
town, but of all towns within the borders of 
a state. In the same way it is necessary 
to work for the welfare of the several town- 
ships in the various counties in the state. 
Therefore we see the state' assuming its 
sovereign right of domain over all the 
counties within its jurisdiction and at the 
same time yielding certain powers to the 
counties as well as to the cities. Thus the 
city's charter allows it to grant street rail- 
way and other franchises, incur indebted- 
ness to build water and gas works, elect its 
officials and levy a tax for the maintenance 
of its government. In the same way the 
county elects officials to preside over the 
welfare of the townships within its borders, 
and fix taxes for the maintenance of the 
jails, hospitals, poor farms, courts, board 
of commissioners, etc. 

STATE SOVEREIGNTY. 

Lastly, within the state we observe the 
sovereignty of the state itself dominating 
yet by the will of the people all otheT law 
within the state. Thus the state taxes for 
the support of the state government which 



is for the benefit of all the people within 
its borders. The state knows no superior. 
It is supreme, save where, upon signing the 
constitution of the United States, each state 
surrendered certain powers to the United 
States government. It was on the rock of 
state sovereignty that the ship of state was 
nearly wrecked on the occasion of the Civil 
War. Since then it has been an accepted 
fact that while every state of the Union is 
independent, a sovereign unto itself, yet 
it has delegated away voluntarily certain 
of its powers and these powers only the 
federal government may exercise. And yet 
the state protects its people in times of riot 
with its own militia and resents interfer- 
ence from outside sources. It cares for its 
unfortunate insane, punishes the criminals 
in its penitentiaries, enacts measures in its 
legislature for maintaining peace, order, 
and promoting education and commerce, 
etc., among its people. Thus we observe 
that as benefits from government are to 
affect .greater numbers of widely spread 
people the governing powers are less con- 
centrated. 

Finally we come to the methods which 
bring about laws for the general welfare 
of the whole nation. Naturally, in a fed- 
eration of sovereign states it would be idle 
for the sovereign states to legislate for the 
whole. In most of the colonies demands 
had been made and granted for bills of 
rights by which the people were assured of 
certain jealously guarded principles of 
democracy. No such bill appeared in the 
constitution. Therefore in quick succes- 
sion followed a number of amendments in 
order to satisfy the public mind that the 
republic was not to become too strongly 
centralized. Thus the constitution now 
provides for the safety of the individual 



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269 



ill such precise terms that many a law 
framed by city or state when tried in the 
balances of the constitution, has been found 
"wanting and declared void. 

CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTIES. 

Under the constitution every man has the 
privilege of freedom of speech and of opin- 
ion through the press. The people may 
assemble and petition the government to 
redress wrongs. Every one is entitled to 
a speedy trial by jury, with immunity from 
excessive bail or cruel punishment No 
person may be held to answer for a capital 
or otherwise infamous crime unless upon 
indictment by a grand jury, and no person 
can be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb 
for the same offense. The accused has the 
right to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him, the right to compel the ap- 
pearance of witnesses in his favor, and to 
bave counsel for his defense. No slavery 
or involuntary servitude shall exist except 
as punishment for crime. All persons born 
or naturalized in the United States are 
citizens thereof. No state may abridge the 
right of vote because of race, color or pre- 
vious condition of servitude. These imme- 
diately foregoing provisions of the consti- 
tution do not and cannot secure to the 
negro, or any person, for that matter, the 
right to vote, for this is a matter which is 
still in the domain of, and controlled by, 
the sovereign states. 

Congress must meet at least once every 
year beginning on the first Monday in De- 
cember. Each state must respect the acts 
of other states. The states cannot nullify 
each other's laws or legal decisions. Con- 
gress has the power to admit new states to 
the Union as they may be desired. A state 
cannot exercise a function that has been 



delegated under the constitution to the fed- 
eral power, nor, in the main, does congress 
exercise any power not specifically given it 
under the constitution. However, there is 
a growing tendency for the central govern- 
ment to strengthen itself, and under the 
provision of the constitution which permits 
congress to make all laws necessary to carry 
out the meaning of the constitution, its 
powers are constantly growing. 

LEGISLATION. 

Congress cannot pass a law to punish an 
offense already committed. State laws in 
conflict with the constitution are void. Con- 
gress cannot lay any disabilities on the 
children of persons because those persons 
have been convicted of crimes or other mis- 
demeanors. Each state is entitled to two 
senators, the smallest having the same 
rights with the largest. Territorial dele- 
gates to congress have the right of debate 
but not of voting. 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE. 

Congressmen must be 25 years old to be 
eligible; they serve two years, and may be 
re-elected. Senators must be 30 years old 
to be eligible; they serve six years, and 
may be re-elected. The president must be 
35 years old to be eligible; he serves four 
years and may be re-elected. No presi- 
dent, however, has served more than two 
terms. The same qualifications are neces- 
sary in the vice-president. No naturalized 
citizen may become president or vice-presi- 
dent, but a -male child born of American 
parents abroad is considered a native-born 
American, and has all the rights of Ameri- 
can citizenship, including eligibility to the 
presidency. The president has the right to 
pardon except in cases of impeachment. 



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The vice-president is, ex officio, president 
of the senate, but ha3 no vote in that body 
except to decide a tie. 

TREASON. 

Treason against the federal government 
consists only in making war against it, aid- 
ing its enemies or adhering to them, and 
must be proved either by open confession 
in court or by two witnesses to an overt act. 
Officers of the government may not accept 
honors from a foreign court without the 
consent of congress. 

IMPEACHMENT. 

The house of representatives has the sole 
right of impeachment, but, the senate eon- 
ducts the impeachment trial. Persons com- 
mitting crimes in one state may not have 

PATENT LAWS OF 

The United States Patent Office issues 
patents under the seal of the government 
to any person who has invented any new 
and useful art, contrivance, manufacture 
or composition of matter, improvement, or 
the like, not already patented or known in 
this country, or not printed or described 
in any publication, local or foreign, prior 
to the discovery, and not on sale two years 
before the application for the patent, un- 
less such sale has been discontinued. Some 
of the ingenious inventions for which pat- 
ents are issued include busts, statues, re- 
liefs, designs for printing fabrics, new 
ornaments, patterns or new shapes of arti- 
cles for manufacture. 

PATENTS AND THEIR CONDITIONS. 

The patent is an instrument granting to 
the patentee, his heirs or assigns, the ex- 



refuge in another. Silver coin is not legal 
tender in denominations less than one dol- 
lar in payments of over five dollars. Cop- 
per and nickel are not legal tender. The 
grand jury is a secret tribunal of 23 men. 
It hears one side of the case and an indict- 
ment by a vote of 12 of these men means 
that there is good reason for holding a trial. 
A unanimous vote by petty or trial jury is 
necessary to convict. Amendments to the 
constitution require a two-thirds majority 
vote in each house of congress and must 
be ratified by three-fourths of the legisla- 
tures of the states or by special conventions 
called for the purpose. When the president 
calls out the state militia it passes under 
the control of the federal government, and 
is under the command of the chief execu- 
tive. 

THE UNITED STATES 

elusive right to his invention for a period of 
17 years, within the jurisdiction of the 
United States. Joint patents are issued to 
two or more people who work on the same 
invention, and not single patents to each. 
Patents on foreign inventions for which 
foreign patents have been already allowed 
may be secured from this government, un- 
less the article patented abroad has been in 
use here more than two years prior to the 
time of application. Patents thus secured, 
however, expire at the end of the foreign 
patent-term which has the least unexpired 
time, if there are several patents, and in 
no ease run over 17 years. 

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS. 

TKe Commissioner of Patents is the 
official to whom applications for patents 
must be directed. With the application 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



must be filed a written description of the 
invention, with its manner of making, con- 
struction, compounding, or the like, made 
perfectly clear. In case it is a machine a 
model must be sent. Drawings also are 
required for certain inventions. An oath 
is required of all applicants, stating that 
they believe the invention new and original 
and that the applicants are the rightful 
discoverers. 

ASSIGNMENT OF PATENTS. 

Assignments of patents may be made, or 
of an interest in a patent. This is done 
in writing, and the exclusive right to the 
patent for the whole or part of the United 
States may be thus granted. In case of 
errors, where more than rightful claims 
have been allowed to a patentee, the patent' 
becomes invalid. But where papers are 
filed showing such errors, a re-issue will be 
granted. 



CAVEATS. 

A caveat is a notice filed with the Patent 
Office by an inventor stating that he is 
working on an idea and that he wishes to 
prevent a patent issuing to any one else 
who may have the same idea. This costs 
$10, and protects the caveator from in- 
fringement for one year. 

PATENT PEES. 

All patent fees are paid in advance and 
run. as follows: Filing original applica- 
tion, $15. Designs, for three years and 
six months, $10; seven years, $15; 14 
years, $30 ; each application for re-issue of 
patent, $30 ; filing disclaimer, $10 ; certi- 
fied copies of patent, etc., ten cents a hun- 
dred words ; recording assignments, powers 
of attorney, etc., three hundred words or 
under, $1 ; under a thousand words, $2 ; 
over a thousand words, $3. 



THE INTER-STATE COMMERCE LAW 



Congress is empowered by the constitu- 
tion to regulate commerce between the sev- 
eral states, and in 1887, under this au- 
thority, passed the inter-state commerce 
law which is in force now and which con- 
trols and regulates our internal commerce. 
This law has for its object the enforcement 
of equitable dealings on the part of all 
common carriers with the public, and 
applies to all such carriers, whether by rail 
or water, as convey goods or passengers 
from one state, territory or district of the 
United States into another. The sovereign 
power of the states which on this point was 
delegated to congress, was not surrendered 
as regards traffic within the state. Conse- 
quently the v ;»states also have commerce laws 



which govern traffic within their individual 
boundaries and have railroad commissions 
which act in a similar capacity to the inter- 
state commerce commission. 

THE INTEK-STATE COMMERCE COMMIS- 
SION. 

This commission of the federal govern- 
ment is made up of five men empowered * 
by the law to inquire into the methods by ; 
which carriers do business, and their rates I 
of traffic charges. The law provides that 
all rates shall be just and reasonable and ; 
that there shall be no discrimination in ^ 
favor -of large shippers. Rates of traffic j 
must be printed so that all shall be uniform | 
under similar circumstances, on the same f 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



road. The books of the companies also 
must be opened at , least once a year for 
inspection by the commission. Rebates to 
induce shipment by certain concerns are 
prohibited. Exceptions to the rules are 
made for carriage of property for the gov- 
ernment, charitable institutions, and dur- 
ing the time of fairs and expositions. 
Mileage at reduced rates may be issued in 
certain amounts, as well as excursion and 
commutation tickets. Reduced rates are 
allowed for clergymen and passes may be 
issued for officers of railroads. Passes, as 
such, however, are prohibited. 

DISCRIMINATION IN RATES, REBATES 
AND POOLING. 

And yet with law and commissioners to 
enforce the law, discrimination in traffic 
rates is frequent, and pooling, with unlaw- 
ful rebating and other sharp practices, is 
common. The Sherman anti-trust act is 
violated continually. Railway managers 
have been brought to account repeatedly by 
the commission for disregarding published 
tariffs by according lower rates to larger 
shippers. Grain rates applied to export 
business have been manipulated to such an 
extent that for a long time they have been 
demoralized, and little export grain has 
moved by rail at tariff rates. The same is 
true in the matter of dressed meats shipped 
by the great Chicago packing industries. 
All sorts of methods are used to control 
business by the railroads, and in order to 
grant special and illegal rates to secure big 



customers, roads have been known to go as 
far as paying a so-called agent to secure 
business for them, and the commission sup- 
posed to be paid this agent — sometimes 
amounting to 25 per cent of the freight 
charges — has been turned over at once by 
this agent to the shipper — an actual rebate. 

LEGAL ACTIONS AGAINST RAILROADS. 

While the inter-state commerce commis- 
sion has been able to discover gross wrongs, 
such as the merging of competitive roads 
so as to control traffic, it has been unable 
to redress many of these wrongs, or to pro- 
vide against their recurrence, because of the 
weakness and inadequacy of the law under 
which they operate. About the only thing 
that has been done is to ask the Attorney 
General of the United States to begin 
numerous actions in equity against rail- 
roads for violating the inter-state and anti- 
trust laws. These actions have fallen into 
three classes. One is that brought against 
the railroads in which preliminary injunc- 
tions were obtained which required them 
to apply tariff rates to traffic carried by 
them, and prohibited them from carrying on 
any inter-state traffic at any but the lawful 
published rates. Another case was the 
action against the great Chicago packers to 
prevent them from carrying on a beef trust 
or combination, which stopped all competi- 
tion. Another was one against the North- 
ern Securities Company and the several 
railroad companies which have been merged 
into it. 



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224 FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 

CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS 



One hears a great deal about the civil 
service in these days, and of the laws that 
are being enacted to regulate it. This ser- 
vice comprises the departments of work 
under the various municipalities, counties, 
states and under the federal government. 
Men and women who work for a public 
body are said to be in the civil service. 
It is a well-known fact that politicians in 
general seek for patronage, or the power 
of appointing men to office, else they would 
not strive so hard to be elected, or pay such 
large sums in aid of certain political par- 
ties in campaign times. It can be readily 
seen that civil affairs in most departments 
can be conducted much more efficiently if 
employes who give satisfaction, and who 
have spent a long time in becoming ac- 
quainted with their work, are kept in office 
regardless of politics, instead of having all 
public business turned upside down at 
every election. The effort that has brought 
about this feeling and put it into practice 
is called civil service reform, and the laws 
enacted to carry it out are styled the civil 
service laws. 

The persons employed in the various 
civic offices of the country number hun- 
dreds of thousands. Under the United- 
States government there is the postal ser- 
vice, with its thousands of clerks and car- 
riers, the treasury department, custom- 
house officials and employes, consular 
agents, pension clerks and many others. 
Civil offices in all the states hire great 
numbers of clerks and laborers, and the 
counties and cities and towns need police- 
men, and firemen, and clerks. In Presi- 
dent Jackson's time, "to the victors be- 



longed the spoils," and there was a general 
discharge of employes with every political 
change of administration. At such a time, 
the efficiency of the public departments fell 
to a very low degree. Many times money 
was paid by subordinates to get their ap- 
pointments, and much corruption followed. 
This was true up to a late date in the city 
of !New York, under the control of Tam- 
many Hall. 

LEGISLATION 1 TO CORRECT ABUSES. 

Abuses went so far in the civil service 
of the country at large that in 1883 Con- 
gress passed laws limiting the appointing 
and removing power of elected officials. 
Many departments have since been brought 
under these laws, and further enactments 
have been made to hedge about the service. 
These laws provide for competitive exami- 
nations for applicants for positions, and 
for the promotion of employes through 
merit rather than influence. But influence 
still plays a large part. Frequently, trusted 
officials meet with rebuke for disobeying 
the law in this respect, and there is oppor- 
tunity for great improvement along the 
line of clean service under the merit sys- 
tem. 

QUALIFICATION POR ELIGIBILITY. 

Notwithstanding the abuses which work 
against the law and service the movement 
for a merit system all over the country has 
had a salutary effect. The examinations 
are competitive, the highest on the list re- 
ceiving the appointment. Persons addicted 
to the habitual use of intoxicating liquors 
will not be accepted. Applicants must also 
be in good health, and must give' proof of 



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275 



good moral character. In many cases 
recommendations from well known officials 
are necessary. The examinations are not 
difficult, save in technical departments, 
where expert services are required. 

The following are some of the subjects on 
which applicants are examined: penman- 
ship, orthography, arithmetic, interest, dis- 
count, the fundamental rules of bookkeep- 
ing, the elements of geography, history of 
the government of the United States, the 
English language, letter writing, and the 
proper construction of sentences. 

THE ILLINOIS CIVIL SERVICE LAW. 

To illustrate the system of civil service, 
the following extracts from the Illinois civil 
service law, which governs most of the de- 
partments of the civil service of Chicago, 
are given: 

No person shall be admitted to examina- 
tion for any position in the official service 
who is not a citizen of the United States, 
find who has not been an actual resident of 
the city of Chicago for at least one year 
next preceding the date of the examination. 

Unless otherwise provided in these rules, 
no person shall be admitted to examination 
for a position in the official service who is 
less than twenty years of age at the date of 
examination, except that applicants for 
positions of pages and messengers must not 
be less than 17 years of age at the date of 
examination. 

In special examinations for any place 
requiring technical, professional or scien- 
tific knowledge, or manual skill of a high 
order, the commission may wave the re- 
quirement, of residence in the city of Chi- 
cago, fixed in Section 1 of this rule. 

Application for admission for examina- 
tion shall be made on blanks in such form 



and manner, and supported by such certifi- 
cates of persons acquainted with the appli- 
cant, as the commission may prescribe. 
These blanks will be furnished to appli- 
cants for examination. 

No question in any examination shall 
relate to political or religious opinions or 
affiliations, and no appointment or selection 
for an office, or employment within the 
scope of these rules, shall be in any manner 
affected or influenced by such opinions or 
affiliations. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

Examinations shall be held at such times 
and places as the commission shall desig- 
nate, and two weeks' notice thereof shall be 
given, as provided by law. 

The subjects for the examination shall 
he designated from time to time by the 
commission and shall be such as the needs 
of the service require, and such as tend to 
prove the qualifications of the applicant for 
the office sought, and may include special 
tests of fitness for any particular place re- 
quiring technical, professional or scientific 
knowledge, or manual skill. 

Proficiency in any subject shall be 
credited in grading the standing of the per- 
son examined in proportion to the value of 
a knowledge of such subject in the branch 
or part of the service which the applicant 
seeks to enter, and also the applicant's 
physical qualifications and health. The 
relative weight of each subject shall be fixed 
by the commission for every examination. 

The name of no person shall be entered 
on a register of eligibles whose standing > 
upon a just grading in the examinations, 
shall average less than 70 per centum of 
complete proficiency in the subjects of the 
examination, taken as a whole, and of such 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



minimum mark as may be fixed by the 
commission for any part thereof. 

All questions used in any examination 
shall be first approved by the commission. 
All examinations shall be conducted under 
the supervision of, and examination papers 
shall be marked under the regulation of, 
the commission. The same series of exami- 
nation papers shall not be used a second 
time. No examination papers and no 
examinations shall be subject to review by 
the Civil Service Commission, or any of 
its members, after the posting of the elig- 
ible list. 

All competitors who attain a general 
average of 70 per centum or over (and of 
such minimum mark as may be fixed by 
the commission for any part thereof) shall 
be eligible for appointment to the place for 
which they are examined, and their names 
shall be enrolled in the order of general 
average upon the proper registers, which 
shall be in such form as the commission 
shall prescribe, and shall be called the 
"Register of Eligibles." 

Karnes shall remain upon the registers of 
eligibles for two years from the date of 
their enrollment unless sooner removed 
under authority contained in these rules, 
or by appointment. At the expiration of 
one year, the eligibles shall, upon a form 
prescribed by the commission, furnish new 
certificates of character. 

PROMOTIONS AND REMOVALS. 

All promotions in the classified service, 
unless herein otherwise provided, shall be 
from grade to grade, and shall be mad© 



upon voluntary, open, competitive exam- 
ination. Competition in such examinations 
shall be limited to the employes in the 
next lower grade of the same position, 
serving in the department in which the 
position exists, unless the Commission shall 
deem it for the interest of the service to 
admit competitive employes in other grades 
or other divisions, serving in that or other 
departments. 

No officer or employe in the classified 
service who shall have been appointed un- 
der these rules, and after examination, 
shall be removed or discharged except foi 
cause, upon written charges and after an 
opportunity to be heard in his own de- 
fense. When a removal is deemed neces- 
sary, the appointing officer shall immedi- 
ately notify the Commission in writing of 
the grounds therefor. Such grounds shall 
be investigated by the Commission, and 
the accused person shall be given an oppor- 
tunity to be heard in, his own defense, pro- 
vided, however, that such officer or em- 
ploye shall file a written request for in- 
vestigation within three days after the date 
of his removal. The finding and decision 
of the Commission shall be certified to the 
appointing officer and shall be forthwith 
enforced by said officer. Pending such in- 
vestigation, the appointing officer may sus- 
pend the accused for a reasonable period, 
not exceeding 30 days. Nothing in this 
section shall be construed to require such 
charges or investigation in cases of labor- 
ers or persons who have the custody of pub- 
lic money, for tbe safe keeping of which 
another person has given bonds. 



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277 



THE UNITED STAT1 

NUMBER OP POST-OFFICES AND EM- 
PLOYES. 

One may gain some idea of the enormous 
work undertaken by the United States 
Post-Office department when it is known 
that it directs the operation of 74,000 
post-offices and over 200,000 employes. 

RECEIPTS, EXPENSES AND AMOUNT OF 
MAIL. 

The cost of running the department for 
one year is nearly $110,000,000, and the 
receipts are about as much — for, in spite 
of the excellent organization of the depart- 
ment, the government is so liberal in the 
matter of second-class postage that ex- 
penses are not always met by receipts. To 
indicate the enormous extent of this busi- 
ness, it may be said that, every minute of 
the day, about 12,000 messages are deliv- 
ered. The service is constantly growing 
and these figures will soon be eclipsed. 
The department handles about 7,000,000,- 
000 pieces of mail annually, of which about 
one third are letters. 

This growth is in marked contrast with 
the meager showing of the department un- 
der Timothy Pickering, the first postmas- 
ter general. In his regime the work of a 
quarter of a year was represented by $63,- 
000 in receipts and expenditures — an 
amount now excelled every five hours of 
the day. Little could one foresee in this 
simple beginning the smoothly-working 
system of to-day, with its lightning mail 
trains, its free rural and city deliveries, its 
special deliveries that rival the telegraph, 
and its gigantic money-order department. 



POSTAL SERVICE 




Cancelling postage stamps in the post office. This 
machine is a late invention, and is operated by elec- 
tricity. It cancels from three to five thousand letters 
a minute. 



POSTMASTER GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

This great branch of the government 
business machinery is divided into four 
sub-departments, each under the supervi- 
sion of an assistant postmaster general. 
These are: first, the branch that has 
charge of the administration of the post- 
offices, carriers and clerical force and the 
actual management of the general work of 
the offices. This department expends an- 
nually about $40,000,000; second, the 
branch for the transportation of the mails, 
which contracts with the railway compa- 
nies for service, etc., and costs about $35,- 
000,000 a year to operate; third, the 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



branch which keeps the financial accounts 
and furnishes stamps, postal cards, etc.; 
fourth, the branch which appoints over 
70,000 postmasters and directs the force 
of inspectors. In addition, there is an au- 
diting bureau under the Treasury Depart- 
ment, employing over 500 clerks, which 
scrutinizes and audits all post-office ac- 
counts. 

SALARIES OF POSTMASTERS. 

The expenses and receipts of the numer- 
ous post-offices differ greatly, the New 
York receipts being tens of millions of 
dollars, with a great percentage of profit, 
while many of the small country offices do 
not sell $25 worth of stamps a year. The 
salaries of postmasters vary with their po- 
sitions. , Those who are appointed by the 
President, about 4,000 in number, receive 
not less than $1,000 yearly, while the 
fourth-class offices, in which salaries are less 
than $1,000, number over 70,000 and are 
filled by appointment of the postmaster 
general. 

CITY HAIL DELIVERY. 

Several departments of the service de- 
serve particular mention. The free city 
delivery system is one of these, employing 
over 140,000 carriers, at an annual ex- 
pense of more than $14,000,000. This ac- 
complishes the delivery of mail to the door 
of every resident of the larger cities, with- 
out the least inconvenience. The marine 
postal service on the great lakes involves 
the delivery of mail sent to and from sail- 
ors on moving vessels. The smoothness of 
the operation of this branch of the service 
can be best noticed at the mouth of the 
Detroit river, where during eight months 
of the year vessels pass every three and a 
half minutes of the day and night. This 



great fleet has a perfect mail service. All 
vessels are met and mail is collected and 
delivered, with the vessels in full motion. 
Water-tight bags are used for this pur- 
pose, as a safeguard in case the collector 
should have a "spill." The letters are 
stamped on the hack with the name of the 
vessel to which they are destined. 

RURAL DELIVERY SERVICE. 

There is nothing perhaps so remarkable 
in the history of the post-office department 
as the free rural delivery service, but re- 
cently inaugurated. By means of this de- 
livery, farmers throughout many sections 
of the country receive their mail regularly, 
at stated intervals, without the necessity 
of calling for it at the postoffice, possibly 
many miles away. The rural delivery 
routes are rapidly increasing, and so pop- 
ular are they that, in many cases, to seeurte 
them, the farmers have paid for the grad- 
ing necessitated by the establishment of 
routes. Among the advantages derived from 
this service are larger postal receipts and a 
greater use of newspapers and magazines, 
v which keeps the people better informed, and 
increases the value of land because of the 
better means of communication. Farmers 
also are able to keep in closer touch with 
market quotations, through the papers, thus 
enabling them to get the best prices for 
their produce. 

RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 

Most important of all branches of the 
service is the railway postoffice, which 
started in 1864, now employs about 10,000 
men, and annually covers neaily 300,000,- 
000 miles on about 174,000 miles of track. 
The mail handled by this branch of Hie' 
service has of late doubled nearly every 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



279 



six years. In 1884, the mail distributed in 
railway postofEces amounted to 4,519,- 
661,900; in 1898, 12,225,706,220; and at 
present^ about 15,000,000,OQO pieces are 
handled. So efficient is this service that 
mails are carried, sorted, pouched and de- 
livered to every point desired, without de- 
lay at the distributing point. The work 
is so exacting that clerks must be well 
versed in its requirements. Every office 
in a territory must be known to every clerk, 
and no forgetfulness or error in placing in 
the mail bag is permitted. 

Extremely stringent examinations are 
held for applicants for positions in the rail- 
way mail service, and so well has the clerk 
learned his lesson, that on an average, only 
one error is made in the sorting and de- 
livery of 10,428 pieces of mail. 

THE FAST MAIL. 

Time is such a factor in the railway 
mail service that new trains are being con- 
stantly scheduled by the railway compa- 
nies, and all sorts of devices are used to 
secure the rapid transit of mails. Now, 
the fast mail train crosses the continent 
four hours ahead of any passenger trains, 
and often between Chicago and Omaha, a 
speed of from 80 to 90 miles an hour is at- 
tained. In this rapid race many smaller 
stations must necessarily be swiftly passed. 
The mail received by the railway mail cars 
at such points is taken on by an automatic 
device like a crooked arm, projecting from 
the open door of the cars, which, by pres- 
sure of a lever, will reach out, seize a bag 
of mail fastened to a post on the railway 
platform, and hurl it inside the car. Mail 
for these stations is dropped off generally 
by hand. 

The railway branch of the postal service 



is dangerous, as many as 75 employes hav- 
ing been killed and over 1,000 injured, in 
a single year. In this branch of the ser- 
vice, in order to save time in the final de- 
livery of mail at its destination in the large 
cities, men well informed as to these cities 
are on board the fast trains, who sort the 
mail into the pouches so well, that the lat> 
ter may be taken directly from the train 
to the numerous sub-stations in the cities. 
MAIL BAGS. 

It may well be imagined that a great 
many bags are necessary in the mail ser- 
vice. The great trend of bags is from the 
East westward, and from great business 
centers toward the country districts. Every 
year, nearly a million and a half bags are 
repaired and put into service, most of them 
through the New York postoffice. Nat- 
urally, some postoffices will accumulate 
more bags than they can use for return 
mails. Cincinnati and St. Louis are made 
distributing points from which a call for 
from 5,000 to 20,000 bags may be supplied 
at almost any time. 

Bags are supplied by contract. All sorts 
of them are in use, and of course the great- 
est demand is for new ones. The greatest 
flow of bags, after they get into service, is 
from the offices at Washington, Baltimore, 
New York, Chicago, Boston and Philadel- 
phia. The period of greatest activity is 
during the Christmas and New Year holi- 
days, when business firms and individuals 
are sending out great quantities of pack- 
ages by mail. The bags containing these 
gradually return to the central stations late 
in January, and once more flow out in 
May, when the spring advertising season 
sets in. Of the numerous kinds of bags, 
there must be those for the mountain car- 
riers, the runner on snowshoes, knapsacks, 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



and bags for the Alas- 
kan dog teams, and sad- 
dle bags for the pony 
express. One of the re- 
cent odd bags devised is 
a perforated affair, for 
transporting live queen 
bees to the islands of 
the Pacific. 

FORWARDING MAIL 
IN ALASKA. 

It is interesting to 
know how the postoffice 
department delivers 
mail in the far-off, 
frozen fields of Alaska. 
Kotzebue is the farthest 
northern point at which 
deliveries are made, and 
this necessitates an overland journey of 
aboiit a thousand miles. A train of six 
heavily coated Alaskan dogs draws the mail, 
the deerskin sleeping sacks of the mail car- 
riers, who travel in couples, and the food, 




Model representing Porto Rlcan Mail Carrier in the Post Office Department. 
Model for exhibition at the Louisiana Exposition at St. Louis. 



snowshoes, shotguns, cooking utensils, stove, 
etc. All this is loaded on a light sled, and, 
all told, weighs about 360 pounds. Fre- 
quently, raw winter winds must be encoun- 
tered and stops must be made to thaw out 
frozen feet, fingers or 
ears. Stops are also 
made at wayside native 
huts, to secure extra 
food in case the" supply 
runs out. Sometimes 
it is necessary to bunk 
out on the snow. All 
sorts of difficulties are 
to be expected. The 
dogs are likely to fight, 
great snowdrifts fre- 
quently block the way, 
and sometimes direc- 
tions are lost Arctic 
fogs are encountered, 
and the mercury some-' 
times drops to 50 or 
60 degrees below z^ro. 




Alaiftan Mall Carrier and dogs at the Post Office Department, for exhibition 
a.t toe St. Louie Exposition. ' — - " 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



281 



When it is necessary to camp in the 
open, drink that is boiling hot when re- 
moved from the fire, is cold before it is 
used, and the fork often freezes to one's 
lips. Biscuits and doughnuts are often so 
hard that, actually, they have to be cut with 
an axe. The carriers meet many poor na- 
tives on the way. Sometimes, the supply of 



clearing houses in the world, and easily 
rivals the foremost banks. This is one of 
the greatest sources of convenience to the 
public. The system is so complete that 
money may be sent by it almost to any 
point in the world. By means of the inter- 
national money-order system, money is ex- 
changed between different countries. So 




Opening dead letter packages In the Dead Letter Office of tbe Post Office Department. All hinds 
of curious merchandise and periodicals, and even infernal machines, are received here and opened. 
When a large amount of merchandise is collected, it Is placed in blind packages and sold at auction. 



fish has failed, and natives who have been 
snowed in are compelled to cut up their 
skin boats for food. 

MONEY ORDERS. 

The money-order division of the post- 
office department js one of the greatest 



great is the business of this division, that 
money orders numbering over 30,000,000 
are issued in a year for amounts aggrega- 
ting about $210,000,000. This work ne- 
cessitates the employment of 350 people 
who do nothing but add up columns of 
figures all day. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



THE DEAD-IiETTEH OFFICE. 

Many misdirected letters and packages 
cannot reach their destination. Often 
very odd methods are used to direct mail, 
pictures sometimes being used instead of 
writing. The postoffice department usually 
solves such riddles and delivers the mail to 
its proper destination. But about 20,000 
letters, unclaimed, unaddresscd or misdi- 
rected, are sent to the dead-letter office year- 
ly. Packages, even, reach, great figures, 
often as many as 50,000 being sorted in the 
office. It saves millions of dollars for those 
interested by eventually remitting money 
and valuables to the sender, in cases "where 
the person for whom they were intended 
cannot be found. This office often finds 
snakes, dynamite and other freakish things 
in unclaimed mail. 

MAIL PACKAGES. 
"Package carrying has grown to a great 
volume. Even the express companies are 

1 



meeting serious competition at the hands 
of the postoffice department. In the west- 
ern hemisphere, at present, nearly a score 
of countries and colonies can be reached 
by package post, which will carry merchan- 
dise, etc., to the weight of 11 pounds. 

OCEAN" FOST-OFFICES. 

There were no uniform rates for foreign 
mails until 1874. Such rates as did exist 
were regulated largely by treaties, with the 
separate countries. To-day, however, five 
cents will carry a letter the world round, 
until it finds its owner. Sea Miners" have 
postoffices aboard similar to those on fast 
trains. Thus mail may be sorted en route, 
and given direct to local carriers in foreign 
countries, without having to go through 
land offices. Many tons of mails are car- 
ried between trains and the mail steamers 
in the harbor of !New York, by the transfer 
boat, "Postmaster General." 




BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING WHERE U. S. GREENBACKS ARE MADE, 

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UNDESIRABLE IMMIGRANTS AND STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION 



Once upon a time a lady set up house- 
keeping in a very large mansion. Indeed 
there was so much unoccupied space in it, 
that she was quite pleased when a number 
of people came to live with her and she 
treated tliem so hospitably, that they sent 
back good reports to the various corners of 



I 



the earth from which they had come, and 
others were encouraged to more in also. 

The family grew and grew, and the new 
members who were being constantly added, 
took kindly to the laws and customs of their 
adopted mother, and in a little while after 
they came, it was always quite difficult to 
distinguish the new from the old. Nearly 
all who came were hard-working, earnest 



men and women who did everything in 
their power to promote the welfare and hap- 
piness of the great family. 

THE PENALTY OF UNWISE HOSPITAL- 
ITY. 

At last a time came, however, when the 
lady with the big house, whose rooms were 



rapidly filling, began to wonder if she had 
not been a little too free in her hospitality, 
for she found it "was being abused. People 
were coming in great numbers who did lit- 
tle or no work and who were very active in 
vice and crime. They would not take the 
trouble to learn the language spoken in 
their new home, and they would not mingle 
with the other residents, but kept by them- 




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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



selves and continued the evil, shiftless ways 
that had made them undesirable members 
of the communities they had left. 

1,000 VICIOUS IMMIGRANTS DAILY. 

This allegory fitly applies to much of 
the immigration that is pressing down very 
hard on certain parts of the country. From 
Italy and Sicily are coming to us in great 
hordes, lawless, ignorant men and women, 
who have been taught just enough in their 
native land to enable them to pass the immi- 
grant inspection at Ellis Island. One mill- 
ion lira ($200,000) is spent annually on 
the education of the Neapolitans and Sicil- 
ians who intend to emigrate to the United 
States, in order to prevent their rejection 
by the American authorities. Of the 1,400 
immigrants on the steamship Belgravia, 
which arrived here in December, 1902, 256 
individuals whose names appeared on the 
ship's manifest, it was found upon a test 
investigation, had given fictitious addresses 
of alleged relatives and friends in this city 
who would be responsible for them. They 
resort to any means, dishonest or not, to 
slip into the country, and they are coming 
in at the rate of nearly 1,000 a day. 

NOT PROUD OF THESE COUNTRYMEN. 

The better class of Italians and Sicil- 
ians say they themselves would be glad to 
have their worthless countrymen excluded 
from the United States, because they bring 
their mother country into disrepute in the 
land of their adoption, by all sorts of crime 
and dishonesty. 

GREATEST IMMIGRATION ON RECORD. 

Germany, England, Ireland, Russia, 
Norway, Sweden and Denmark continue 
to send us great armies of men, women and 



children, but the great majority of tie peo- 
ple from these countries are desirable, and 
are as welcome now as were their forefath- 
ers when they came long ago to help build 
the nation when the gracious lady of the 
Western Hemisphere first threw open her 
doors to the world. 

In the fiscal year ending July 1, 1903, 
195,439 more immigrants came to our 




From the New York Herald. 



A SICILIAN IN NATIVE COSTUME, 

shores from Europe than during the pre- 
ceding twelve months. 

More than one-fourth of this entire 
European increase of emigration occurred 
within the narrow boundaries of Italy, in- 
cluding Sicily and Sardinia. 

OVER-SUPPLY IN THE GREAT CITIES. 
UNDER-SUFPLY ON THE FARMS. 

Meanwhile, as ignorant outcasts from 
the mother country continue to crowd into 
our already congested cities, a ery keeps 



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coming from the wheat-growing West for 
men to harvest the crops. 
- Every year, in the fall, thousands of able- 
bodied immigrants are to be found suf- 
fering in over-packed tenements — chok- 
ing the labor-markets of great cities ; while 
farmers, short of bands, are facing the loss 
of at least part of their crops because they 
cannot get labor. 

We are indebted to the Little Chronicle, 
of Chicago, for the above article. 

STATISTICS OF IMMIGRATION. 

It is interesting to note the periods of 
fluctuation that mark the extent of immi- 
gration into the United States. There was 
a steady increase from the close of the Civil 
War until the panic of 1873. Then a de- 
crease took place, with no reaction until 
1880. In 1882, the number of immigrants 
was 788,992, which is the maximum num- 



RECLAIMING OF 




IRRIGATION IMMIGRANTS. 



In the far southwestern portion of the 
United States, in the section drained by 
the Colorado river, the Kile of the western 



ber from 1867 up to 1902. The following 
table of figures shows the total number of 
immigrants arriving on our shores from 
1867 until June 30, 1903 : 



1867 


298,967 


1886 


334,203 


1868 


282,189 


1887 


490,109 


1869 


352,569 


1888 


546,889 


1870 


387,203 


1889 


444,427 


1871 


. , 321,350 


1890 


455,302 


1872 


404,806 






1873 


459,803 


1892 


623,084 
502,917 


1874 


313,339 


1893 


1875 . . 


. . 227,498 


1894 . . 


. . 285,631 
258,536 


1876 . . 


. . 169,986 
141,857 


1895 


1877 . . 


1896 . 


. . 343,267 


1878 , , 


, . 138,469 


1897 , 


, , 230,832 


1879 . , 


. . 177,826 


1898 , . 


. , 229,299 


1880 . . 


, . 457,257 


1899 . . 


. . 311,715 


1881 , , 


, 669,431 
.. 788,992 


1900 , 


. . 448,572 


1882 , 


1901 .. 


.. 487,918 


1883 , 


. , 603,322 


1902 . . 


.. 496,534 


1884 . . 


. . 518,592 


1903 , . 


-. 857,046 


1885 . . 


. . 395,346 





ARID AMERICA 

continent, is progressing the great work of 
reclaiming the great southwest. 

ALKALI PLAINS OF COLORADO. 

Any one who has gone over this country 
knows too well the stifling heat of these 
alkali plains. Probably no more desolate 
place exists than the Colorado Desert on 
the borders of California and Mexico. And 
yet such is man's persistence and ingenu- 
ity that these arid stretches of waste will 
soon bloom like oases. 

Irrigation has come to the rescue. The 
land in itself was fertile enough, and, in 
fact, the potentialities of the soil for 
everything known in agriculture are to-day 
wonderful. Further, the climate is such 
that with water, production will be boun- 



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tiful. And work is going fast apace. Ere 
long lands that were strewn with the 
bleaching bones of unfortunate pioneers 
who were lost in this trackless country, will 
manifest their richness. Here are moun- 
tains of iron, coal and salt, — mines un- 
worked, whose ore would he worth a hun- 
dred dollars a ton at the smelter. Soon 
this is to be productive under the hand of 
advancing commercialism. 

ARTIFICIAL CANAL AND OLD RIVER 
REDS. 

The railways have set the pace. With 
the knowledge that Los 
Angeles, which, although 
in blossom itself, is but 
a short distance from 
the desert, would profit 
ere long from the de- 
velopment of this coun- 
try, railway magnates 
began pushing south- 
westward from Salt 
Lake City. Already the 
faith in the country has 
begun to reap rewards. 
But a short time ago, 
this natural bride of 
the Colorado river, this 
truly rich though seem- 
ingly valueless waste, was given the advant- 
ages of meager irrigation. The method was 
simple. Water was taken from the river 
near the Mexican border by means of a 
large artificial canal, and conducted through 
old river beds to the land to be watered. 
The old river beds needed very little done 
to them save cleaning of old brush in order 
to make them the channels of the system. 
For some 50 miles these river beds are used, 
and from them extends a system of lateral 
branches. 



The land formerly was almost bare of 
vegetation, save that here and there were 
heavy growths of mesquite. But every- 
where this delta of sedimentary, deposit had 
a soil deep and rich. Now, instead of the 
somber scenes of useless desolation are 
springing up vistas of green fields, bubbling 
creeks and pleasant homes. Wherever the 
water touches the soil the growth is phenom- 
enal. The climate is similar to that of 
Southern California and the greater part 
of the year is delightful. Vegetation springs 
to maturity almost in a single b. Und. Green 




By courtesy ol the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe R. H. Company. 

BOTTOMLESS LAKE— ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO. 
How Artesian wells near Roswell may be made a great power lor good. 

corn is ready to eat in a double fortnight 
after planting. The date palm matures in 
five years. However, it is grain, alfalfa 
and live stock that will flourish most abun- 
dantly in this new paradise. Even Mexico 
will profit by the irrigation. Mexican lands 
have been purchased, water is taken to them 
by construction companies, and the canal 
system grows apace. 

TAPPING THE COLORADO RIVER. 
The water supply itself when rightly led 
is everlasting. The Colorado river at its 



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lowest stages carries enough water to irri- 
gate 8,000,000 acres, and of these there 
are about 3,000,000 acres that can be thus 
improved simply by the force of gravity. 
One great engineering feat in connection 
with this wonderful land reclamation was 
that of tapping the Colorado. / It was neces- 
sary to tap this stream so that there would 
be no danger of flooding the surrounding 
territory during high water season. This 
was done by selecting a spot where there 
was a natural heading in a hill of rock 
opposite the most powerful current in the 
river. Strong works of timber and stone 
were built here taking in the water at a 
depth of 9 feet below low level. This head- 
ing has already withstood heavy pressure 
successfully. 

CONGRESS) PROMOTES IRRIGATION. 

After nine months of careful investiga- 
tion the Geographical Survey Department 



of the United States decided upon five irri- 
gation projects which are being developed 
under the terms of the arid-land reservation 
act of June, 1902. 

One of these projects, is the Gunnison 
tunnel scheme which is expected to reclaim 
nearly 100,000 acres near Montrose, in 
Central Colorado. In Nevada it is also 
proposed to divert water from Lake Tahoe, 
California, and its outlet, the Truckee river, 
into the Humboldt Valley, and supply set- 
tlers in the vicinity of Reno. Two hundred 
thousand acres may be reclaimed here. 
Then there are 500,000 acres along Milk 
River, in Montana, and 200,000 acres at 
Tonto Creek, which will be reclaimed. 

In New Mexico artesian wells are be- 
ing bored for use as means of irrigation, 
and great tracts of barren wilderness are 
being redeemed to the service of agricul- 
ture. 



"UNCLE SAM" AND NUT CULTURE 



The Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington is pursuing the plan of distributing, 
oil special recommendation of congressmen 
for each donation, choice and desirable 
varieties of seedlings, which people shall 
find it worth their while to plant. 

Extensive plantations of budded and 
grafted seedlings have been set out on the 
government's experiment farm at Arling- 
ton, across the Potomac, and from this 
source the supply of trees required for dis- 
tribution is drawn. Large quantities of 
tree seeds, such as those of the Kentucky 
coffee trees, and the "burr oak," which 
bears the largest acorns produced by any 
species of oak native to North America, are 
shipped free to applicants. In this way 



many bushels of paper-shelled pecan nuts, 
four times the ordinary size, and obtained 
from a few freak trees that are scattered 
through the "pecan belt," have already been 
sent out for planting. 

THE PECAN AND PERSIAN WALNUT. 

Uncle Sam aims especially to encourage 
the cultivation of improved varieties of 
nut trees, such as the pecan, the Per- 
sian walnut, certain other kinds of valu- 
able walnuts from Japan, and the hazel 
nut. Of the last named, otherwise known 
as the filbert, the government has secured a 
new species from Washington state, that 
grows on a tree sixty feet long, which, be- 
cause the stem is too slender to hold itself 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



upright, runs along the ground like a vine. 
The "vine" bears pods, in each of which 
are found two filberts, in place of the usual 
single one. 

THE JORDAN ALMOND. 

It has also procured "bud wood" of the 
veritable Jordan almond for the first time 
from Spain. Many millions of pounds of 
Jordan almonds are now imported into the 
United States annually. 

The Department of Agriculture employs 
the services of half a dozen "agricultural 
explorers," whose business it is to ransack 
every corner of the world for whatever 
seems desirable in the way of new or val- 
uable plants. The same man who secured 
the Jordan almond, notwithstanding the 
obstacles thrown in his way by Spanish 
growers, sent over not long ago "bud wood" 
of some wonderful Persian walnuts, which 
are six times the size of ordinary ones, and 
deliciously flavored. The wood has been 
used for grafts on common walnut seed- 
lings, and already some thousands of the 
grafted trees are on hand. 

THE ENGLISH WALNUT. 

The growing of Persian (otherwise 
known as "English") walnuts has become 
an important industry in Southern Cali- 
fornia during the last few years, the annual 
crop amounting to more than 2,000,000 
pounds. 

There are other and valuable kinds of 
walnuts which the Department of Agricul- 



ture is propagating with the help of buds 
and grafts, and one of these is the so-called 
"Japanese walnut," somewhat smaller than 
the Persian, with a pointed shell and a 
deliciously flavored, though more oily, ker- 
nel. There is also the "Siebold" walnut, 
from Japan, of which a large number of 
grafted seedlings have been raised. Its 
nuts are not large, but are of excellent qual- 
ity, and the husks containing them are 
borne in clusters somewhat like grape3. 

PROFIT IN PECANS. 

A grove of pecan trees will easily give in 
ten years an annual profit of $1,000 an 
acre. A full-grown pecan tree of the ordi- 
nary kind produces two barrels of nuts each 
season, worth $15 a barrel, wholesale. 

The cultivated chestnut is being grown 
in superior varieties. Improved by graft- 
ing, the nuts bid fair to be of giant size 
and exquisite flavor. 

THE COCOANUT PALM. 

The Department of Agriculture is doing 
its best to encourage the cultivation of the 
cocoanut palm in Florida, where large plan- 
tations are already in bearing. The kernels 
of 500 cocoanuts yield one hundredweight 
of oil, and it takes about 240 of the nuts 
to produce a hundredweight of copra, which 
is the dried kernel. The kernels of three 
average cocoanuts give one pound of the 
dried "meat." About 40,000,000 cocoanuts 
are used for confectionery annually. 




SELLING NUTS AT MARKET. 



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WHAT THE WEATHER MAN DOES 




THE WEATHER BUREAU. SIGNAL STATION AT 
MOUNT WASHINGTON, NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Everybody knows the weather man. 
Nearly every community formerly de- 
pended upon some local prophet to foretell 
the weather. Predictions and traditions of 
all sorts were heeded, but little study was 
given to the weather from a scientific point 
of view. Even to-day the weather man is 
made the butt of the jokes of the fireside. 

As a matter of fact, the weather bureau 
of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture instead of being a joke, testifies to 
its efficiency by issuing more than ten thou- 
sand weather bulletins daily, not including 
the forecasts printed in the newspapers. 
While weather prognostication frequently 
goe9 awry, the science (for science it is) 
of meteorology not only deserves commen- 



dation in its present stage of develop- 
ment, but has shown itself acceptable 
even by the most skeptical. 

A SCIENCE OF TENDENCIES. 
This science is one of the tenden- 
cies. Where other sciences are based 
on actual and existing facts, the work 
of the weather bureau has to do with 
the probable developments of atmos- 
pheric phenomena. The weather man, 
equipped with rain gauges, weather 
vanes, gauges for calculating the speed 
of wind, and an intricate system of 
communication with other weather 
men throughout the country, makes it 
his business to register conditions of 
the weather and to deduce from them 
the kind of weather likely to prevail at 
a certain time in any given locality. 
STORM CONDITIONS. 
A storm may be brewing around Med- 
icine Hat. The direction of the wind, 
the lowness of the barometer and other con- 
ditions may indicate clearly that the storm 
will. slide down in a southeasterly direction 
and strike Chicago. Immediately the 
weather man from his eyrie, in the Audi- 
torium tower, in Chicago, for instance, 
sends out messages over the whole Central 
West warning mariners on the great lakes, 
as well as farmers who have perishable 
crops, that a storm is approaching. From 
an apparently unknown cause, a "low" 
barometer is noted in Kansas. The storm 
suddenly veers in that direction, and the 
Chicago weather man once more is the sub- 
ject of many jests. 

Such conditions constantly arise and it is 
only by the moat careful observation that 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



all of them are noted, and proper deduc- 
tions made therefrom. As a matter of fact, 
however, so efficient has become this coun- 
try-wide service, that some weather prog- 
nosticators have to their credit a3 many as 
nine out of ten correct predictions. 

AREA COVERED BY THE SIGNAL SERV- 
ICE. 

The area embraced in the weather-bureau 
service extends from the Atlantic to the 



Pacific, from the north coast of South 
America northward to the extreme northern 
Canadian habitations. Records are care- 
fully made of cold waves., hot waves and 
storms. Bulletins are sent on postal cards 
printed by postmasters, from telegraphic 
reports, to outlying towns, for display in 
suitable places. 



MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN PROPERTY 
SAVED YEARLY. 

So complete is this service that every 
year millions of dollars' worth of property 
are effectually protected from damaging 
storms by timely signals. 

At nearly every port there is either a 
complete weather observatory, or a storm- 
signal station where a system of danger 
lights is displayed at night or flags by day, 
warning the navigator of approaching 



3 
I 

I 

i 



storms. The shipping of the Atlantic sea- i 

board is thus protected with greater cer- | 

tainty than that on any other American J 

coast. One reason for this is that, except 1 

those from the Gulf, nearly all the storms | 

which sweep the 'Atlantic coast, originate \ 

in the Mississippi Valley, and the service 1 

of the weather bureau shows that they reach ' 




Instrument at Weather Bureau, which records the direction and velocity of the wind the sunlight 
and tile rainfall on the same sheet of paper. A late invention. ' ' 



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Prof Garrett and Ills clerks preparing the weather maps which are sent out to all cities each day. These maps show the weather forecast & 

for all the United States. (— 1 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



the Atlantic coast in about 21 hours. Hence 
a warning of the beginning of one of these 
valley storms, gives sufficient notice to be- 
ware. 

THE GALVESTON HURRICANE AND 
TIDAL WAVE. 

Among the great storms which have been 
accurately forecasted is that which resulted 
in the tidal wave and hurricane that swept 
over Galveston, Texas, in 1900. This was 
detected in the ocean south of Porto Rico, 
on September 1 of that year. So timely 
was the warning that little or no loss of 
property occurred to the shipping interests 
of the open waters of the Gulf. The de- 
struction at Galveston was less than it 
would have been had no warning been re- 
ceived. 

WARNING OF COLD WAVE PREVENTS 
$3,500,000 LOSS. 

There is an instance on record where 
more than three and a half million dollars 
worth of property was saved by a warning 
of the advance of a single cold wave. The 
fruit interests of California profit much 
by these warnings. 

THE CRANBERRY CROP DEPENDENT ON 
FROST WARNINGS. 

Flood-gates in the cranberry marshes of 
Wisconsin are regulated by the frost warn- 
ings of the weather bureau. Sugar grow- 
ers of Louisiana, orange growers of Florida, 
and truck gardeners in many quarters re- 
ceive timely warnings of frosts and protect 
their growing products. 

GREAT FLOODS OF 1897. 

It is frequently possible to foretell sev- 
eral days in advance the possible flooding 
of a river. High water is noted far up the 
stream, and residents in the low lands have 



time to save their chattels. During the 
great floods of 1897 so complete were the 
warning bulletins which predicted the sub- 
mergence of great districts that, it is esti- 
mated, $15,000,000 worth of live stock and 
removable property were saved. 

THE THERMOMETER AND BAROMETER. 

A word about the instruments in use by 
the weather bureau is here appropriate. 
Naturally the thermometer is of prime ira- ' 
portance as it registers the degrees of heat 
and cold. The barometer indicates the 
pressure of the atmosphere and its changes 
and generally shows the origin of a storm 
or its direction. 

THE BAROGRAPH AND ANEMOMETER. 

The barograph is an automatic barometer 
which keeps perpetual record of changes in 
atmospheric pressure. The anemometer 
registers the speed of the wind; it is a 
small windmill connected with a dial. 

THE TELETHERMOMETER AND HYGROM- 
ETER. 

The telethermometer is a combination of 
telegraph and thermometer, registering 
automatically, inside of the signal office, 
the outside temperature as communicated 
by wire from the thermometer without. 
The hygrometer notes the humidity of the 
atmosphere and aids in forecasting rains. 

THE ANEMOSCOPE. 

The anemoscope, or weather vane, points 
in the direction of the wind. There is also 
a triple register, which notes the conditions 
of rain, wind and sunshine. 

This country is in the lead in the matter 
of practical weather bureaus, which is 
largely due to the great extent of our terri- 
tory. The government expends about $1,- 
000,000 annually upon this service. 



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POSTAGE-STAMP DEPARTMENT 

20,800,000 PRINTED DAILY. 

The bureau of engraving and printing ing the little certificate that appears on the 



at Washington, D. 0., strikes off about 
20,800,000 stamps every day, and the daily 
shipments of stamps to the 70,000 or more 
postoffices throughout the United States run 
from 10,000,000 to 70,000,000. About 



letters in the United States mails is a tre- 
mendous one. While billions of stamps are 
printed in a year, every detail of the big 
job is done by a force of about 200 men and 
women. 




Gumming postage stamps In the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. About two hundred thousand 
stamps are gummed each day. 



100,000,000 stamps are always kept on 
hand ready for any emergency. 

The order sheet for stamps is an accu- 
rate barometer of industrial conditions in 
the United States, and the sale of stamps 
has jumped with leaps and bounds since 
1900. The task of printing and distribut- 



BTJT ONE SHEET, OF 400, LOST IN THREE 
YEARS. 

In the last three years only one sheet of 
stamp paper has been lost. Four hundred 
stamps are printed on a sheet, which goes 
through the hands of a couple of hundred 
employes. 



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The process of turning out a postage 
stamp is similar to that of printing a bank 
note. 

THE GUMMING PROCESS. 

The method of applying the gum to the 
stamp sheets is entirely mechanical except 
in the counting. The sheets are fed into a 
hopper, where they pass between rollers, 
the lower set of which revolves in a vat of 
melted gum. This vat is directly over a 
heater which is regulated automatically 
with scientific accuracy. Over these gum 
rollers the stamps pass on a continuous 
chain, which carries them through wooden 
compartments heated by hot water pipes. 
When the sheets emerge the gum is dry, and 
they are ready for the counter. The basic 
principle of the gum, which the government 
manufactures, is cassava starch. 

The government has been printing its 
own postage stamps since 1894. Previous 
to that year the work was done under con- 
tract. 

STAMPS USED IN THE PHILIPPINES, HA- 
WAII AND PORTO RICO. 

The insular possessions are beginning to 
draw upon the government for large ship- 
ments of stamps. The Philippines take 
about 6,000,000 a year and Hawaii and 
Porto Rico each about 3,500,000 a year. 



LEGISLATION TOUCHING POSTAGE. 

For all practical purposes the history of 
postage stamps begins in the united king- 
dom, and with the great reform of its postal 
system in 1839-40. The use of adhesive 
stamps in the United States was authorized 
by an act of congress approved March 3, 
1847, and on June 1, 1856, prepayment by 
stamps was made compulsory. Until 1863 
the rates of postage were based upon the 
distances) over which the mails were con- 
veyed. In 1846 these rates were : Not ex- 
ceeding 300 miles, 3 cents; exceeding 300 
miles, 10 cents. In 1851 the rates were re- 
duced to 3 cents for distances not exceed- 
ing 3,000 miles, and 10 cents for distances 
exceeding 3,000 miles. In 1863 a uniform 
rate of postage without regard to distance 
was fixed at 3 cents, and on Oct. 1, 1883, 
excepting, however, lottery matter, coins, 
jewelry, merchandise, etc., the rate was re- 
duced to 2 cents. 

The portraits of but two women have 
graced the stamps of Uncle Sam. The 
cheerful countenance of Martha Washing- 
ton appears on one of the last series, and 
that of Queen Isabella of Spain on an issue 
authorized at the time of the Chicago 
World's Pair. 




MACERATING OLD MONEY. 

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HOW THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OFFICIALLY 
TRAVELS OVER THE COUNTRY 



Great and elaborate preparations attend 
the occasional departure from the capital 
of the President of the United States. 
Years ago, the chief executive could leave 
Washington without attracting much atten- 



tion. Now it is altogether different. The 
average person who. follows, the course of the 
President in his tours from place to place 
probably never entertains a thought of the 
planning necessary on the part of the presi- 
dential secretaries and 
railroad officials, to bring 
about the arrival and de- 
parture of the President 
on time, and to insure the 
highest degree of comfort 
for himself and his com- 
panions. 

In these days of im- 
proved railroad operations 
and precise manipulation 
of lines, delays are not 
looked for on important 
routes, and accidental have 
come to be exceptional. 
Consequently, most people 
may not perceive any- 
thing unusual in the prog- 
ress of the President's 
train. But, although the 
ordinary express or accom- 
modation train may main- 
tain the schedule without 
unusual demands upon the 
railroad officials, this is 
not true of a presidential 
train. 

EXTREME PRECAUTIONS. 

In this case, ex- 
treme precautions are 
taken in order that 
there may be the least 




THE PRESJPENT AT HOME, 



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possible danger of delay or accident. Of the 
extraordinary regulations necessary to in- 
sure the dispatch and safety of such a train 
no one but lie interested railroad officials, 
themselves, can have any adequate knowl- 
edge or appreciation. 

THE PRESIDENT'S PRIVATE SECRETARY. 

The general supervisor of the whole trip 
and its details is, of course, the President's 
private secretary. When a trip is decided 
upon and the places to be visited are desig- 
nated, the next thing is to fix the duration 
of the journey, and the secretary, in a gen- 
eral way, maps out the itinerary. A rough 
draft is submitted to the President for his 
approval, and when it is obtained, the secre- 
tary assigns the details to particular men, 
all specialists, and even experts, in their 
particular lines, 

INSTRUCTIONS TO RAILROAD MEN, 

The first to be consulted are the railroad 
men. Then the departure of the train is 
preceded several days by elaborate instruc- 
tions to all the officials and trainmen who 
are to be in any way responsible for the 
care of the train. These instructions are 
very detailed, and reach even the humblest 
employes. They require that section men 
should be stationed at all crossings where 
there are no regular flagmen, and that a 
man should be stationed at all switches to 
guard them from being tampered with be- 
fore the train passes. Koadmasters are in- 
structed to go over their divisions in person 
before the President comes, and to observe 
and inspect everything. 

All the men concerned are ordered to be 
on hand at least 30 minutes before the 
presidential train is due to pass a given 
point, to insure the absolute safety of the 
people's executive, Engineers are in- 



structed to use extra precautions in going 
by stations, to guard against loss of life 
and any attendant delay, and also to keep 
the train well under control, so as to be able 
to make a quick stop in ease of any sudden 
happening or apparent danger. 

THE RIGHT OP WAY. 

In instances where the special schedule 
of the President's train interferes with the 
running of the regular trains, the regular 
service is retired for the time being, and 
the special train is given the right of way. 
The regular freight service also receives 
special attention, and is never allowed to 
interfere with the schedule of the presi- 
dential train. In fact, freight trains are 
usually kept out of the way, and are not 
permitted to be upon any main track over 
which the President's train is to pass. In 
addition to keen watchfulness along the 
line, the movement otf the train is also 
safely guarded against any sudden break- 
down in its own mechanical parts, by the 
continual presence of an expert carman, 
who knows a car thoroughly, and is able to 
do any repairing that may be necessary. 

THE TELEGRAPH OPERATOR AND LINE- 
MAN. 

An expert telegraph operator and line- 
man are also a part of the crew, so that in 
case of need the lineman can climb a pole 
and tap a wire, and then the operator would 
be in a position to communicate with any 
station along the route. In this way, mes- 
sages of importance can be sent ahead of 
the train, and in case of a serious break- 
down, assistance can be summoned from a 
distance. 

PROVISIONING THE TRAIN. 

The provisioning of the train is an im- 
portant matter. At the beginning of a trip 



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297 



about 300 pounds of beef, 200 pounds of 
lamb, 125 pounds of bam, 250 pounds of 
chicken, 30 boxes of geese, 100 pounds of 
turkey, 150 pounds of fish, three bushels of 
clams, 25 pounds of lobsters, ten gallons of 
ice cream, a miscellaneous supply of vege- 
tables, fruit, eggs, canned goods, cheese, 
sugar, flour, bread, crackers and similar 
articles are packed away in the refrigerator 
car. 

Frequently, perishable goods must be 
taken on along the route, at points arranged 
beforehand, and the water and ice tanks 



must be constantly replenished. Ordina- 
rily, a ton of ice is used daily. 

THE WHITEHOUSE MESSENGERS. 

The convenience of the members of the 
party is further attended to by "White- 
house" messengers, who care for the bag- 
gage during the longer stops, and make 
such special arrangements as the party may 
desire. One of the important duties of 
these messengers is to check up the members 
of the party after each stop, to see that 
none is missing. 



HOW AND WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS MEAT 



The task of furnishing the world with 
meat constitutes the largest industry in 
existence. 

The United States furnishes more than 
one-half the world's supply of swine, more 
than one-third its cattle, and nearly one- 
seventh of its sheep. 

NUMBER OE CATTLE, SHEEP AMD SWINE 
IN THE WORLD. 

There were in the 
civilized world in 1902, 
approximately 2 0 0,- 
000,000 cattle and 
450,000,000 sheep, and 
125,000,000 swine, of 
which perhaps 25 per 
cent of cattle, 45 per 
cent of sheep, and 95 
per cent of hogs were 
available for food-mak- 
ing. 

The United States 
contained, in 1900, 69,- 
438,758 cattle, 61,837,- 
112 sheep, and 64,694,- 
222 swine. In other 



words we furnish 34.72 per cent of the 
world's cattle, 13.74 per cent of its sheep, 
and 51.75 per cent of its swine, valued at 
$4,000,000,000. 

CATTLE IN TEXAS, KANSAS, NEBRASKA 
AND ILLINOIS. 

Texas has more cattle within its borders 
than any other state. In 1900, it had 
9,426,196, Iowa recorded 5,367,630, Kan- 




RANCH, NEAR TAB SPRAOUE, CRAB CREEK, WASHINGTON. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



sas 4,491,078, Nebraska 3,176,243, and 
Illinois 3,104,010. 

The average value of all the cattle in 
Texas in 1900, according to the twelfth cen- 
sus, was $17.38, Iowa $26.50, Kansas 
$26.17, Nebraska $25.96, and Illinois 
$26.47. It is thus seen that the cattle of 
the other four states named averaged over 
50 per cent greater in value than those of 
Texas, which is merely a hreeding state, 
while the others feed the cattle brought 
from Texas and fit them for the market. 

SHEEP IN WYOMING, MONTANA AND 
NEW MEXICO. 

In sheep production Montana led, in 

1900, with 6,170,483, closely followed by 

Wyoming and New Mexico. 

HOGS IN IOWA, ILLINOIS, MISSOURI AND 
NEBRASKA. 

Iowa headed the swine list, with 9,723,- 
791. Illinois, Missouri and Nebraska re- 
spectively rank next as pork producers. 
KILLING AND PACKING CENTERS. 

In 1901, the receipts of cattle at the three 
great markets of 
the country were: 
Chicago, 3,213,- 
220; Kansas City, 
2,126,575 ; Oma- 
ha, 818,003. Of 
swine Chicago re- 
ceived 8,900,494; 
Kansas City, 3,- 
716,404; Omaha, 
2,414,052. Chi- 
cago led with 4,- 
044,095 sheep, fol- 
lowed by Omaha 
with 1,314,841, 
and Kansas City 
with 980,078. 

The Union Stock 



Yards and Transit Company, of Chicago, 
and similar companies in other cities do 
the receiving, weighing, feeding, watering 
and delivering to the buyer ; the independ- 
ent plants, which are practically tenants of 
the yards, do the slaughtering, refriger- 
ating, manufacturing, curing, storing and 
shipping. 

THE CHICAGO UNION STOCK YARDS. 
THE GREATEST SINGLE BUSI- 
NESS IN THE WORLD. 

The business done at the Chicago Union 
Stock Yards is the largest single business 
in the world, and the entire industry has 
more than 45,000 employes and does an 
annual business of more than $500,000,- 
000. 

The old-time open cattle range is rapidly 
disappearing, with its immense herds of 
cattle, held by few owners, and is being 
replaced by fenced ranches and farms on 
which are grazed and fed cattle in smaller 
herds. This is more profitable as it obviates 
the heavy annual losses by freezing and 




TEXAS LONGHORN— THE OLD-STYLE STEER, 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



299 



starvation resulting from the old methods " 
of handling. Irrigation has also helped 
materially to bring about this change. Al- 
most the only extensive tracts of free open 
range now remaining are to be found in 
South Dakota, Montana, North Dakota, 
and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. 

"When the cattleman speaks of having his 
ranch cut up into pastures, the statement is 
likely to be misleading to the layman who 
is not familiar with the size of the Western 
pasture. Many a ranch pasture contains 
100,000 acres. 

THE LARGEST RANCH IN AMERICA. 

Probably the largest ranch in America is 



owned by the organization commonly called 
The Capitol Syndicate, in the rich grazing 
country of Texas, which comprises 3,000,- 
000 acres of land. 

THE FAMOUS CATTUE WOMAN. 

Altogether the largest ranch held by an 
individual owner is the property of a 
woman. It is more than 2,000,000 acres 
in extent and is the property of Mrs. Adair, 
of Paloduro, Texas. 

For facts and statistics contained in the 
foregoing, the publishers of this volume are 
indebted to the Saturday Evening Post, of 
Philadelphia. 



WESTERN FARMS OF GREAT EXTENT 

In the Southwest, where farming pays AVERAGE size of the 5,000,000 FARMS 

more profitably than in any other part of THE ™*TED STATES, 

the United States, farms ranging from The average size of the 5,000,000 farms 

3,000 to 50,000 acres are found. in the United States is 146 acres,- in the 




GREAT FARMS OF THE WEST. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 




Southwest the average size 
is 500 acres. The largest 
ranches and farms are lo- 
cated in Texas, Oklahoma, 
Kansas, Indian Territory 
and Nebraska. 

A FARM RANCH LARGER 
THAN THE STATE 
OF CONNECTICUT. 

The famous X. I. T. 
farm, in the Panhandle of 
Texas, alluded to on the 
previous page,, is more a 
cattle ranch than a farm, 
although recently- about 
20,000 acres has been 
sown to forage crops. This 
ranch covers 3,000,000 
acres, and is larger than 
the whole state of Con- 
necticut. It is owned by 
the Capitol Syndicate, of 
which the late ex-Senator 
C. B. Farwell of Illinois 
was at the head. It ships 
from 18,000 to 20,000 
head of beef steers to the 
markets every year. It 
raises from 10,000 to 20,- 
000 acres of corn and 
other forage crops to feed 
these cattle. 

"X. I. T." FARM EMPLOYS 
800 COWBOYS AND 50 
FARM HANDS. 

Two hundred eowboys 
and fifty farm hands find 
employment on the ranch. 
The income of the ranch 
is nearly $1,000,000 per 
year. 



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301 



'.LARGEST FARM IN THE SOUTHWEST. , 

1 Colonel C. C. Slaughter of Dallas, Texas, 
owns 1,250,000 acres of farm and ranch, 
land in Texas. 

The largest farm in the Southwest is the 
"101" ranch in Northern Oklahoma. This 
covers 50,000 acres, of which a greater part 
is cut up into fields. The expenses of the 
ranch are $75,000 every year. .--."■> 
Most of the crops are given a 
double sowing, that is, each field 
is twice utilized during the 
growing season. Some years 
this ranch clears $150,000. It 
has 8^000 acres in wheat, 3,000 
to 5,000 acres in corn every 
year, and an equal amount of 
millet and kaffir corn. Two hun- 
dred men work on the ranch in 
harvest time and thirty the year 
around. Experts are employed 
in every department. Eight 
thousand head of cattle are 
shipped from the ranch every 
year. None of the cereals except 
the wheat is sold from this ranch. 

50 BINDERS AND 150 MEN AT WORK IN 
ONE FIELD. 

During the harvest season it is common 
enough to see fifty binders, one following 
another, cutting down the ripening grain 
and from 100 to 300 men at work in one 
field. Plowing is done by steam power, and 
once commenced the big engines pull the 
plows night and day. This is the only 
ranch in the United States where nights 
and Sundays are not observed during the 
harvesting seasons. 

CONDUCTED BY TELEPHONE. 

A telephone system connects the entire 
ranch, and the foremen know exactly the 
work being accomplished. 



FINEST FARM IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Another immense ranch is the Forsha 
in Central Kansas. It covers 5,000 acres 
and is the finest equipped farm in the 
United States. Upon this farm are a flour- 
ing mill, a weather bureau, a postoffice, a 
gas plant, long-distance telephone and other 
modern conveniences. The ranch house 




By courtesy or the Detroit Photographic Co. 
SHOWING THE BRAND. 

contains eighteen rooms, bath-rooms for the 
men, a billiard room, a library and ball- 
room. 

1,500 ACRES OF ALFALFA IN ONE TRACT. 

Mr. Forsha has the largest field of alfalfa 
in the United States, 1,500 acres in one 
tract. He generally cuts three crops from 
this field. He grinds the wheat from his 
own fields into flour, shipping the flour all 
over the United States. He also buys 
wheat from adjacent farms and makes that 
into flour also. A daily weather record is 
kept on the ranch for the government. The 
owner's house is heated by steam and 
lighted by gas. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



FARM OF ROCKEFELLER. 

Frank Rockefeller owns 14,000 acres of 
fine grazing and farming land in the valley 
of Soldier Creek, in Western Kansas. He 
has about 5,000 acres under cultivation; 
the remainder is converted into alfalfa and 
timothy hay pastures. This ranch contains 
some of the finest bred Hereford and Short- 
horn cattle in the world. These cattle are 



EXTENSIVE RANCHES LN THE GREAT 
GRAIN BELTS. 

Extensive ranches are the rule in the 
great grain belts. It is nothing uncommon 
for one farmer to come to an implement 
office and buy fifteen harvesters, a dozen 
plows and a dozen corn harvesters. Fifty 
men at work on one farm is the average 
size harvesting crew. Farmers who pay 




BRANDING A STEER. 



By courtesy of the Detroit Photographic Co. 



fed upon ground grain, grown and milled 
upon the ranch. Thirty expert cattle rais- 
ers are constantly employed to care for the 
blooded stock and as many more Work in 
the field. The cattle and horse barns are 
of steel and stone. 

Mr. Rockefeller is now irrigating the 
upland fields, and proposes to convert the 
91,000 acres of pasture land into one gi- 
gantic alfalfa field, making the largest tract 
of alfalfa in the country. 



taxes on $50,000 worth of agricultural land 
may be counted by the dozen during the 
tax-paying time. It is an ordinary event 
in the freight offices of western railway 
companies to receive orders from farmers 
to place railway sidings in their farms dur- 
ing the fall for the shipment of grain. 
These orders are generally recognized and 
filled because the grain shipments are im- 




COWBOYS OF NEW MEXICO. 



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BIG TREES OF CALIFORNIA 




In the state of Califor- 
nia stand the oldest living 
things of the world — the 
"big trees." 

THE CALAVERAS GROVE 

About the middle of the 
last century, the Calaveras 
Grove of "Big Trees" was 
discovered, and after con- 
siderable examination by 
scientists, its members 
were tdassified as a bona 
fide species of the genus 
Sequoia. This species, 
with its kinsman, the Red- 
wood, has no close relatives 
on earth, although both re- 
semble the cypress. Only 
by comparison of the liv- 
ing trees with various fos- 
sils, was it discovered that 
the Sequoias belong to a 
very old family which 
dates back to the moist 
days of the Miocene pe- 
riod, when all vegetation 
grew abundantly. At that 
time, it is supposed, these 
trees covered much of 
Europe and America, well 
up toward the north pole. 
With the visitation of the 
glacial era, came the com- 
plete extinction of much 
vegetation, and when the 
ice receded, possibly, these 
very coast Redwoods and 
"Big Trees" fortunately 
were -left uninjured. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



This was all thousands of years ago, and 
to-day, in the specially favorable localities 
where these old trees have stood for so many 
centuries, they impress us as almost ' the 
only survivors of a previous geological age. 

THE REDWOOD FORESTS. 

In the seaward ravines and slopes of the 
coast range which traverses California, 
stand the forests of Redwood. From just 
over the Oregon line down into Monterey 
County, California, the members of the 
gigantic tree tribe thrive only so far inland 
as the sea fog always sweeps — about 20 
miles. 

TEN SEPARATE FORESTS— AREA 260 
MIXES LONG. 

On the slopes of the Sierras, scattered 
-through the timber land of that region, in 
sheltered valleys, stand the ten separate 
forests of ''Big Trees" — the only ones in 
the world. The area covered by these trees 
is not over 260 miles in length. 

In all, there are but a few hundred fairly 
large trees. 

FIVE HUNDRED TOWERING SKYWARD. 

Among these, the truly great ones do not 
number over 500. They are found set in 
mountain forests of great richness and 
grandeur. These forests are evergreen. 
The "Big Trees" are found in company 
with big Sugar and Yellow Pines, Firs and 
Cedars, which, themselves, rise from 175 
to 200 feet in height. Above these tower, 
some hundred feet higher, the great crowns 
of the Calaveras Grove. A Sugar Pine ten 
feet through is a rarity, yet there are 
Sequoias of the Mariposa Grove 30 feet 
through, and many of them are 10 to 20 
feet thick. Many of these trees when felled 
are big enough to accommodate a xroop of 
cavalry on horseback, 



A TREE 4,000 TEARS OLD. 

As to the age of these giants there is 
some uncertainty. Through counting their 
rings, some, 2,200 years old, have been 
found. 

One, that fell before the wind, was 4,000 
years old. It is supposed that some of the 
trees now standing are 5,000 years of age. 
In fact, it has been said of them that, barr- 
ing accidents, they are immortal. Part of 
this longevity is due to the fact that die 
Sequoias have a thick, fibrous bark that is 
all but fireproof, and thus affords protec- 
tion from the numerous fires that kill 
smaller trees and vegetation. Also this 
bark prevents to a great degree the deadly 
effects of fungus growth, which lodges in 
scarred trees and rots back into the wood. 

THE BIO TREES' ENEMY. 

One enemy has the Sequoia, and that is 
the lumberman, .who is cutting down this 
noble tribe of trees for commercial use. By 
far the greater number are held in private 
ownership, although some of them are in 
forest reserves. 

THE MARIPOSA GROVE. 

The Mariposa Grove is owned by the 
state of California and is thus secure. But 
many other groves are rapidly falling. The 
trees do not multiply to any extent despite 
their superb strength. In the Calaveras 
Grove there are some trees 40 years old, but 
aside from these there is little sign of in- 
crease save in the limited area on the south 
fork of the Kaweah and the Tule rivers, 
where, although restricted, there is an abun- 
dant growth of trees of every age. Doubt- 
less, action will be taken ere long to pre- 
serve to future generations the finest speci- 
mens of the old sentinels of the ages. 



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305 



WHERE THE VARIOUS AMERICAN INDUSTRIES ARE 
MAINLY CARRIED ON 



The United States Census Bureau has 
issued a report indicating the places where 
many of the most important of American 
industries are concentrated. Measured by 
the value of products, these points are as 
follows : 

COLLARS AND CUFFS. 

More than 85 per cent of the collars and 
cuffs are made in Troy, New York. 

OYSTER-CANNING. 

More than 64 per cent of the canning of 
oysters is done in Baltimore. 

GLOVES. 

More than 54 per cent of the manufac- 
ture of gloves is carried on in the adjoining 
cities of G-loversville and Johnstown, New 
York. 

COKE. 

More than 48 per cent of the coke sup- 
ply comes from the Connellsville district in 
Pennsylvania. 

BRASS-WARE. 

More than 47 per cent of the brassware 
in the United States is made in Waterbury, 
Connecticut. 

CARPETS. 

More than 45 per cent of the manufac- 
ture of carpets is carried on in Philadelphia. 

JEWELRY. 

More than 45 per cent of the manufac- 
ture of jewelry is carried on in Providence, 
Ehode Island, and the adjoining towns of 
Attleboro and North Attleboro, Massa- 
chusetts. 



SILVERWARE. 

More than 36 per cent of the silverware 
manufacture is done in Providence, Rhode 
Island. 

MEAT INDUSTRY. 

More than 35 per cent of the slaughtering 
and packing business is done in Chicago. 

PLATED AND BRITANNIA WARE. 

More than 32 per cent of the plated and 
Britannia ware is made at Meriden, Con- 
necticut. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

More than 24 per cent of the agricul- 
tural implements are made in Chicago. 

SILK. 

The whole of the silk manufacture in the 
United States is conducted in Paterson and 
West Hoboken, New Jersey. 

PACKING HOUSE EMPLOYES IN SOUTH 
OMAHA. 

The number of wage earners engaged in 
slaughtering and meat packing in South 
Omaha, Nebraska, constitutes 90 per cent 
of the total number employed in all indus- 
tries in that city. 

IRON AND STEEL. 

The iron and steel industry forms 89 per 
cent of all the industries in McKeesport, 
Pennsylvania. 

POTTERY. 

The pottery manufacture constitutes 87 
per cent of all business in East Liverpool, 
Ohio. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



FUR HATS. 



COTTON GOODS. 



The fur hat industry forms 86 per cent In Fall River, Massachusetts, the mantt- 



of all manufactures in Bethel, Connecticut. 
GLASS. 

In Tarentum, Pennsylvania, the glass 



facture of cotton goods constitutes 80 per 
cent of all business done there. 

BOOTS AND SHOES. 
In Brockton, Massachusetts, the boot and 



manufacture makes up 80 per cent of all shoe manufacture forms 77 per cent of all 



business done there. 



business done there. 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES— AT HOME 
AND ABROAD 



While the system of public schools in the 
United States has often been the subject of 
favorable comment, few people stop to con- 
sider the enormous work and the amount 
of money spent in this great public work. 

NUMBER OF PUPILS. 

The annual report of the Commissioner 
of Labor shows that during the year ending 
June 30, 1902, the grand total of pupils 
in public and private schools of our coun- 
try was 17,299,230, an increase of 278,- 
520 pupils over the preceding year. Of 
this number, 15,710,394 pupils were en- 
rolled in institutions supported by general 
and local taxes imposed by states and 
municipalities. 

VALUE OF PUBLIC SCHOOL PROPERTY. 

The value of the property used for public 
school purposes was $756,043,089, an in- 
crease from $130,380,008 in 1870. 

EXPENDITURES FOR COMMON SCHOOLS. 

Expenditures for common school pur- 
poses, including elementary and secondary 
schools but excluding higher grades, 
amounted to $226,043,236, having risen 
from $64,396,666 in 1870. 



EXPENSE FOR SCHOOLS PER CAPITA. 

The expense for schools per capita of 
population increased from $1.64 in 1870 
to $2.93 in 1902. The amount expended 
per capita varies much in different states. 
It is $4.65 in California, $5.30 in Nevada, 
$5.18 in Colorado, $4.93 in Massachusetts, 
and $4.60 in New York. The rural popu- 
lations generally expend less. The number 
of high schools supported by public money 
in 1901 was 6,318. 

SCHOOLS IN THE NEW ISLAND POSSES- 
SIONS. 

The recent extension of our national rule 
over some of the islands of the Orient in- 
volves the imparting of knowledge under 
governmental supervision to multitudes of 
untaught children in those far-away insular 
possessions. The expense of the new edu- 
cational system in the Philippines is 
mounting up to a high figure. 

A SMALL ARMY OF TEACHERS. 

"Uncle Sam" has already appointed a 
small army of teachers and has stationed 
them in all parts of the archipelago, with 
instructions to saturate the young barba- 
rians as thoroughly as possible with Ameri- 



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307 



can ideas and information. Above all, they 
are to be taught English, and immense 
quantities of schoolbooks in that language 
— geographies, arithmetics, readers, etc. — 
have been shipped across the ocean for their 
use, together with slates and pencils, pens 
and copy-books, blackboards and chalk, 
maps and globes and other such apparatus 
ad libitum. 

UNDER SPANISH RULE. 

Under Spanish rule the educational sys- 
tem in the islands was exceedingly primi- 
tive. Girls were taught embroidery and 
needlework, but were not supposed to re- 
quire other knowledge. 

Schooling ordinarily ended with the tenth 
year of the pupil, and teachers were so 
poorly paid that their calling was looked 
down upon. 

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE COMPULSORY IN 
THE PHILIPPINES. 

The first act of the Philippine commis- 
sion when it turned its attention to the work 
of education was to make schooling com- 
pulsory, while free of cost, so as to bring 
it within reach of the laboring classes and 
the poor. School attendance is obligatory 
on all native children between the ages of 
six and twelve years. 

OPEN 1,500 SCHOOLS IN THE ARCHIPEL- 
AGO. 

Since then the archipelago has been di- 
vided into seventeen educational districts, 
with an American school superintendent in 
charge of each. One thousand American 
teachers for primary work have been ap- 
pointed and assigned to stations in the 
various towns, with 200 additional teachers 
in higher branches. Besides these 3,400 
Filipino teachers have received appoint- 



ments, and provision has been made for 
instruction in the English language in 1,500 
schools, in which over 200,000 children are 
enrolled. Night schools for adults and 
others unable to attend during the day have 
been opened throughout the islands. 

FILIPINO TEACHERS. 

The Filipino teachers get one-half the 
salaries of the American teachers, who are 
paid from $1,000 to $1,200 per annum. 
Trade schools in the large towns have been 
organized. A number of agricultural 
schools will soon be in operation, and, as a 
means of preparing the natives for employ- 
ment in the signal corps, telegraphy is now 
being taught. 

The Filipinos are to be educated in 
schools organized on the American plan. 
Rebellious natives may lay down their arms 
only to take them up again later, but the 
present generation is learning English and 
singing "The Star-Spangled Banner," and 
will not be in the least disposed to indulge 
in insurrection. Already schoolhouses are 
being built everywhere and everybody tries 
to speak English. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL BOOKS — 750,000 
SENT TO THE PHILIPPINES. 

American school-books to the number of 
750,000 have already been shipped to the 
Philippines, together with enormous quan- 
tities of school supplies, including 20,000 
modern school desks. At present most of 
the children have to sit on benches without 
backs. 

YEARN EOR KNOWLEDGE. 

The Filipino children are noticeably 
bright and precocious, learn rapidly, and 
teach their parents English. One teacher 
reports that he can more easily govern 300 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



Filipino children than fifty young Ameri- 
cans. 

GAMES OT THE YOUNG FILIPINOS. 

Tie native boys are most fond of foot- 
ball, leapfrog, pitching pennies and flying 
kites, introducing the element of gambling 
wherever possible. Of the games intro- 
duced by the American teachers they take 
most interest in baseball, hop-scotch and 
prisoner's base. The girls enjoy running 
games, song and dance games and jack- 
straws, but the American teachers have in- 
troduced among them blindman's-buff, hide- 
and-seek, jumping the rope, crack the whip 
and the dressing of dolls. 

FIRST FILIPINO GRAMMAR. 

The oddest of all educational volumes is 
the Filipino grammar — the first one to be 
issued — which has just made its appear- 



ance. It has three primitive, vowel 
sounds — a, i and u — which seem to be of 
European origin. The other vowel sounds 
— e and o — are used chiefly in printing 
and in words of Spanish origin, but they 
are pronounced like "i" and "u" respect- 
ively. 

THE TANGAXOG ALPHABET. 

The tangalog alphabet is an easy one. 
There are only 15 simple and two com- 
pound sounds, but quite enough for the 
vocabulary of a Filipino. Adjectives are 
generally formed by prefixing "ma" to the 
root. Comparison is expressed by duplica- 
tion, thus: "Mabuti," good; "Mabubuti," 
best. The same simple method is in use 
in expressing the various moods and tenses 
of verbs. Thus the root, "aral," means 
study ; "mag-aral," to study ; "mag-a-aral," 
I study ; "mag-a-aral aco," I shall study. 





THE AMERICAN SOLDIERS WITH FILIPINO CHILDREN. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



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HOW THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT EDUCATES 
THE INDIAN 

The policy of the 
government in past 
years of selecting a 
few Indian youths 
from each tribe and 
removing them to dis- 
tant schools, there to 
be given, free of cost 
to the Indian, all 
the advantages that 
American youths pay 
for, either in money 
or work, seems in the 
end to turn out un- 
fortunately for the 
Indian himself. The 
youth is weaned from 
his old associations, 

and accustomed to a life of luxurious ease. 
After his education is completed, there re- 
mains no course open to him but to return 
to his old tribal relations, the very life that 




OUVJsiKNMENT SCHOOL AT CARLISLE, PA., WHERE GOOD WORK IS BEING 



subject for ridicule and ostracism, until 
he submits and falls back into the old, filthy 
life of the tepee. 



his training has unfitted him for. 

METHOD SPOILS THE INDIAN. 

The government does not provide a career 
for him as it does for graduates of West 
Point and Annapolis. All he can look for- 
ward to must come from his tribe. He re- 
turns to the reservation, where he is not 
even given land in severalty, in case he 
should wish to support himself by tilling 
the soil. He is not given any occupation 
or office ; even his rations are dependent on 
his being recorded on the family ration 
ticket To live in peace with the tribe, he 
must not appear to put on airs. If he tries 
to adopt the customs of civilization he is a 



WRETCHED CONDITIONS ON SOME RES- 
ERVATIONS. 

The miserable condition of the Indians 
on some of the reservations is a reproach 
to the American people. In some cases, the 
school facilities are not sufficient for more 
than one in ten of the children of school 
age. No churches or missionaries are pro- 
vided, and on Sundays the Indians play 
cards and the troops at the post play base- 
ball as well as cards. 

AN ANOMALOUS STATE OF THINGS. 

Sometimes very anomalous conditions 
exist, as when a troop of infantry is sta- 



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310 v FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



tioned on an extensive reservation to keep 
in control thousands of mounted braves ; or 
when a cattle company pays pasturage for 
ten thousand head of stock on a reservation, 
and actually pastures forty thousand head ; 
or when the rations are reduced in a year of 
drouth to half the quantities issued in pre- 
vious years, or when white settlers have 
taken out irrigating water from above the 



reservations, thus depriving the Indian irri- 
gators of the means of raising crops. 
CAPABLE OF SELF SUPPORT. 

Many more of the Indians are able and 
willing to become self-supporting if given 
land in severalty, and provided with means 
of irrigating it. As common laborers on 
railroad construction, they have proven 
superior to the laborers from Europe, 



CHOCOLATE 



Chocolate making has become one of the 
great industries of America. When, one 
day, shortly after the fall of his kingdom, 




COCOA TREE. 



Montezuma raised a golden cup to his lips, 
for refreshment, he introduced a new drink 
to the world, and that beverage was choco- 
late. 



ING IN AMERICA 

CONQUERORS CARRY THE DARE-BROWN 
NUT HOME TO SPAIN. 

Bernard Diaz, one of the Spanish 
officers with Cortez, observed the monarchy 
and in the history he afterward wrote of 
the conquest of Mexico, he described the 
king's act and its effect. Thus it came 
about that when the Spaniards took ship 
for Cadiz, they bore with them not only a 
yellow metal but a dark-brown nut from 
which chocolate was made. 

KNOWLEDGE OF CHOCOLATE MAKING 
SPREADS THROUGH EUROPE. 

This knowledge of chocolate making by 
the Spaniards was kept a secret for many 
years, but it finally crossed the Pyrenees 
into France, and spread throughout Europe. 
The manner in which the fame of the bev- 
erage was diffused is interesting. In the 
refectories of the Spanish monasteries 
chocolate had become such a favorite bev- 
erage that the monks, wishing to remember 
their brothers in France in an especially 
friendly way, sent them presents of the 
cocoa beans. 

PURITANS BRING IT TO MASSACHUSETTS 
BAY. 

Thus it was that when the daughter of 
Philip III. went to Paris as the wife of 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



311 



Louis XIII., she bore with her from Madrid 
the news of the new drink from America. 
."Next the Puritans took it with them to 
Massachusetts Bay. Since then, chocolate 
has become a household word \a the length 
and breadth of the United States. 

FIRST CHOCOLATE MUX IN AMERICA — 
1765. 

The first chocolate mill was established 
at Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1765. This 
mill, 15 years later, became the property of 
Dr. James Baker. Later, the establishment 
passed into the control of Walter Baker. 
Others afterward succeeded both Bakers, 
and a man named Pierce, in this concern. 

CONSUMPTION OF CHOCOLATE AND CO- 
COA IN THE UNITED STATES. 

In 1860 there were consumed in the 
United States 1,181,054 pounds of choco- 
late and cocoa. In 1902, the consumption 
had grown to 48,785,688 pounds, a stu- 
pendous increase of 4,030 per cent in 42 
years. During the same period, the popula- 
tion of the country increased only 151 per 
cent But what of the product itself? 

CHOCOLATE MILL AT MILTON, MASSA- 
CHUSETTS. 

To drive down the hill from Milton, Mas- 
sachusetts, past the chocolate mills, is to 
inhale deep aromatic odors, that lead you to 
imagine that you are skirting the domains 
of "Araby the Blest." Within the mills 
there is a "spick" and "spanness" that 
make the aroma even more delicious, for 
they seem to fill it with a fresh and whole- 
some cleanliness. The whole theory of the 
process in the mills is that the cocoa bean 
is a product of nature, and that what it 
needs is refining and purifying, just as gold 
needs refining to be brought to the pure 
ingot 



THE COCOA THEE AND NUTS. 

Chocolate is obtained from the cocoa tree, 
a tropical plant which reaches a height of 
between 20 and 30 feet. It bears pods 
about nine inches long, within which are 
closely packed the beans. These are about 
the size and shape of almonds, and of a 
brownish color, when dried. They come to 
market in burlap bags, and on the lower 
floors of the great mills, the first step in 
purification is taken by cleansing the beans 
from any dust or foreign particles that may 
have become attached to the shells. 

THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 

Kext comes the roasting, a most impor- 
tant operation, upon which depends to a 
great extent the flavor of the beans. Too 
little roasting leaves them crude and under- 
flavored, while too much tends to make 
them bitter. This process is carried on in 
the upper stories of the mills, the cleansed 
seeds being put into large cylindrical roast- 
ers, holding a ton each. These machines 
keep the seeds in constant motion over hot 
pipes, for about three hours. When they are 
"done to a turn" they are dropped through 
big hoppers to the floor below; there they 
are broken into small fragments. The 
shells, already loosened by the roasting 
process, are then removed by ingenious win- 
nowing machines, where the bean fragments 
are fanned within screens, and the light 
shells neatly separated from the solid frag- 
ments of the beans. 

COCOA SHELLS. 

The manipxilation of these winnowing 
machines requires experience and care, for 
a workman may easily blow away his salary 
by admitting too much current to the fans. 
These shells, once separated, are ready to be 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



packed in boxes and placed on the market. 
Cocoa shells are well-known and widely 
used, making a palatable and inexpensive 
drink, with a slight flavor of chocolate 
about it. 

GRINDING THE CRACKED COCOA. 

The cracked cocoa, freed from the shells, 
is now destined to be turned into chocolate 
without further ado. This is accomplished 
by a process of grinding. From the win- 
nowing floor the cleaned fragments drop 
another story, again through capacious 
hoppers, down to the great grinding rooms. 
Stretching away in seemingly endless ranks, 
stand big, gleaming, intricate machines, 
which receive the cocoa beans as they are 
fed into the hoppers above, and grind them, 
into a fine, smooth paste or thick liquid. 

HOLDING THE CAKES. 

As this liquid flows thickly out at the 
bottom of the burnished grinder, it falls, 
if it is to be a plain chocolate, into oblong 
molds, which give it the form familiar to 
housekeepers. It is now in the molds, but 



not yet molded. Tor that purpose, it must 
be carried into a room which seems to be 
nothing but noise. This is the room of 
the automatic molders. If the chocolate 
were pressed into the molds, it would mere- 
ly stick to the presser mold and all; so, 
instead, it is shaken in. The pasty lump 
of chocolate in its metal mold is put into 
a wooden tray on a table, which is shaken 
by steam, and makes, the molds bob up and 
down in a most deafening manner. After 
the chocolate is fitted to the mold, it is car- 
ried off to the cooling rooms. - 

SWEETENING AND FLAVORING. 
In making sweetened chocolate, pure 
sugar is added in a certain proportion, be- 
fore molding, and also the finest quality of 
vanilla beans, if it is to be vanilla choco- 
late. In the manufacture of breakfast 
cocoa, a portion of the oil of the chocolate 
bean is removed by hydraulic pressure, 
and the pressed mass remaining is ground 
into minute particles. This process is con- 
tinued until a high degree of fineness has 
been obtained. 



CINNAMON 



The cinnamon plant or tree is raised 
most readily from seeds, although the finer 
kinds are propagated in Ceylon by layers. 
The wood of the tree is light. The 
branches are thick and spreading, and 
shoot forth horizontally or inclining down- 
wards, with numerous oblong leaves grow- 
ing in pairs opposite to each other. The 
cinnamon berry is small and has the form 
of an olive, with a kernel. 

It adheres to a thick green and hexan- 
gular receptacle in the manner of an acorn. 
The peeling process commences early in 
May and continues until late in October, 



Two longitudinal slits are made in the bark, 
which is gradually loosened with the convex 
side of a knife, and then half of its cir- 
cumference usually comes off in one entire 
slip. The epidermis, together with the 
greenish pulpy matter immediately under 
it, is carefully scraped off. When suffi- 
ciently dry, it is made up into bundles 
weighing about 30 pounds each. Ceylon 
alone has 37,000 acres of land devoted to 
the cultivation of cinnamon. It is grown to 
some extent in China, and several species of 
the plant in a wild state are found 
in Java, 



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313 



ALASKA 



Alaska is eight times as large as all New 
England. It has a coast line of 26,000 
miles. It has the best yellow cedar in the 
world. It has the greatest salmon fisheries. 
It has cod banks that excel those of New- 
foundland. It has the largest river in the 
world. 

THE YUKON RIVER. 

The Yukon is 20 miles wide, 700 miles 
from its mouth. With its tributaries, it is 



for this area $7,200,000. One Alaska com- 
pany alone has paid to the United States 
Government $7,000,000 in rentals and roy- 
alties. The value of Alaska salmon packed 
in 1901 was over $7,000,000. 

TRADE OF ALASKA. 

The experience of the world shows great- 
er trade in the temperate zone than in the 
tropics. Annual exports to Alaska amount 




By courtesy of the Detroit Photographic Uo. 
STAGE COACHES STARTING FOR THE MINES. 



navigable for 2,500 miles. It discharges 
one-third more water than the Mississippi. 
VAST EXTENT OE ALASKA. 
The territory of Alaska has an area of 
329,529,000 acres, of which 272,000,000 
acres lie within the temperate zone. In 
1867, the United States Government paid 



to $1,000 per head. Annual imports from 
Alaska amount to $400 to $1,000 per head. 
Alaska is the American Sweden and Nor- 
way. It begins in a line within Southern 
England. Alaska does not extend a& far 
north as Northern Norway. It is richer 
than Sweden and Norway. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 




THE ISLAND OF KADIAK. 

Kadiak, on the coast, is in the 
same latitude as Aberdeen, Scot- 
land. The lowest temperature 
ever recorded at Kadiak was five 
degrees above zero. The average 
winter temperature at Kadiak is 
higher than at Washington, D. C. 

TEMPERATURE AND PRODUCTS. 

The lowest temperature ever re- 
corded at Dutch Harbor, Alaska, 
was nine degrees above zero. 
Dutch Harbor is in the latitude 
of Liverpool. Sitka has not cold 
weather enough in winter to sup- 
ply ice for the summer. Alaska 
is rich in minerals, lumber, fish- 
eries, furs and coal. The trade 
with Alaska is now nearly twice 
as great as with Hawaii. 

SEAL AND WALRUS HUNTING. 

Quite as much trouble has been 
caused between the United States 
and British governments over the 
indiscriminate hunting of seals in 
Alaskan territory as over any in- 
ternational question. One of the 
first laws enacted by this govern- 
ment after its purchase of Alaska 
from Russia, for $7,200,000, was 
aimed to prevent the slaughter of 
mink, marten and fur seal in that 
territory. 

BREEDING GROUNDS OF THE 
SEAL. 

The breeding grounds of the 
seal which is of commercial value 
are principally the Pribilof Is- 
lands of St. Paul and St. George. 



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315 



This land was leased by the Alaska Com- 
mission Company for $60,000 a year, and 
, a co m mission, or royalty, of $2 on every fur 
seal taken. The company was limited to 
100,000 seals a year. 

ILLEGAL HUNTING. 

This arrangement made by the Treasury 
Department was considered very favorable 
until the great movement of settlers west 
tempted pelagic sealing or hunting for fur 
seals in the water. So rapidly did the herds 
of seal begin to diminish that officials were 
alarmed, and in 1886, the revenue cutter, 
Corwin, was sent to the territory and three 
British vessels were seized for illegal hunt- 
ing. This caused a great uproar, and a de- 
mand was made by Great Britain that the 
sailors be released. This was done, but, the 
next year, a similar proceeding followed. 

JOINT AGREEMENT WITH GREAT 
BRITAIN. 

After much discussion and legislation, 
a joint high commission was appointed be- 
tween Great Britain and the United States 
and the outcome of its work was a proposed 
set of regulations to protect the seals. These 
regulations, which were to continue in force 
until either party violated them, prohibited 
the killing (except by Indians) of seal with- 
in 60 miles of the Pribilof Islands at any 
time, and anywhere in the North Pacifie 
from May 1 to July 1, of each year. This 
closed season allowed the seals time to cross 
from their winter quarters over the ocean to 
the Pribilof Islands to breed. Explosives 
and firearms (except shotguns) were pro- 
hibited in hunting. This stipulation, how- 
ever, was not ratified, and the United States 
government was forced to prevent sealing 
on the Pribilof Islands except by the North 
American Commercial Company and to de- 



mand papers showing a complete record of 
every sealskin brought into our ports. This 
was a hard blow to Canadian interests, and 
tended to suppress pelagic sealing. 

PELAGIC SEALING. 

In pelagic sealing, the hunters sail in 
schooners from our shores to Yokohama and 
thence bear down upon the animals in the 
sealing ground. The cry, "Sleepers", is 
the warning given by the lookout on ship- ' 
board that seals are in sight. A boat is low- 
ered, provisioned for five days, and 
equipped with shotguns and shells. When 
the seals are espied they are asleep on their 
backs, with their flippers across their bel- 
lies. Stealthily, the hunters slip upon their 
quarry and shoot them asleep. Great quiet 
must be preserved until the killing begins, 
for, although the seals are almost blind, they 
have an acute hearing. At the Pribilof 
Islands, the government has built fences to 
confine the bull seals during breeding sea- 
sons. 

WALRUS HUNTING BY THE ESKIMOS. 

Walrus hunting is carried on in the Arc- 
tie seas by the Eskimos and is a very prof- 
itable but dangerous enterprise. The 
method pursued by these little people of the 
North is to cruise about the sea, and when 
a walrus is sighted, to lower a whaleboat 
with about six men in it. Gently they steal 
upon the unsuspecting walrus, and when 
they come within about 20 yards of the 
animal, it is harpooned. The harpoon has a 
handle attached at one end, and on the sharp 
end is a movable barb. To the barb is at- 
tached a rope, which jerks the barb to a 
horizontal position when the spear is buried 
in the animal. This prevents the harpoon 
from drawing out. Now the walrus is en- 
raged and tries to break away. It swims 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



with all its might and the natives shoot it 
with bullets from a Winchester rifle. So 
thick skinned is the animal that one shot 
will not suffice, and six or seven shots are 
often necessary. All this time it swims 
strongly. Finally, it can be drawn near 
enough to the boat to be stabbed with a 



lance through the heart and lungs. It is 
then towed to the ship and hoisted on board 
by means of pulleys. Here it is cut up. 
These great animals have valuable tusks 
and blubber, and average about 1,800 
pounds each, in weight. 



FLORIDA'S PRODUCTS AND PLEASURE RESORTS 



Northern people go to Florida, from No- 
vember to April, to spend money. Sun- 
shine, soft breezes, flowers, and singing 
birds are a vast improvement on raw winds, 
alternating frost and thaw, and mud and 
misery. 

FOUR HUNDRED MILES OF OCEAN 
BEACH. 

The favorite resorts of Florida are on 
the east coast, where are the Halifax and 
Indian rivers, formed by flinging out an 
arm of sand into the great waters of the 
Atlantic and turning a section of the deep 
into an inland sea. The ocean beach of 
Florida, stretches north and south, more 
than 400 miles. 

NORTHERN CAPITAL MAKES IMPROVE- 
MENTS. 

Northern capital alone has made the im- 
provements which, in conjunction with nat- 
ural elements, constitute the attractive 
features of Florida's pleasure resorts. Most 
of the expenditure in this direction is rep- 
resented by capacious and superb hotels at 
various well-known points, which owe their 
construction to a single man. 

ST. AUGUSTINE AND THE "PONCE DE 
LEON." 

At St. Augustine, thi9 man of compre- 
hensive entertainment, built the Ponce de 



Leon, and when this luxurious and beauti- 
ful structure is opened for the season, the 
ancient town, over whose time-begrimed 
fortress the ensigns of three different na- 
tions have successively waved, celebrates 
the event with processions, the booming of 
cannon and a profusion of flags. 

PALATIAL HOUSES OF ENTERTAINMENT. 

The Alcazar and Cordova, at St. Augus- 
tine, owe their origin to the same man, and 
later he added the Ormond, on the Halifax, 
the Royal Poineiana and Breakers, at Palm 
Beach, the Royal Palm, at Miami, and the 
Colonial, over at Nassau — all sumptuous 
and palatial. 

THE "ROYAL FOINCIANA." 

The greatest, however, is the Royal Poin- 
eiana, at Palm Beach, a place which this 
modern Croesus has made the most beau- 
tiful spot on earth. 

On one side is Lake Worth, on the other 
the Atlantic, and over the stretch of sand 
between are groves of cocoanut palms and 
palmettos, avenues of Australian pine and 
oleanders, and gardens of glorious hued 
flowers. When all this tropical foliage is 
bathed in Florida sunshine, gleaming and 
glad ; when the Neapolitan Orchestra goes 
out under the palms and the guests gather 



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318 „ FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 




PALM BEACH, FLORIDA, AS IT APPEARS TO THE TOURIST. 

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"FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



319 



for the afternoon concert, and that heavenly 
music floats out upon the breezes which, 
come in fresh and sweet from the sea ; when 
the cocoanuts cling" close to the strong stems ; 
above and great plumes of green sway 
across the blue beyond, their grateful shade 
sheltering the throngs of beautifully 
gowned women below, whose toilets are in 
pretty pink and purple of the flowers; the 
scene is 'certainly very fairylike. It has 
been called "Paradise" so often that the 
term is trite. But one could weave many a 
vision of fancy together and find them real- 
: ized here. 

PALM BEACH. 

To see it is to understand why Palm 
Beach has become the center of attraction 
for that procession of wealth and aristoc- 
racy which moves southward in search of 
rest, pleasure or new excitement. Nearly 
the whole generation of millionaires flocks 
here. It dazes one to look over the list of 
names sometimes registered at Palm Beach 
— the Astors, the Vanderbilts^ the Goulds, 
the Castellanes, the Manchesters, the Still- 
mans, the Benedicts, the Joneses, the Har- 
rimans, the Yan Rensselaers, the Clarkes> 
the MacVeaghs, the Wanamakers, the Scho- 
. fields, and a score or more of others. No- 
where else are so many millionaires housed 
and huddled together on one little strip of 
land. 

PRODIGAL EXPENDITURE. 

Of course money flows like water. It 
hardly seems to be money, but is flung out 
with a freedom which is equaled only by 
the eagerness with which it was grasped in 
the making. At high tide, which was 
reached about the last of February this 
year, the Royal Poinciana had some 1,400 
guests, and the. daily income could hardly 



have averaged less than $10 per guest. The 
employes and help of the great establish- 
ment number 1,100 persons, and the cost 
of food alone is $2,200 per day. 

It nearly all comes from the North, and 
hence means little to Florida. Cars are 
sidetracked at the kitchen doors and the 
supplies go straight to the pantries and re- 
frigerators. The dining-room covers about 
two-thirds of an acre, seating 1,700 people, 
and the corridors and halls measure more 
than two miles. It is the largest hotel in 
the world. 

The railroad built by the owner of these 
mammoth hotels has opened up the garden, 
spots of the east coast. 

THE ORANGE GROVES AND PINEAPPLE 
ITELDS. 

The Indian River orange groves pro- 
duce the finest flavored fruit sent to mar- 
ket, and the pineapple fields on the same 
river, near Ports Pierce and Eden, are very 
prolific One of the farmers of that sec- 
tion says that if he gets only two crops in 
five years it is still a profitable business. 
An acre of ground has yielded as high as 
$900. 

THE FLORIDA TRUCK GARDENS. 

At Miami the truck gardeners are rais- 
ing immense quantities of tomatoes and 
other vegetables. Corn in the ear and peas, 
beans, and tomatoes may be found ready 
for market in the beginning of April. A 
small limb on a grape-fruit tree often con- 
tains as much as 50 pounds of fruit. ' 

SPONGE FACTORY AT KEY WEST. 

Not the least interesting and important 
among the features of • Florida production 
is the sponge industry, a representation of 
which appears in this connection. 



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COCOANUT PLANTATION. gg 
Cocoanut Raising, so profitable in India, as shown by tno above illustration, is also one ol the industries of Southern Florida. H- 



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MAKING MONEY AT THE MINT 



Tie United States mini was established 
by act of Congress April 2, 1792. 

COPPER CENTS, FIRST MONET COINED. 

The first money, copper cents, was 
coined in 1793 in the building erected by 
the government on the east side of Seventh 
street, near Market street, Philadelphia. 
The first director of the mint was David 
Eittenhouse, IX. D., and among his suc- 
cessors have been Elias Boudinot, Robert 
Paterson, James Ross Snowden, James 
Pollock, Dr. Linderman and Col. Snowden. 

SILVER DOLLARS AND GOLD EAGLES 
CAME NEXT. 

Silver dollars were the second money 
made, in 1794, and next gold eagles, in 
1795. The first machinery, as well as metal 
used, came from England, and up to 1816 
all work was done by hoTse or hand power. 
During five years of the mint's existence, 
work has been suspended owing to the 
prevalence of disease in the city. The 
present mint, on Chestnut street, near 
Broad, built of white marble, in the 
Grecian style, was finished in 1833. 

NO GOLD EAGLES COINED FOR 33 TEARS. 

ISTo eagles were coined from 1805 to 
1837, inclusive. 

PERIODS OF CESSATION IN CERTAIN 
COINAGES. 

2To half eagles were coined in 1816 or 
1817 ; no quarter eagles before 1796, nor in 
1800' or 1801, nortfrom 1809 to 1820, or in 
1822, 1823, 1828 or 1841 ; no dollars from 
1806 to 1838, except 1,000 in 1836; no 
half dollars from 1797 to 1800, nor in 
1815 ; no quarters before 1796, none from 



1798 to 1803, none from 1808 to 1814, and 
none in 1817-24-26-29 and 1830; no half 
dimes In 1798, 1799, 1804 and 1806 to 
1828 ; no cents in 1815, a few specimens in 
1823 ; no half cents in 1798, 1801, 1812 
to 1824, 1827 to 1830, 1834, 1837^ and 
1840. A few half cents were struck every 
year from 1840 to 1857. The first $3 
pieces were made in 1854. 

The silver dollar coinage of 4121^ grains, 
the 5-cent and 3-eent silver pieces and the 
bronze 2-cent piece ceased April 1, 1873. 

SAN FRANCISCO, DENVER AND CARSON 
CITY MINTS. 

The mints at Carson and San Francisco 
coin gold and silver only, and the Denver 
mint is confined to assaying and refining. 

THE WEIGHING ROOM. 

The first process of the mint is in the 
weighing room wheTe all precious metal — 
gold from California, Georgia, Montana 
and !Nbva Scotia, and silver from Nevada 
and most of the world — -is weighed. Here 
come, also, family plate and bricks of sil- 
ver, copper from Lake Superior and nickel 
from Pennsylvania. Tons of silver bricks 
are here, weighing from 100 to 150 pounds 
each. 

The largest weight used in the weighing 
room is 6,000 ounces ; the smallest weight 
used in the mint is in the assaying room 
and weighs 1-1300 of an ounce. 

THE DEPOSIT MELTING ROOM. 

The metals for coining, including gold 
dust, grains of gold and crystalline lumps, 
next go to the deposit melting room, where 
they are placed in pots, and with a suitable 
flux, are melted and molded. 



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FACTS CONCERNING 

ASSAYING. 

Bits are cut off for assaying before the 
metal goes to the refiner and melter. For 
assaying, the small bit of gold is taken to 
the assayer's room, a dark department, 
with crucibles, kettles and pans. It is put 
into a black lead pot, melted and fluxed, 
stirred up to make a complete mixture 
and then cooled and rolled out. Then half 
a gramme is weighed, which is stamped 
1000, and all the weights thereafter used 
are decimals of this, to the ten thousandth 
part. 

Silver for the alloying is next added, and 
then lead for the cupellation ; the whole is 
cupelled until the base metals are fused, the 
remaining bullion is beaten in a spiral, the 
silver dissolved out and the remaining gold 
determined by weight. Iron molds are used 
in the melting room, which are previously 
greased to prevent sticking and all the gold 
and silver used in the mint, in molten mass, 
are poured into these and speedily cooled. 
The long, thin, rich-colored bars resulting 
are called ingots. 

THE ROLLING ROOM. 

From the melting room the bars go to the 
rolling room, where 200 per hour pass 
through the mighty revolving jaws of each 
pair of rollers, coming forth with the exact 
thickness of a coin. 

In the same room with the rollers are 
nine cutting presses, which, with a con- 
tinual snap, snap, bite out 225 planchets of 
plain coin pieces in a minute. These 
planchets are taken in boxes to the anneal- 
ing furnaces, for the hard treatment they 
have received makes them brittle. They are 
heated in the furnaces to a red heat and, 
having become soft and pliable as leather, 
are taken out to cool. 



DIFFERENT NATIONS 323 

THE ADJUSTING ROOM. 

The planohets then go to the adjusting 
room, where they are weighed and in- 
spected. If too light, they are remelted; 
if a little too heavy, they are filed to the 
right weight ; but if much too heavy, they, 
too. are remelted. 

TEE CLEANING ROOM. 

From the adjusting room the planchets 
go to the cleaning room, where with acid 
and heat they are thoroughly cleaned, and 
then dried with sawdust and peanut-roaster 
contrivances. They are then milled and 
have, their edges turned up, after which 
they go to the presses. 

THE PRESSES. 

The presses are ten massive monsters, 
each capable of turning out over 100 coins 
per minute. The amount of pressure re- 
quired to make a perfect coin is from 20 to 
80 tons, according to the size of the coin. 
The planchets are put in a brass tube, and 
with each impress are caught in two iron 
arms and placed on the lower die, which is 
in the bed of the press, corresponding to 
the upper die, and by the coming together 
of these two dies the coins are struck. Aa 
the planchet rests on the lower die, the 
upper descends and impresses it, and the 
two arms instantly catch the coin struck 
sMid throw it into a box beneath. 
NOW LEGAL COIN. THE COUNTING. 

At this moment it is a legal coin. The 
coins are then taken from the boxes and 
placed on grooved counting boards, similar 
to washboards, which hold a certain num- 
• ber of coins. After this count they are 
poured into a drawer, out of which they are 
again counted, and placed in bags, ready 
for their mission of hapninerc s>t wretched- 
ness. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



NINE GREAT WONDERS OF AMERICA 



Croton Aqueduct, in New York city. 

Fairinount Park, Philadelphia, largest 
park in the world. 

Lake Superior, the largest lake in the 
world. 



Mammoth Cave, in Kentucky, the largest 
cave in the world. 

Niagara Falls, with a sheet of water 
three-quarters of a mile wide and a fall of 
175 feet. . 

New York and Brooklyn Bridge, 



Washington Monument, Washington, D. 
C, 555 feet high. 

Yosemite Valley, California, 57 miles 
from Coulterville, which is from eight to ten 
miles long, and about one mile wide. It 




has very steep slopes, about 3,500 feet high, 
a perpendicular precipice 3,089 feet high, 
a rock, almost perpendicular, 3,270 feet 
high, and waterfalls from 700 to 1,000 
feet high. 

"Flatiron" Building, New York. 




NEW YORK AND BROOKLYN BRIDGE— VIEW FROM SOUTH STREET, NEW YORK CITY. 



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SALARIES PAID BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 



PRESIDENT, VICE PRESIDENT AND CAB- 
INET. 

President, $50,000; Vice-President, 
$8,000; Cabinet officers, $8,000 each. 

CONGRESS. 

United States Senators, $5,000 and 
mileage. 

Members of the House" of Representa- 
tives, $5,000, with mileage. 

SUPREME COURT. 
Chief Justice, $10,500. 
Associate Justices, $10,000. 
U. S. CIRCUIT AND DISTRICT COURTS. 

Circuit Court Justices, $6,000. 

District Court Justices, $5,000. 

HEADS OP MINOR DEPARTMENTS. 

Superintendent Bureau of Engraving: 
and Printing, $4,500; Public Printer, 
$4,500 ; Superintendent of Census, $6,000 ; 
Superintendent of Naval Observatory, 
$5,000 ; Superintendent of Signal Service, 
$4,000; Director of Geological Surveys, 
$6,000; Director of the Mint, $4,500; 
Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
$4,000 ; Commissioner of Pensions, $5,000 ; 
Commissioner of Labor, $5,000 ; Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, $4,000 ; Commis- 
sioner of Education, $3,000 ; Commander 
of Marine Corps, $3,500; Superintendent 
of Coast and Geodetic Survey, $6,000. 
TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 

United States Treasurer, $6,000; [Reg- 
ister of the Treasury, $4,000 ; Comptroller, 
$4,000. 

POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

Four Assistant Postmaster-Generals, 
each $4,000; Chief Clerk, $2,500. 



POSTMASTERS. 

Postmasters are divided into four classes 
and* receive the following salaries : First 
class, $3,000 to $4,000 (except in New 
York city, where .the salary is $8,000) ; 
second class, $2,000 to $3,000 ; third class, 
$1,000 to $2,000; fourth class, less than 
$1,000. Those in the first three classes are 
appointed by the President and confirmed 
by the Senate; those of fourth class are 
appointed by the Postmaster-General. 

DIPLOMATIC APPOINTEES. 

Ambassadors to France, Great Britain, 
Germany, Mexico and Russia, $17,500. 

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers 
Plenipotentiary to Austro-Hungary, Brazil, 
China, Italy, Japan and Spain, $12,000; 
to the Argentine Bepublic, Belgium, Chili, 
Columbia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, 
the Netherlands, Turkey and Venezuela, 
$10,000; to Denmark, Hayti, Paraguay 
and Uraguay, Portugal, Sweden and Nor- 
way, and Switzerland, $7,500; to Bolivia 
and Ecuador, $5,000, and to Greece, $6,500. 

Ministers Resident to Corea and Siam 
at $7,500, and to Persia, $5,000. 

Consuls General, four at $6,000 each; 
three at $5,000 each; six at $4,000 each, 
and eight at $2,000 to $3,500 each. 

Consuls, 72 at $1,000 to $3,500 each; 

ARMY OFFICERS. 

General, $13,500; Lieutenant General, 
$11,000; Major General, $7,500; Briga- 
dier General, $5,500; Colonel, $3,500; 
Lieutenant Colonel, $3,000; Major, $2,- 
500; Captain, mounted, $2,000; Captain, 
not mounted, $1,800; Regimental Adju- 
tant, $1,800; Regimental Quartermaster, 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



$1,800; First Lieutenant, mounted, $1,- 
600 ; First Lieutenant, not mounted, $1,- 
500 ; Second Lieutenant, mounted, $1,500 ; 
Second Lieutenant, not mounted, $1,400; 
Chaplain, $1,500. 

NAVY OFFICERS. 

Admiral, $13,500; Vice-Admiral, $9,- 
000; Rear- Admirals, $6,000; Commodores, 
$5,000; Captains, $4,500; Commanders., 



$3,500; Lieutenant-Commanders, $2,800 
Lieutenants, $2,400; Masters, $1,800 
Ensigns, $1,200 ;_ Midshipmen, $1,000 
Cadet Midshipmen, $500; Mates, $900 
Medical and Pay Directors, Medical and 
Pay Inspectors, and Chief Engineers, $4,- 
400 ; Fleet Surgeons, Fleet Paymasters and 
Fleet Engineers, $4,400; Commander of 
Marine Corps, $3,500 ; Surgeons and Pay- 
masters, $2,800; Chaplains, $2,500. 



THE GOVERNMENT OF GERMANY 



What is commonly known as Germany is, 
in fact, a federation of numerous kingdoms, 
duchies and principalities. The country is 
generally thought of as representing abso- 
lutism in the person of the German Em- 
peror. This is hardly the case. 

ORGANIZATION OP THE GERMAN CON- 
FEDERACY. 

When Central Europe was ravaged by 
Napoleon, the numerous German states 
sought alliances with each other for protec- 
tion against the common enemy. For a 
long time Austria was the leader. At the 
time of the war of 1866, however, Prussia 
came forward, and Austria was relegated 
to the background. When Prussia emerged 
victorious from the Franco-Prussian War, 
in 1871, the coalition of states elected Wil- 
liam of Prussia its president and crowned 
him Emperor in the palace of the French 
king at Versailles. Shortly after this, a 
convention was called which framed a con- 
stitution. Three forces had been at work 
to bring about this empire, namely: the 
protection sought by the German kings and 
princes, the desire of the great Bismarck 
to make Prussia dominant, and the efforts 



of the small German rulers to perpetuate 
their rights to their individual thrones. 

The individual states that entered into 
the confederation yielded up much of their 
power to the imperial government. In fact, 
the coalition is not loose, but is a firm pact 
— an "indissoluble union of indestructible 
states." The local laws mostly govern. In 
the courts of these states there is the usual 
system of local and superior courts in the 
several kingdoms. Aside from the manage- 
ment of their local affairs, the smaller states 
have reserved principally the right of rep- 
resentation. 

THE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT. 

The imperial government consists of the 
Emperor and his officials, the Bundesrath, 
or federal council, similar to the United 
States senate, and the Reichstag, similar to 
the house of representatives. The latter is 
made up of about 400 members, elected by 
popular vote, for five years. Any citizen 
25 years old can vote or be a candidate. 
Members receive no pay, but their transpor- 
tation is paid. The federal council is made 
up of ambassadors from the individual 
states, selected by their individual rulers, 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



327 



with the aid of the local legislatures. Each 
state casts its votes according to the num- 
ber of its representatives, through one 
spokesman for each state. 

THE IMPERIAL COUNCIL. 

This body is perpetual, and must be con- 
voked by the Emperor, at the request of 
one-third of its members. The Imperial 
Chancellor is president of this council, and 
his vote decides in case of 
a tie. The concurrence of the 
Bundesrath in the legislation 
of the Reichstag is necessary 
to make such legislation 
valid, and the former ratifies 
or rejects treaties and exe- 
cutes laws, when no other 
provision has been made. 
Thus the council seems to 
have the actual sovereignty 
of the Empire. Bills to be 
introduced in the Reichstag 
must have the support of 
15 members. The Reichstag 
must be consulted on war, 
and neither house can ad- 
journ, save from day to day, 
unless the Emperor names a 
day of adjournment. The 
Emperor can also dissolve 
the lower house and order 
a new election within GO 
days. When a bill affecting 
only a certain state is 
brought up in either house, 
only the representatives of 
the state affected by the bill 
vote upon it. 
THE IMPERIAL CROWN. 
The constitution makes 
the imperial crown heredi- 
tary with the oldest male 



member of the royal Prussian house. Thus 
a man is always on the throne, and Prussia 
has the greatest influence. This custom 
allows the Emperor to arrogate to himself 
much power and many privileges. The 
German people, moreover, are much im- 
pressed with the grandeur of the imperial 
throne, and the Emperor is absolute lord of 
5,000,000 soldiers, and represents the Em- 




THE GERMAN EMPEROR. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



pire in all foreign affairs. He controls 17 
delegates in the council as king of Prussia, 
and only 14 more votes are necessary for 
legislation. Prussia also has an absolute 
veto power on questions relating to the 
army, navy, and imperial taxes. 

Experts prepare most bills for passage, 
and if they pass the council they are sent 
to the other house. Amendments to the con- 
stitution, instead of being referred to the 
people, are put through the council. Four- 
teen votes against an amendment will 
check it. Thus Prussia may stop legisla- 
tion harmful to her power, yet the smaller 
states can readily prevent encroachment. 

THE IMPERIAL CHANCELLOR. 

The Imperial Chancellor generally con- 
trols politics, and is the Emperor's prin- 
cipal adviser, being appointed and removed 
by him at will. He is the head of the 
Prussian delegation in the council, as well 
as president of that body. All acts, to be- 
come laws, must be signed by him. Bis- 
marck, the prime mover in the establish- 
ment of the Empire, was the greatest of 
Chancellors. 



MOVING BOATS BY 

On the Eiver Elbe an odd method of 
moving boats is used which is not followed 
in any other part of the world. The stream 
is too swift to navigate in the usual way, 
and hence a chain 290 miles long is laid at 
its bottom. The boats are 180 feet long 
and are provided with 200-horse-power 
engines, which turn a drum fastened on the 
deck. 



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LAWS OF THE EMPIRE. 

The Empire's laws take precedence over 
those of the component states, and are exe- 
cuted upon an unruly state by force of 
arms. Contributions, pro rata, from all the 
kingdoms may be called for in emergencies, 
but the ordinary taxing powers of the Em- 
pire are limited to customs, and to revenues 
on beer, tobacco, salt, sugar, and a few 
other commodities. Coinage is controlled by 
the Empire, as are the railroads and tele- 
graphs, although a few railways are owned 
by the kingdoms, which are also allowed 
to operate mints. 

The judiciary of the Empire includes an 
imperial supreme court made up of 18 
judges appointed for life by the Emperor. 
An appeal to this tribunal from the superior 
courts of the kingdoms may be had. A code 
of criminal laws, another for commercial 
affairs, and a third, civil code, that governs 
the judiciary of all the kingdoms, have 
been established by the Empire. There is 
no bill of rights in the constitution, to 
guarantee to the individual certain privi- 
leges and immunities common in many 
countries. , 



GABLE ON THE ELBE 

r ;' The chain comes in over the bow, passing 
-along on rollers to the drum, around which 

. it- is wound three times. The chain is 
then carried to the stern, where it drops 
back into the water. The steamers tow five 
barges, containing 1,500 tons, and their 
only means of locomotion is by the chain 
wound around the drum, which is propelled 
by the engines on board the boats. 

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329 



THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT FISHERIES 





. 

The United States 
' Fish Commission 

,1 and the steamship Albatross se- 

cure records of depths surround- 
ing the Hawaiian Group and the islands of 
the South Seas, and regularly send consign- 
ments to the main fish station at Washing- 
ton by vessels sailing round Cape Horn. 
CRUISE OF THE GORGON. 
Not since the British government cruiser 
"Gorgon" returned from ' its voyage in the 
interest of science, has any vessel been so 
thoroughly equipped to investigate the 
depths of the ocean and learn the character 
of its inhabitants. 

THE SIGSBEE TRAWLING DEVICE. 

By the use of the Sigsbee net (invented 
by Charles D. Sigsbee, Captain United 
States Navy, late of the lost battle- 
ship Maine) it is possible to gather 




"TRAWLING" ON THE FLOOR OF THE PACIFIC, 
Five Miles Under the Ocean Surface. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



specimens at the astounding depth of five 
miles, and the construction of this device 
insures the capture of anything entering it, 
as it cannot be opened until drawn up to the 
ship. 

The value of this vessel's work is in- 
calculable to ichthyologists and navigators, 
teaching the former new forms of sub- 
marine life, and giving the latter soundings 
of dangerous shoals, hitherto uncharted by 
hydrographers. 



The Albatross touched at the Marquesas 
Group, the Paumotu Islands, the Society 
Islands, the Tonga Islands and many 
others. 

THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY SPECIES 
OF FISH. 

The voyage resulted in the taking of 350 
species of fish, of which 70 were new to 
science. Nearly all were good for food. 
Most of the fish caught by the natives of 
the islands are eaten raw. 



BUYING HUMAN HAIR IN GERMANY 



Every autumn the hair buyers of Ger- 
many start out from Berlin to purchase the 
luxuriant tresses of women and girls who 
live in the villages along the Spreewald. 
In this region the inhabitants, who are of 
Slavic origin, preserve the language and 
many of the customs of the ancient vandals. 
The women and girls wear their heavy 
masses of silky hair rolled in great coiffures 
on their heads, and are not averse to being 
shorn if the buyers offer a figure high 
enough. 

METHODS OF THE HAIR BUYERS. 

The women are fully aware that human 
hair is a desirable commodity, and they al- 
ways set a good price for their locks. The 
buyers are used to the business, however, 
and are good at driving a bargain, so there 
is a great deal of haggling before the pur- 
chase is finally concluded. The buyers, 
when commencing operations in a village, 
always first endeavor to put the inhabitants 
in a pleasant humor. They invite the vil- 
lagers to come to the inn, where the former 



act as hosts, and treat everybody to wine 
and schnapps. After a day or two spent 
in establishing themselves as good fellows 
in the opinions of the townspeople, they be- 
gin work. They pick out the girls and 
women who have the best heads of hair, 
and offer them a low price for their locks. 
The women at once name a very exorbitant 
sum and then the trade is fairly begun. 
The women talk and argue until finally a 
compromise is reached, the price is agreed 
upon, and the village barber trims off the 
long, wavy locks and turns them oveT to the 
buyers. 

PRICE OF A HEAD OF HAIR. 

The price of a head of good hair depends 
upon its quality, luster and color, and upon 
the age of the person on whom it is grown. 
The hair of girls between the ages of 12 and 
17 years is deemed most valuable. A good 
head of hair is worth all the way from $8 
to $25. The hair thus obtained is exported 
all over the world. 



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MOUNTAIN CLIMBING IN SWITZERLAND 



Perhaps the most striking fact brought 
out in a recent report of the Swiss Alpine 
Club, dealing with accidents in the Alps 
during the ten years from. 1890 to 1901, 
is the relatively small number of deaths 



caused from mountain climbing. Certain- 
ly most will learn with surprise that out of 
a total of 100,000 tourists who visit the 
Alps every year, a large proportion of 
whom climb the peaks, few lost their lives. 

NATIONALITY OE THOSE KILLED. 

Judged by this test, it would seem 
that, despite all its perils, moun- 
taineering is a les3 dangerous pas- 
time than many others — say, motor- 
ing, or cycling, for example — which 
are generally accounted much less 
hazardous. The figures given as to 
the nationality of those killed dur- 
ing a given period are also rather 
unexpected. The vast majority, it 
seems — 190, to be precise — were 
Germans and Austrians, forty-eight 
were Swiss, twenty-three Italians, 
eighteen English or American and 
fifteen French. Most of the acci- 
dents occurred, too, in the eastern 
Alps — which helps, no doubt, to ex- 
plain the preponderance of the Ger- 
man-speaking climbers among the 
victims. 

It is somewhat surprising, none 
the less, to find that the latter out- 
number so largely the English and 
Americans, and that these together 
in their turn are hardly more nu- 
merous than the French. Doubtless 
there is something in the explana- 
tion that British climbers, as a class ; 
engage good guides, and in addition 
do then- climbing as a rule at the 
time of the year most favorable for 




MOUNTAINEERING IN SWITZERLAND. 



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332 * FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS . 

good guides; 2, f oolhardiness ; 3, vanity 
and the spirit of emulation ; 4, carelessness ; 
5, want of experience; 6, absentminded- 
ness; 7, false economy on food or neces- 
saries; 8, injudicious use of alcohol; 9, 
climbing at the wrong season — in the early 
spring or late autumn or winter. A suf- 
ficiently comprehensive list, it must be 
agreed. Yet even so, it is probably not 
exhaustive. Who can wonder at the peren- 
nial fascination of such sport ? 

THE GOVERNMENT OF GREAT BRITAIN 



The abuses to which the thirteen original pomp and ceremony "of royalty, the govern- 
American colonies were subjected by the ment of Great Britain is one of the most lib- 
British crown caused the Revolutionary eral in the world. It is monarchical almost 




HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT AND WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 



War, and impressed a deep-set opinion of 
the absolutism of the British government 
on the minds of many Americans. 

It is a fact, however, that with all the 

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mountaineering; also, perhaps, their ex- 
ceptional aptitude for the sport may go for 
something; but still the figures are sur- 
prising. What would be interesting to 
learn would be the proportion of lives lost 
to the total number of climbers in the case 
of each nationality. But this information 
is not supplied. 

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS. 

As to the causes of accidents, they are 
catalogued as follows : 1, neglect to employ 



in name only, for although the crown of 
England passes to the Oldest member of the 
reigning family, and with it the sovereignty 
over all the British Empire, yet its power ia 



FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS * 333 



limited so that the monarch cannot use co- 
ercion on subjects without great risk of rev- 
olution and dethronement. 

FATE OF CERTAIN EARLY MONABCHS. 

Although the government is a limited 
monarchy, it is almost a democracy, built 
upon an unwritten constitution of customs 
and on a parliament of two houses — the 
lords and the commons. These working 
through a cabinet and influenced somewhat 
by the king, carry out ultimately the will 
of the people. The constitution is the out- 
growth of centuries of struggle between 
parliament and the monarchs. In early 
times, the rulers were practically absolute, 
but when some of the more cruel ones were 
deposed, executed or judged insane and 
regents were appointed in their places, the 
people gradually acquired rights which 
they guarded jealously, and never per- 
mitted to be lost. Charles I. was deposed, 
and for a time Oliver Cromwell, as presi- 
dent of the great Commonwealth, governed 
in democratic form. Then came the mon- 
archy again, but as soon as James II. at- 
tempted to become an absolute monarch, he 
was deposed and William and Mary suc- 
ceeded. Since this time, the cabinet has 
played an important part in the govern- 
ment of Great Britain. At the time that 
George I. came to the throne, from a Ger- 
man family, he did not understand English, 
and, naturally, the cabinet was his main- 
stay. George III. tried to do away with 
this institution, but the people's action 
finally brought him back to using such 
advisers, and since then the cabinet has 
become a permanent fixture, though not 
mentioned legally as such, being simply the 
outgrowth of custom. 



THE CABINET. 

The cabinet is a body made up of from 
15 to 20 of the chief ministers of the sev- 
eral portfolios or departments of the gov- 
ernment. In order that this system of 
cabinet government may work out most 
effectually, two rival parties are presup- 
posed. Each party, criticising the acts of 
the other and striving for supremacy, keeps 
the other on its metal. The ministers of 
the cabinet naturally belong to the party in 
power. Thus they control the situation 
well enough to pass any measures the ad- 
ministration may propose. When, through 
waning popularity, poor government, or for 
any similar reason, the cabinet party lacks 
sufficient support to pass its measures, it 
resigns the cabinet positions. There is the 
alternative df appealing to the public in 
elections. If recourse is had to this method, 
the house of co mm ons is first dissolved. If 
the members are returned by vote of their 
constituents, the administration is vindi- 
cated, and the bill in question is passed. 
In order to accomplish this, however, it 
becomes necessary sometimes, though very 
rarely, to coerce the house of lords. This 
is done by a threat from the king that he 
will create enough new peers to accomplish 
the desired legislation. 

From the foregoing it may be seen that 
the house of commons directly represents 
the people, and that when it comes to ap- 
pealing to the public at large in regard to 
measures that receive universal support, it 
surpasses the house of lords in power. In 
like manner it can be understood that the 
monarch, in order to be in perfect accord 
with his people, must coincide to a great 
degree with this branch of parliament. 

As before said, the cabinet is not recog- 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



nized by law, but is the outgrowth of cus- 
tonij its origin having been a secret body of 
advisers of the crown. Naturally, in the 
beginning, the more powerful party in par- 
liament was sought out by the sovereign to 
aid him in securing legislation. The cab- 
inet of to-day, therefore, resigns when it no 
longer has the support of parliament, and 
thereupon the king calls to his aid the lead- 
ers of the opposite party. These 'he ap- 
points to the ministerial offices (the privy 
council) and from them he selects his cab- 
inet. This body has no authority save 
in that they are members of the privy 
council, and the premier who, also, is not 
recognized by law as such, gains his 
authority through being a minister, gen- 
erally, the minister of foreign affairs. 

PARLIAMENT. 

One of the strong points of the govern- 
ment is, that while the monarch has no veto 
power, yet so imbued are the people with 
the idea of royalty, and such is their re- 
spect for their sovereign, that they would 
not return members to parliament who 
would knowingly oppose his will. The 
ruler gives his advice and counsel to his 
cabinet, and receives their suggestions as 
to his ideas, and as a result, measures thus 
planned are sent through the houses of par- 
liament. When the houses are unanimous, 
legislation is unimpeded; when disagree- 
ment occurs, the methods before mentioned 
for vindicating the cabinet may be used, or 
a new ministry may be formed. This sys- 
tem presupposes that the king can do no 
wrong, and the ministry in power is made 
directly responsible for bad management. 



As the constitution is not a written in- 
strument, parliament is all-powerful. Its 
legislation is presumed to be constitu- 
tional, and courts do not pronounce upon 
its acts. 

THE JUDICIABY. 

The judiciary holds office for life and 
cannot be removed except for cause. Thus, 
in the main, its acts tend toward justice. 
It is entirely separated from the legislative 
and executive departments of the govern- 
ment, although to some extent it is ap- 
pointed. Should it interpret laws adverse 
to the wishes of parliament, that body 
would enact new laws which would nullify 
its decisions. The house of lords is a 
hereditary body. It has almost co-ordinate 
power with the house of commons, save that 
it cannot introduce or amend financial 
measures. The privy council is. the official 
body that confers with the ruler and signs 
enactments. The king makes formal ap- 
pointments, and the cabinet must have the 
support of the majority of parliament to 
hold office. Thus the commons, which is 
the most numerous body, may be said to 
choose the cabinet. When a new parlia- 
ment is chosen, the public, practically, 
chooses the new prime minister, for it has 
the leaders of the opposing party in mind 
when casting votes. All acts must be per- 
formed in the light of publicity, to gain 
favor, because there are two parties. 

Lastly, the English system necessitates 
the development of the individual leader, 
who can dominate his party, and thus make 
cabinet rule possible over sovereign and 
lords. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFUSE NT NATIONS * 335 

IN A KING'S KITCHEN AND PLATE ROOMS 



The Koyal kitchen of King Edward VII. 
is a room of considerable size, much larger 
in fact than the kitchens of many of the 
leading London restaurants, and scores of 
meals are prepared there every day. 
ITS COSTLY FINISH. 

It is fitted up throughout with black oak, 
for which George III. was responsible, he 
having expended $50,000 in this direction 
alone. Besides the kitchen proper, there 
are the confectionery room, the pastry room 
and the bakehouse. 

TEE CLERK AND THE CHEF. 

The clerk of the kitchen, who rejoices in 
a salary of $3,500 a year, is responsible for 
the conduct of these departments, and he 
hag to deal with all the tradesmen who sup- 
ply the royal household. But the potentate 
of the kitchen is the chef, who also receives 
$3,500 a year, and under him are four 
master cooks, each of whom has control of 
a small army of assistants, while the con- 
fectionery department is ruled by two yeo- 
men with salaries of $1,500 and $1,250. 
ECONOMICAL MANAGEMENT. 

Such a thing as unpunctuality is un- 
known in the king's kitchen. The most 
rigid economy is practiced, and such food 
as remains unconsumed is distributed 
among the poor, who apply at the castle gate 
every day. 

NINE MILLION DOLLARS IN PLATE. 

The king's kitchen hides something like 
$10,000 in copper and iron utensils and 
$9,000,000 in plate. Among the former 
should be mentioned the enormous meat 
screen of solid oak lined with metal, which 
is nearly 300 years old, and bears the im- 



perial badge of the house of Tudor — the 
portcullis and arms. Connoisseurs have 
sighed in vain for this meat screen, for its 
worth is inestimable. 

FOUR THOUSAND KITCHEN KNIVES, 
3,000 KITCHEN FORKS, AND 800 
POTS AND FANS. 

Then, there are 4,000 knives, 3,000 forks 
and as many spoons, used for cooking and 
kitchen purposes. 

EIGHT THOUSAND FORKS AND SPOONS 
OF MASSIVE SILVER. 

There are also 8,000 forks and spoons of 
massive silver for use at the royal table. 
There are 800 pots and pans, mostly of 
copper, and five scourers are solely em- 
ployed to keep them brightly burnished. 

PLATE EQUAL IN VALUE TO 18 TONS OF 
SOVEREIGNS. 

Not far away are the plate rooms, two in 
number, which, although they measure only 
13 by 16 feet, hold treasures eighteen tons 
of sovereigns would not buy. 

SOLID GOLD SET OF GEORGE IV. 

The most valuable item in the storeroom 
is, of course, the famous service consisting 
of plates, dishes, tureens, epergnes and 
candelabra, all of solid gold, which were 
made by Roundelle & Bridge for George 
IV. This service is only used on state 
occasions. Equally famous is the emperor's 
service of silver gilt, the worth of which 
may be vaguely gleaned from the fact that 
each plate weighs a stone, and the epergnes 
two hundredweight apiece. 

GOLD DISH OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. 

There is one gold dish of surpassing love- 
liness which is supposed to have been used 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



by Alexander the Great before the battle 
of Hydaspes, and for upward of six cen- 
turies it has reposed at Windsor. Another 
much-valued piece of plate is the silver 
gilt flagon three feet in height, which was 



recovered from an Armada wreck three cen- 
turies ago, while there is a table of solid 
silver, the surface of which measures nine 
feet square and is engraved with the foui 
emblems of Great Britain. 



A FAMOUS ENGLISH LOCOMOTIVE 



The railways of Great Britain are widely 
reputed for substantial construction and 
skillful operation. So slight are the 
gradients and curves and so perfect is the 
mechanism of their equip- 
ment as to insure a com- 
bination of maximum 
speed and long. endurance 
of engines. An illustra- 
tion of this is found in 
the record of "the Charles 
Dickens," which is in 
many respects a notable 
locomotive. It is the rec- 
ord engine of England, 
and, incidentally, an example of what Brit- 
ish locomotives can do. 

TWO MILLION MILES RUN. 

This machine has just completed its 
second 1,000,000 miles. The ordinary lot 
of a railway engine is to run about 20,000 
miles a year, so the record in this instance 
is practically equal to 100 years' service. 

TWENTY-ONE YEARS ON THE ROAD. 

But the "Charles Dickens" is only 
twenty-one years of age, having been turned 
out at Crewe in February, 1882. Its work 
has been to take an early train, starting at 
8:30 in the morning, from Manchester to 
London, a distance of about 200 miles, re- 
turning from London the same day at 4 
in the afternoon. 



BOUND TRIPS NUMBER 5,312. 

It recently completed its five thousand 
three hundred and twelfth round trip in 
addition to nearly 200 other trips that it has 




A FAMOUS LOCOMOTIVE, THE "CHARLES DICKENS." 



made, and it is significant that during the 
whole of its long joumeyings, not a single 
passenger on the trains which it has hauled 
has suffered injury. 

SPEED 50% MILES AN HOUR. 

In the twenty-one years of its service the 
speed has gradually risen from forty-two to 
fifty and one-half miles an hour, and this 
in spite of the fact that the weight of the 
trains has been increased by an addition 
of heavy dining and corridor cars, and 
other weight-involving luxuries of modern 
travel. 

CONSUMPTION OF COAL, 27,486 TONS — 
OF WATER, 204,771 TONS. 

During its ; twenty-one years of service the 
engine has burned 27,486 tons of coal and 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 337 



has evaporated 204,771 tons of water, the 
consumption of coal averaging thirty-two 
pounds to the mile — a remarkably econom- 
ical performance. The engine has heen 



laid up for repairs during this period only 
12 per cent of the time, and the cost of its 
maintenance has heen a fraction over 1 
penny per mile. 



WHAT FOGS COST LONDON 



The words "Thicker than a London 
fog" have become proverbial, and were 
frequently used by persons who wish to 
describe a dark, gloomy and, perhaps, 
rainy (as well as foggy) day in the 
United States. In this line, it would be in- 
teresting to learn what the fogs cost Lon- 
don. 

TEN TONS OP SMOKE DAILY. 

Every winter day each house in London 
throws into the atmosphere an average of 
ten tons of smoke-laden air, a total quan- 
tity of 5,000,000 tons of smoke-laden air 
for the inhabited houses of London per 
day, or, possibly, 7,000,000 tons per day, 
if we include factories. 

London loses one-sixth of its sunshine 
and daylight on account of this smoke. In 



winter the loss amounts to one-half. The 
cost of clearing the air of London, either 
by electrically driven fans or other scientific 
methods, would probably be $30,000 a day, 
equivalent to a rate of lOd in the pound. 
The cost of caring for London's sewerage 
is about £600 per day. 

FOGS COST £3,000,000 A YEAR. 

On the other hand, a bad fog in London 
costs £5,000 a day, for additional gas alone. 
The yearly fogs cost, therefore, £3,000,000 
to £5,000,000. A ten-penny rate would 
therefore be a very cheap and agreeable 
substitute for the smoke of London. The 
science of the twentieth century will give 
as satisfactory a solution to the question of 
smokes as that of the nineteenth century 
in the matter of sewage. 



MATRIMONY IN ENGLAND 



In England, a man's wife is in reality his 
partner, and whether or not the two are in 
harmony with each other in affection, they 
recognize in all material things that their 
fortunes are irrevocably bound together; 
that the interests of both are quite identical, 
and that each has just as strong a motive 
for making things go well as has the other, 
since they share equally the labor and the 
reward of labor. 



WHAT THE WIFE KNOWS AND DOES. 

They may have their private disagree- 
ments, but they confront the world together. 
The wife takes the keenest interest in the 
most minute details of everything that af- 
fects her husband's welfare. She knows 
his income to a penny. She manages her 
household as a chancellor of the exchequer 
manages the nation's outlay, so that the an- 
nual budget shall not only avoid a deficit, 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



and shall accurately balance, but shall show 
a surplus. She will practice rigid economy, 
if necessary, and in doing so, she will feel 
that she is merely carrying out her share 
of the marriage contract. 

HUSBAND AND WIFE WORK TOGETHER. 

It is the man's part to make money; it 
is her part to help him save it. She plans 
nothing for herself apart from him; she 
cannot think of him as anything apart from 
her. If he is in political life, she enters 
into his ambitions with intelligence and 
zeal. She will write his letters for him 
and entertain his constituents; she will 



study the blue books and teach herself to 
understand the public questions with which 
he has to deal, so that she may discuss them 
with him and follow hia career intelligently. 
A BOND OF COMMON INTEREST. 
She belongs to him, in fact, as he belongs 
to her. There is not much display of senti- 
ment in an English household after the first 
year of married life has ended ; but there 
is the bond of a common interest, which 
grows stronger every day and every year, 
and which gives to man and wife a unity 
of purpose and of feeling that will, beyond 
comparison, outlast the ties of mere emo- 
tionalism. 



SCOTLAND'S MODEL TOWN 



. On the banks of the winding Forth, a 
few miles from Falkirk, may be seen what 
is known as "The Model Village of Scot- 
land." The name of this interesting little 
place is Dunmore. It was built long ago 
by the Earl of Dunmore for estate workers. 
It is now inhabited not only by this class, 
but also by salmon fishers and others, aboxit 
fifty families, in all, going to make up the 
population. It has a village school, "a 
Smiddy" and a grocery shop. 

In the center of the village is a lovely 
open space in which is the proverbial vil- 
lage pump. The houses are built after old 
architectural designs, and are comprised of 
rooms and kitchens. At one end of the vil- 
lage is the open country, while at the other 
are seen the waters of the Firth of Forth. 
It is built off the main road, and is ap- 
proached by a beautifully kept carriage- 
way, constructed in a semicircular fashion, 



i 

thus enabling visitors to drive around the 
village. D unm ore is in the Unique posi- 
tion of having no public house. 

HISTORICAL FACTO. 

In the bog of Blair Drummond, near the 
Firth of Forth, a whale was unearthed in 
early times^ which had been harpooned by 
means of an instrument made of the antlers 
of a stag. In the neighborhood of Falkirk, 
near the western extremity of the Firth of 
Forth, the sea formerly extended up the 
river Carron, far beyond the present head 
of the tide. The great Roman wall, named 
after Antonius, though begun by Agricola, 
extended from sea to sea, and the remains 
of it may still be seen near Dunglass, ris- 
ing 25 feet above the present level of the 
sea. In the east it terminates on the top 
of a cliff at Carriden, near Falkirk. 



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339 



CANADA AND ITS GOVERNMENT 



The territory comprising Canada was 
originally discovered by Sebastian Cabct in 
1497, but its history dates only from 1534, 
when the French took possession. 

THE DOMINION OF CANADA. 

The Dominion of Canada includes the 
various provinces of North America for- 
merly known as Upper and Lower Canada 
(now Ontario and Quebec respectively), 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Ed- 
ward Island^ British Columbia, and the 
extensive regions long under the quasi- 
government of the Hudson Bay Company, 
now styled Manitoba, the Northwest Ter- 
ritories, the Yukon Territories, and Un- 
gava (a strip of coast from Ungava Bay 
to the Straits of Bell Isle) ; in fact, the 
whole of British North America except 
Newfoundland and Labrador. 

ITS EXTENT AND POPULATION. 

This territory, nearly as large as Eu- 
rope, stretches from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean, and is estimated to contain 
a total area of 3,653,946 square miles, and 
a population of 5,371,315 souls, which, not- 
withstanding its diversity of origin, is fast 
being welded into one harmonious and 
homogeneous whole. 

The first settlement, Quebec, was 
founded, by the French in 1608. In 1759, 
Quebec succumbed to the British forces 
under General Wolfe, and in 1763, the 
whole territory of Canada became a pos- 
session of Great Britain by the treaty of 
Paris, of that year. 

Nova Scotia was ceded in 1713, by the 
treaty of Utrecht, the provinces of New 
Brunswick and Prince Edward Island be- 



ing subsequently formed out of it. British 
Columbia, previously a part of the Hudson 
Bay Territory, was formed into a Crown 
colony in 1858, and was united to Van- 
couver Island in 1866. 

The Dominion of Canada was created 
in 1867, by the British North America 
Act, which provided for the admission at 
any subsequent period, of the other prov- 
inces and territories of British North 
America. 

MANITOBA. 

In 1870, the Province of Manitoba was 
formed, and with the remainder of the 
Hudson Bay Territory, now called the 
Northwest Territories, was admitted into 
the Dominion. British Columbia followed 
in 1871, and Prince Edward Island in_ 
1873, Newfoundland alone remaining a 
separate colony. 

The descendants of the French colonists 
reside chiefly in the Province of Quebec, 
and the majority of them still very gener- 
ally use the French language. 

RELIGIOUS CREEDS. 

A religious census of Canada was> taken 
in 1901, showing the number of Roman 
Catholics to be 2,229,600; Methodists, 
916,886; Church of England, 680,620; 
Baptists, 316,477; Congregationalists,, 28,- 
293 ; Presbyterians, 842,442 ; and Luther- 
ans, 92,524. 

THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT. 

The executive government and authority 
are invested in the King, and exercised in 
his name by the Governor General, aided 
by a Privy Council The legislative power 
is a Parliament, consisting of an Upper 



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FACT'S CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



House, styled the Senate, and a House of 
Commons. 

THE SENATE. 

The Senate consists at present of 81 
members, distributed between the various 
provinces, thus: for Ontario, 24; for Que- 
bec, 10; for Nova Scotia, 10; for New- 
Brunswick, 4; for Prince Edward Island, 
3 ; for British Columbia, 4 ; for Manitoba, 
4 ; and for the Northwest Territories, 2. 

The members of the Senate are ap- 
pointed for life by the Crown, on the nom- 
ination of the ministry for the time being. 
Each nominee must be 30 years old, a resi- 
dent in the province for which he is ap- 
pointed, a natural-born or naturalized sub- 
ject of the King, and the owner of prop- 
erty amounting to $4,000. 

THE HOUSE OE COMMONS. 

This body is also composed of natural- 
born or naturalized subjects of the King. 
No property qualification is required, and 
its members are elected upon a very wide 
suffrage. Eor electoral purposes, each 
province is divided into districts, each of 
which returns a member on a vote taken 
by ballot. The members of the House elect 
their Speaker, and twenty, including the 
Speaker, form a quorum. 

PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS. 

Each province has also a separate legis- 
lature and administration, with a Lieuten- 



ant Governor,, appointed by the Governor 
General. 

THE JUDICIARY. 

Justice in Canada is administered, as in 
England, by judges, police magistrates and 
justices of the peace, of whom the first 
named are appointed for life by the Gov- 
ernor General, from among the foremost 
men at the bar of the several provinces. 

THE SUPREME AND EXCHEQUER 
COURTS. 

The Supreme Court of Canada is com- 
posed of a chief justice and five puisne 
judges, and holds three sessions in the year, 
at Ottawa. The only other Dominion 
Court, namely — the Exchequer Court of 
Canada — is presided over by a separate 
judge, and its sittings may be held any- 
where in Canada. 

THE PROVINCIAL COURTS. 

The provincial courts include the Court 
of Chancery, Court of King's Bench, Court 
of Error and Appeals, Superior Courts, 
County Courts, General Sessions and Divi- 
sion Courts. 

The present Governor General of Can- 
ada is the Bight Honorable, the Earl of 
Minto, appointed in 1898, for five years, 
at a salary of £10,000 per year. 

Other interesting matter pertaining to 
Canada may be found under specific head- 
ings in this volume. 



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341 



CANADA'S LONG BRIDGE SPAN 



The bridge recently completed across the 
St. Lawrence river, six and a half miles 
south of Quebec, has the longest span in the 
world. 

THE GREAT ST. LAWRENCE. 

The great St. Lawrence flows between 
high, rocky cliffs at that point, and varies 
according to the tide. The water ia about 
180 feet deep in the channel, and flows by 
at a swift rate. The channel is crossed 
with a suspended span and two cantilever 
arms, making the unsupported structure 
1,800 feet long, which by far is the longest 
span in the world. It 
is 200 feet longer than 
the span of the new 
East River bridge, New 
York. The length of 
anchor arms on each 
side of the main spans 
is 500 feet, with one 
approach span of 220 
feet at each end, be- 
tween anchor pieTS and 
terminal abutments. 

The length of the 
structure, including abutments, is 3,300 feet. 
The substructure consists of two main piers, 
two anchor piers and two abutments. One 
of these anchor piers is founded on solid 
rock, and .the other on hard blue clay. The 
sinking of the main caisson was a great 
engineering feat. At low tide the water 
is only ten feet deep around the two main 
piers. 



SINKING OF THE CAISSON. 

The caisson was sunk through a compact 
mass of granite bowlders, bound together 
with cobble stone and fine gravel. The 
penetration of the caisson was so slow that 
on some days the distance could not be re- 
corded ; on other days it was scarcely more 
than four inches, although it bore a load 
on its roof of more than 20,000 tons. 

Owing to the immensity of this load, 
and its attendant danger, this method was 
finally abandoned, and concreting in the 
working chamber was begun. Progress by 
this method was rapid, and in 17 days the 




SHOOTING LACHINE RAPIDS, . ST. LAWRENCE RIVER. 

pier was built. The caissons for the two 
main piers are each 150 feet long, 49 feet 
wide and 25 feet high. They are of south- 
ern pine. The caisson for the north pier 
was built on the north shore, about 4,000 
feet east of the pier site; it was success- 
fully .launched, towed into position, and 
made fast in a berth previously prepared, 
in the short space of 70 minutes. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



THE GOVERNMENT OF FRANCE 



France, in its government, has been a 
mass of anomalies. From the extreme of 
monarchy to the extreme of theoretical re- 
publicanism, this country has swung back 
and forth repeatedly. Naturally, there- 
fore, the results of these mutations are to 
be found in its present government. When 
the aristocracy of France was put under the 
guillotine and the monarchy 
was snuffed out with Louis 
XVI., the masses, afraid to 
trust single peraons, caused 
boards of management to be ap- 
pointed. When Napoleon came 
upon the scene, he dominated 
through numbers of trusty 
tools. Then came changes to 
republic and empire, with the 
constant and considerable pow- 
er of a great army always a fac- 
tor in either kind of govern- 
ment. No study of the govern- 
ment of France is complete that 
does not take into considera- 
tion the great confidence placed 
in the army and the enormous 
power wielded by it. To-day, 
under the third republic, there 
is a constant- struggle for su- 
premacy between the monarchi- 
cal and the republican idea of 
government. While France 
may be considered most ad- 
vanced in theoretical republi- 
canism, yet the long sway of 
aristocratic ideas militates 
against placid democracy. 

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. 

The immediate forerunner of the present 



form of government was a national as- 
sembly, elected to treat with Germany in 
1871, after France had been humiliated in 
the Franco-Prussian War. This assembly 
found itself in control of the situation, and, 
while its members were largely monarchical 
in their views, seeing the tendency of the 
people toward republicanism, they framed 




COLUMN OF JULY. 
Commemorating the fall of the Bastile and the rise of the Republic oi 
France. 

a meager constitution and put it into effect 
without reference to the people. 



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METHODS OF ELECTION. 

France has three branches of government 
—legislative, executive and judicial — yet 
they are so strongly centralized that they 
may not be compared with similar branches 
in other republican forms of government. 
For elective and administrative purposes, 
France is divided into 86 departments 
which are divided into 362 smaller dis- 
tricts, which are, in turn, divided into 
2,899 cantons, and these are subdivided 
into still smaller divisions called communes, 
of which there are 36,170. 

A chamber of deputies, made up of 584 
members elected for four years, and a 
senate whose members are elected for nine 
years, one-third retiring every three years, 
make up the legislative department. 

ELIGIBILITY TO OFFICE. 

Every male citizen 21 years old, who is 
not disqualified and who has lived six 
months in a commune, may vote. Depu- 
ties must be 25 years oldj they receive 
$1,800 a year and have free transportation 
on all railroads. These men, generally, 
are retired merchants, doctors or farmers, 
and are of only ordinary attainments. 
Senators, to be eligible for that office, must 
be 43 years old ; they receive the same sal- 
ary as the deputies. Ordinarily, their age 
is over 60 years. Deputies are elected 
directly from their districts, though some 
of these districts are large enough to elect 
two or more. The elections are held on 
Sunday. In case no candidate has a ma- 
jority of votes in an election, nor receives 
one-fourth the number of registered votes 
in his constituency, another election is 
called for two weeks later. Then a plu- 
rality elects, and in case of a tie, the oldest 
of the candidates is chosen. Senators are 



343 

chosen by electoral colleges and come from 
the departments. These colleges are com- 
posed of members of the council general of 
the department and of the different councils 
of the districts of the department, senators 
and deputies of the department, and electors 
chosen from the municipal councils, of the 
numerous communes of the department; 
retired professional men of the country 
towns are generally elected. The duties of 
the senate extend principally to advising 
with the President as to when the chamber 
of deputies shall be dissolved, and in sit- 
ting in his high court in case of impeach- 
ment for grave offenses against the state. 
In most instances, the senate is the inferior 
hody of the legislature. 

THE PRESIDENT AND HIS CABINET. 

The executive department is headed by 
the President who may never be a memher 
of the royal family, and who is elected by 
the chamber and senate sitting in joint ses- 
sion. His salary is $125,000 a year; he 
has a great retinue of servants, and has 
free use of the great "palais d'elysees" of 
Paris. He does not have the veto power 
on legislation, yet he may return bills for 
a second vote. He may adjourn the houses 
for one month, may close a session that has 
lasted over five months, and by the consent 
of the senate may dissolve the chamber of 
deputies. The cabinet of the President is 
made up of the heads of 11 departments, 
such as war, finance, marine, etc., -who re- 
ceive a salary of $12,000 a year. These 
advisers of the President are chosen gen- 
erally upon the recommendation of the 
presidents of the two houses. They are 
members of the two houses and wield con- 
siderable influence. The members of the 
cabinet frame legislation, sanction the acts 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



of the President, in order to make them 
valid, and speak in both houses, whether 
they are members of both or not. When 
they cannot control legislation, they resign 
and a new cabinet is chosen. Although the 
President is elected for seven years, and the 
life of the average cabinet is less than a 
year, yet the government is Tather by the 
cabinet than by the President, who has lit- 
tle real power and is iargely a luxurious 
figurehead. 

THE SENATE AND CHAMBER OF DEPU- 
TIES. MODE OF LEGISLATION. 

"When each annual session is begun in the 
chamber of deputies legislation is started 
by the choice, by lot, of eleven bureaus, 
while the senate selects nine in the same 
manner. A committee for parliamentary 
initiative is chosen from these bureaus to 
serve one month, to which are referred all 
measures when presented. This committee 
decides whether they are worthy of con- 
sideration. It considers a billj has it 
printed and presents it to a subcommittee 
of the respective bureaus for further con- 
sideration along party lines. When the bill 
has been thrashed out to suit the views of 
the committee, it is presented before the 
house by a commissioner who reads it from 
a little gallery called a tribune, which is 
located just above and behind the desk of 
the president of the house. The speaker of 
the house, unlike the corresponding officer 
in the United States house of representa- 
tives, has little power. Parliamentary 
usages in Prance are very crude and mem- 
bers and even the president of a house will 
resort to trivialities, epithets and even vio- 
lence in open session. 

THE COUNCIL OF STATE. 

The council of state, a relic of the days 
pf 2Japoleon ; is another body. It is made 



up of professional men who simply give 
their opinions on profound subjects for 
legislation, but it is rarely followed. 

FAVORITISM AND SUBSIDY. 

Favoritism and subsidy go hand in hand 
in the administration of affairs. Power in 
France is the main thing sought after by 
members of the government The cabinet, 
in order to retain the good will of the cham- 
ber of deputies, upon whose whim it must 
stand or fall, deals out many favors in the 
way of offices, etc., to the minor members. 
The good will of the public also must be 
maintained in order to hold seats in the 
houses, and great sums of money, placed in 
the hands of the government for secret-serv- 
ice work, are frequently spent in bribing 
influential newspapers to support the 
officials of the administration. 

THE JUDICIARY. 

The judiciary of France differs widely 
from that of other countries. In her courts 
a man often is considered guilty until 
proved innocent. There is no grand jury,- 
one judge sitting in private and deciding 
whether cases shall or shall not be brought 
to trial. The system of courts starts with 
the usual local justices of the peace, and 
ascends through courts of appeals to the 
final supreme court. The President, with 
the aid of the minister of justice, appoints 
the judges who, except the local justices, 
hold office during life. There is a special 
court made up of men of expert training 
to decide disputes within the administra- 
tion, or between citizens and officers. Many 
courts, whose jurisdiction covers cases 
where sentences of but three or four years 
imprisonment may be imposed, are made 
up of three judges, who sit without juries. 
Higher courts have the adjunct of twelve 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



345 



jurors, who decide cases by a majority vote. 
Commercial eases are tried before special 
courts, made up of experts. 

CENTRALIZATION OF POWER. 

To show how centralized the whole gov- 
ernment of Trance is, it may be stated that 
even in local government the prefect or 
governor of each department is appointed 
by the President and is answerable to the 
cabinet. This officer is assisted by a gen- 
eral council elected for six years, and con- 
sists of one representative from each Can- 
ton, These govern schools, railroads, local 
courts and asylums. In like manner, the 
District or arrondissement, the next smaller 
division, has a subprefect appointed by the 
prefect of the Department, responsible to 
him, and really acting as his agent The 
work of dividing the taxes among the Com- 
munes is done by a council, which is made 
up of a member elected from each of the 
Cantons. 



THE CANTON AND THE COMMUNE. 

The Canton is simply a small division 
for election and judicial purposes, and is a 
muster center of the army. The smallest 
division of the governmental system, the 
Commune, is really the unit of French gov- 
ernment, as it is the most democratic of all. 
It elects its municipal council according to 
its population, and this council elects its 
mayor. But after the mayor is once elected, 
he immediately becomes the agent of the 
central government at Paris, and can be 
removed at will. Thus we see the possi- 
bility of the great central power exercising 
despotic will for a considerable period. 
Finally, however, elections occur, and other 
officials are put - in who may reverse for a 
time the trend of affairs. While there is 
much knavery in French politics, the cen- 
tral government shows great enterprise in 
the matter of magnificent roads, bridges, 
public buildings, expositions and educa- 
tional institutions. 




From the American Review of Reviews. 
A SCENE AT A STATION OF THE PARIS UNDERGROUND RAILWAY. 



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346 FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



THE GOVERNMENT OF RUSSIA 



Extremes meet in Russia. In this gov- 
ernment we find absolutism or autocracy — 
government forced upon a people rather 
than made by them, and yet, in the sim- 
ple home life of the Russian peasant is 




NICHOLAS It. CZAR OF RUS3IA- 



democracy of the purest and most tena- 
cious type. The government of the Czar 
is imposed upon over 130,000,000 peo- 
ple, in a land that occupies one-seventh 
of the area of the globe*, and includes 
the cold of two continents 
— Europe and Asia. 

THE MIR. 

The "Mir" is the funda- 
mental, or basic, principle 
of Russian life. This vil- 
lage life allows some free- 
dom in the ownership of 
land. The greater portion 
of the people of this great 
country, which probably 
will one day dominate civ- 
ilization, is of Slav origin. 
This race, in times when 
Europe was barbaric, 
threatened all the southern 
end of it with their savage 
hordes. In later years, 
when robber chiefs arose to 
impress the Slavs in bond- 
age, they moved away, or 
when enslaved, insisted still 
upon their "mir" life. 

SERFDOM. 

At the time when most 
of Europe was emerging 
from the scourge of. the 
feudal system, Russian 
nobles were only begin- 
ning to see the richness 
of the prize lying before 



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.3 



FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



HI 



them, of unpaid labor by the peasantry of 
their country. They at once seized upon it, 
and in the serfdom that followed, the sys- 
tem of autocracy was developed which im- 
posed commands and edicts upon a simple 
race, which never knew self-made laws. 

PETER THE GBEAT. 

Order was brought out of chaos by Peter 
the Great, who died in 1725, and the abso- 
lute monarchy which he established has re- 
mained, in its principal forms, up to the 
present day. Much of his work was ef- 
fected through the power of the Greek 
orthodox church, which bad been the estab- 
lished church of Russia for many years. 
Peter deposed the patriarch who ruled the 
chupch, and appointed a holy synod to do 
his bidding in church matters. He also 
confiscated the lands which the church had 
held. Through the church, the Czar thus 
wields an enormous power over the minds 
and souls of the people. It may readily 
seem that with the Czar dominating the 
synod, beliefs not in accord with his own 
would not be taught. A vast amount of 
ceremonial marks the church ritual, and 
through persecution, the common people are 
kept in spiritual subjection. 

A ONE-MAN POWER. 

Three other ministerial agents perform 
the will of the Czar among the people: a 
council of state, a senate, and a committee 
of ministers. There is with the three bodies 
no division of executive, legislative and ju- 
dicial duties, as in most countries. All 
government centers in the executive. The 
three divisions noted simply are mediums 
for the performance of duties, with a few 
special functions to aid in more thoroughly 
carrying out the anti-democratic and auto- 
cratic ideas of the Czar. Thus there is no 



legislative branch of the government, but 
only a body which simply makes suggestions 
to the absolute executive, and sees that these 
suggestions are carried out under his will. 
Neither is there a judiciary department, for 
where there are no laws, there need be no 
department to interpret them. In other 
words, the Czar wills it, the Czar sees that 
his will is obeyed, and the Czar punishes in- 
fractions of his will. 

THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS. 

The committee of ministers is made up 
of the heads of twelve departments ap- 
pointed by the Czar. They may not resign, 
for then, the Czar would not be implicitly 
obeyed. This body is simply to facilitate 
the direction of affairs through the depart- 
ments of finance, war, foreign affairs, etc., 
and it is the duty of its members to explain 
the so-called laws and see that they are 
obeyed. 

THE COUNCIL OF STATE. 

About sixty men make up the council of 
state, of whom twelve are heads of the vari- 
ous bureaus. This council considers the an- 
nual budget or expense account. Reports 
of the departments are read to this body and 
discussed, and special commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Czar look into the details of 
the recommendations of the ministers. 

Nihilism is fostered. In order to crush 
out these tendencies, the government in- 
vents worse tortures, and at no time is the 
Czar obeyed in the true spirit. 

THE SENATE. 

Through the senate, the people seem to 
have some power in making laws. This 
body is composed of high dignitaries ap- 
pointed by the Czar. Its members have in 
charge the execution of all commands of 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



the Czar. In intent the senate is simply 
servile to the ruler, although the laws that 
it passes sometimes have the semblance of 
a declaration of the national will. Ministers 
and governors of provinces are called before 
this body to report upon their actions. The 
senate is the last court of resort in Russia's 
feeble judicial system, although the council 
of state sometimes reviews its findings. 

The Russian people are, therefore, gov- 
erned under the rule of an imperious mon- 
arch. They are controlled through the 
following instrumentalities ; the holy synod, 
in church matters, and in matters civil, 
through the twelve bureaus, the committee 
of ministers, the council of state and the 
senate. All sorts of work are done in all 
these bodies, the prime object of the govern- 
ment being to bring all rule into the sole 
person of the Czar. 

REGULATION OF DOMESTIC AFFAIRS IN 
THE "MIR." 

In the life of the "mir," custom has gone 
to the other extreme. The home life is 
most democratic. Town meetings are 



called, and matters of import to the village 
life are discussed freely. Decisions upon 
such matters are arrived at in so democratic 
a manner that they must be unanimous to 
be effective. Entire freedom is expressed 
by the heads of the families. The "mir," 
or town, is all powerful in all matters that 
pertain directly to its domestic life. It is 
no branch of the rule of the Czar, and its 
officers are responsible to the people. If 
allowed to own land, and conduct their 
home life as they see fit, the people com- 
plain little of heavy burdens of taxation, 
and this is one thing in which the Czar de- 
sires obedience. 

DIRE PENALTIES. 

The severest penalties are meted out to 
people -who rebel at the commands of the 
Czar. Assassination is often resorted to 
to punish infractions of orders; flogging, 
exile in Siberia and many other dire meth- 
ods are in vogue. Little wonder is it that 
with such examples before them, the people 
desire to rise up in rebellion. 



MARRIAGES IN RUSSIA 



When the parents of a young Russian 
decide that a certain young damsel would 
make him a suitable wife, they keep their 
own counsel, and some evening, call unex- 
pectedly at her home and stay for supper. 
During the meal, they watch her narrowly. 
If she eats fast, she will work quickly ; if 
she uses her plate neatly and . plainly, she 
will be a cleanly, tidy housewife; if she 
talks little, she will be obedient and dutiful 
to her husband ; if she prefers rye bread to 
white, she will be satisfied with her lot ; if 



she does not gaze and stare, she may be 
trusted not to pry into her husband's busi- 
ness ; and if she proceeds to clear away and 
wash up after the meal, she will be thrifty 
and careful with his money. A curious part 
of the marriage ceremony is that when the 
bride and groom enter the church, both 
make a dash for the platform on which 
stands the pulpit. The idea is that the one 
whose foot touches it first will outlive the 
other, and the children will take after that 
one in stature, health and beauty. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS . 349 
SHORT SUPPLY OF PLATINUM IN RUSSIA 

AN ESSENTIAL IN ELECTRICAL WORK. 



Platinum is growing very scarce. The 
production last year did not meet the de- 
mand, and hence a good deal of concern was 
manifest during the last part of 1902, as 
to whatj if anything, would take platinum's 
place in the electrical world. It is beyond 
doubt that the supply is not increasing — if 
it is increasing at all — at anything like the 
same rate as the consumption; and if this 
condition is not rectified and the balance re- 
adjusted it is easy to foresee a time when 
enterprises which depend upon platinum 
will languish for want of the material 
which it will be impossible to secure in ade- 
quate quantities, even at famine prices. 

The metal is in great request in the man- 
ufacture of electrical engineering generally 
as well as for numerous other purposes for 
which no effective substitute has been 
found. 

Something like 95 per cent of the total 
amount produced in 1901 (13,800 pounds), 
as compared with 13,250 pounds for 
1900, came from Russia, and while it 
is probable that scientific exploration of the 
whole of the Urals would lead to the dis- 
covery of other sources of supply, it is pretty 
clear that in the government of Perm little 
enough progress is being made in spite of 
the profitableness of the industry. Perhaps 
the sparsenesa of the distribution accounts 
largely for this. The metal is obtained 
from alluvial deposits of up to four or five 
zolotniks (the zolotnik is equal to 66 grains 
Troy) and more in 100 poods of sand 
(3,610 pounds). 
The thickness of the beds ranges from 



three feet to seven feet The grains of 
metal are small in size, but sometimes nug- 
gets weighing a kilogram or more are un- 
earthed. The platinum is often accom- 
panied by other rare metals, such as 
iridium and osmium. It is sent to St, 
Petersburg in the crude state, and, al- 
though there are refineries in that city, very 
little is dealt with there, and, as the de- 
mand for the metal is almost entirely from 
abroad, the bulk is exported as it is received 
from the mines. 

It is said that we must look to New 
South Wales for the platinum of the future, 
and it is there that exploration parties are 
now working. 

PLATINUM PRODUCED IN THE UNITED 
STATES. 

The production of platinum from do- 
mestic ores in the United States during 
1902 amounted to 94 ounces, valued at 
$1,814, as compared with 1,408 ounces, 
valued at $27,526, in 1901, which was the 
largest quantity reported for any one year 
since the statistics of the production of the 
metal from domestic ores have been col- 
lected. In 1894 the production of plati- 
num from domestic ores was 100 ounces of 
crude platinum grains. This amount 
mainly comes from gold placer deposits in 
Trinity and Shasta counties, California. 
Of iridium, which is closely allied to plati- 
num, 20 ounces was obtained in 1902, and 
253 ounces in 1901. The United States 
imported platinum in 1902 to the value of 
$2,088,980. The market price was about 
$19 per ounce. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



FACTS ABOUT NEW GUINEA 



THE LARGEST ISLAND ON THE GLOBE. 



Notwithstanding its immense seaboard, 
its proximity to the Australian Continent 
and the peculiarly, interesting character of 
its plants and animals, New Guinea, the 
largest Island on the Globe, is the least 
known of all countries. Although it was 
discovered before Australia, geographers 



houses, building on piles on the shore, or in 
the water, digging out their boats from 
the solid trunks of trees. The great bulk 
of testimony goes to show that the natives 
are a race of industrious, welPto-do savages, 
fond of their wives, of whom they have but 
one, each, and their children, and suffi- 




MAKING FISH NETS— NEW GUINEA. 



are still unable to define its coast line with 
precision, while their acquaintance with its 
interior is immensely less. The area of 
New Guinea has never been traversed. Our 
knowledge of the natives, gained mainly 
through missionaries, indicates that the 
Papuans approximate the character of the 
noble savage. Except where iron has been 
introduced by traders they live in stone 



ciently spirited to defend themselves, but 
showing no antipathy to white men when 
once convinced of their friendliness. Rev. 
W, G. Lawes, a missionary traveler, found 
the village of Kalo laid out in streets and 
squares, which were swept daily by the 
women and kept scrupulously clean. It is 
probable that New Guinea is well suited 
to the cultivation of sugar cane, cotton, to- 



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FACTS CONCERNING, DIFFERENT NATIONS 



351 



bacco and cocoanuts. The hilly districts, 
which comprise a considerable portion of 

THE CINCHONA 

Several species of the cinchona tree are 
indigenous to Peru, and from the bark of 
one of them, Cinchona Calisaya, is ex- 
tracted the widely-known alkaloid called 
quinine. 

The cinchona tree grows to a medium 
height and is bare of branches and foliage 
except at its top. The natives climb the 
trunk, which is very smooth, and shave off 



the "area of the island, have a salubrious 
climate. 

TREE IN PERU 

the bark with knives after the manner of 
the accompanying illustration. 

The, tree derives its name from the wife 
of Count Chinchon, viceroy of Peru in the 
17th century, who by its use was freed from 
an intermittent fever, and after her return 
to Spain, contributed to the general propa- 
gation of this remedy. 



PRODUCTION OF OPIUM IN CHINA, INDIA AND PERSIA 

PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 



While opium has done much to alleviate 
the pains of humanity, it has also put into 
a dreamy stupor many a devotee of its in- 
sidious fumes. In international affairs, 
however, it has had a far different effect, 
for it has caused the shedding of English, 
French' and Chinese blood in battle, an<J' 
the diplomats of these three countries, have 1 
■used all of their skill in settling questions 
which have been raised over it. 

A PROBLEM IN THE POLITICS OF EAST- 
ERN ASIA 

For many years opium has constituted a 
problem in the politics of Eastern Asia, in 
connection with the collection of taxes. In 
French Indo-China, it has long been con- 
tended that this drug is the chief cause of 
the difficulties with the native races, and 
that the famous pirates on whom the 
French made war were simply honest mer- 
chants, whose affairs were interfered with 
by the opium monopoly. 



Upon Great Britain is charged the re- 
sponsibility of the war between her and 
China, 40 years ago. It is claimed that 
the desire of the British to establish a 
monopoly of the opium trade brought on 
the hostilities, which ended in opium be- 
coming the curse of the Chinese empire. 

THE POPPY. 

Opium comes from the poppy, many of 
which flowers flourish in our own gardens. 
Soil and climate have a great influence on 
the chemical qualities of the various kinds 
of it which are found in Persia, China, 
and, more especially, in India, where for 
many years the English government has 
monopolized its culture, as in France, the 
government monopolizes the culture of to- 
bacco. 

PRODUCTION OF THE POPPY IN THE RE- 
GION OF THE GANGES. 

In all the immense and fertile valleys of 
the Granges, nothing is asked of the earth 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



exeept the poppy. Patna and Benares are 
distinguished by the richness and abun- 
dance of their harvests. The product of 
this culture in the province of Bengal, 
alone, is estimated at 15,400,000 pounds, 
-which represents a value of nearly $30,- 
000,000. 

EXTRACTION" OF RAW OPIUM. 

Opium is extracted from the matter 
which exudes from the green, unripened 
capsule of the poppy. This matter is gath- 
ered in little globular particles, of amber 
color, by means of a special instrument. It 
is then put into small earthen pots, which 
are carefully covered, and then transported 
to the laboratories of the English govern- 
ment, where it is made into balls about the 
size of "Dutch" cheese. These are covered 
by petals taken from the plant. After they 
have been dried, they are shipped to Cal- 
cutta, the market which supplies all Asia. 

THE FINISHED PRODUCT. 

From this raw opium is made the fin- 
ished product which is used by the smokers. 
The process is a most delicate one and one 
from which only the Chinese know how to 
get the best results. Erom Calcutta the 
opium is brought to the opium boiling es- 
tablishments. An ordinary "boiling" place 
usually contains four or five large boilers, • 
and from 150 to 175 small furnaces, each 
having a basin constructed of masonry, and 
all ranged along in the form of a long 
bench. 

BOILING THE OPIUM BALLS. 

Immediately upon the receipt of a ship- 
ment of the raw opium balls they are cut 
in half, the raw material being drawn out 
with the fingers. That part which remains 



attached to the envelope or covering, is 
afterward secured by placing it in boiling 
water. When these preparations have teen 
completed, the opium is placed in the basins 
with the water, where it is boiled for two 
hours and constantly stirred until it reaches 
the necessary consistency, which nothing 
but long practice can determine. The 
opium worker seats himself on the ground, 
and with the aid' of a small instrument, 
works and kneads the mass before him, over 
and over. 

After a time the mass of opium is spread 
over the surface of the basin, which is tilted 
so that the direct heat of the fire is radiated 
against it. Under this influence, the ex- 
ternal surface of the opium loses part of its 
moisture, and then becomes softer. Then 
the basin is taken from the fire, and the 
cold air operating on the surface of the 
mass hardens it suddenly, while the part 
below retains its paste-like consistency. 

Then it is that the worker seizes the 
hardened crust and detaches it from the rest 
of the mass. Then, again, the basin is ex- 
posed to the fire, followed by the removal 
of a second, and sometimes a third, crust, 
which is later broken and placed in basins 
of water. After 24 hours, all the solid 
parts of the opium become separated, and 
the liquor is filtered and evaporated at the 
fire to a suitable consistency. The extract 
is then put into copper vessels and left to 
undergo fermentation, which removes from 
it all the acrid principles and permits it to 
acquire all of its necessary properties. 

THE MARKET PRICE. 

In its completed state, the opium, pre- 
sents itself in a cake, brown in color, like 
molasses, and exhaling an aroma difficult 
to describe. Then it is placed in metal 



* 

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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



boxes of various sizes, and at last, is ready 
for the market. The price ranges from 

A CUSTOM PECULIAR 

Sheep are cleansed by law in New Zea- 
land. In order to rid them of vermin, a 
matter whieh was likely to be neglected, 
parliament passed an act making a soaking 
process necessary. In accordance with this 
long waterways are constructed, and the 
animals are compelled to swim the full 
length of one of these courses, while men 
with poles push, their heads under water 
as they pass. This immersion drowns the 
vermin and thoroughly renovates the wool, 
besides being a very wholesome and agree- 
able process for the sheep to undergo. 



$20 per poiind upward, according to the 
country to which it is to be shipped. 

TO NEW ZEALAND 

f,- ■ ■ - ■ - t ,m\ 




DIPPING SHEEP AT OAMARU, NEW ZEALAND. 



THE WOOL INDUS1 

The 28,000 square miles of volcanic 
country in the western portipn of Victoria, 
Australia, with its sweet and strong Kan- 
garoo grass, is considered the best sheep- 
growing region in the British colonies. 

FEEDING IN DRY SEASONS. 

The sheep in that section look after them- 
selves all the year round. In very dry sea- 
sons, however, a little hay is given to the 
young sheep when they are teething and 
cannot cut the dry grass. 

THE SHEEP STATIONS. 

The Victorian sheep stations are fenced 
with smooth wire, except in the volcanic 
country, where stone walls are used. The 
paddocks average about 800 acres in ex- 



'RY IN AUSTRALIA 

tent, although some are large enough to 
support 2,000 sheep. Some of the stations 
include 20,000 ewes, lambs and wethers, 
which are kept in separate flocks. 

SHEARING BY MACHINERY. 
Where shearing is done by hand, one 
shearer is employed for each 2,000 sheep, 
and if an expert, he will average 80 head 
per day. 

In 1891, however, machinery was intro- 
duced for this purpose, and in the first two 
years of its use, 50,000,000 sheep were thus 
shorn. After shearing, the fleece is sorted, 
combed, bound, pressed and baled, — the 
bales being 2 feet 6 inches, by 2 feet 6 
inches, "by 4 feet, and weighing about 400 
pounds. 



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FACTS CONCERNING- DIFFERENT NATIONS 



THE CANNIBAL TREE OF AUSTRALIA 



One of the most wonderful forest trees in 
the world is the "Cannibal Tree/' of Aus- 
tralia, which grows up in the shape of a 
huge pineapple, and seldom attains a height 
of more than 11 feet. It has a series of 
broad, board-like leaves, growing in a 



driving one of their number up the leaves 
of the tree to the apex. The instant the 
victim touched the so-called "pistils" of the 
monster, the leaves instantly flew togethe^ 
like a trap, squeezing the life out of t«P 
intruder. Early travelers declare that the 




AUSTRALIAN WOOL TEAMS. 



fringe at the apex, which remind one of a 
gigantic Central American agave. 

When standing erect these broad, thick 
leaves hide a curious looking arrangement, 
which appears to perform the same func- 
tions as those of the pistils in flowers. 
Naturally, these board-like leaves, which 
are from 10 to 12 feet long in the smaller 
specimens, and from 15 to 20 in the larger, 
hang to the ground, and are strong enough 
to bear a man's weight. 

WORSHIPED AS THE "DEVIL TBEE." 

In aboriginal times, in the antipodean 
wilds, the natives worshiped the "Can- 
nibal Tree" under the name of "devil tree," 
the chief part of the ceremony consisting of 



tree held its victim until every particle of 
flesh disappeared. On this account it is 
ealled the "Cannibal Tree," appropriately. ' 
THE AGAVE. 
In the Central American Agave, men- 
tioned above, the apex of which is similar to 
that of the Cannibal Tree, the stem is short 
or altogether lacking, and the leaves are 
formed in a close rosette, mostly stiff and 
somewhat fleshy, the margins usually being 
armed with teeth, and the apex tipped with 
a more or less pungent spine. It flowers in 
spikes or panicles. Some species flower but 
once and die, others occasionally, while 
others flower from year to year. The num- 
ber of species is about 150. 



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Pacts concerning different nations 



35? 



LACE MAKING IN PARAGUAY 



The art of lace making is well developed 
in Paraguay. It was taught the natives 
fully 200 years ago by the missionaries, and 
has been transmitted from generation to 
generation, until it is now quite general 
throughout the republic. Some towns are 
devoted to making a certain kind of lace. 
In one town of 8,000 or 9,000 inhabitants, 
almost all the women and children, and 
many of the men, make lace collarettes, 
handkerchiefs and ladies' ties. Another 
town makes lace embroidery, and others, 
drawn thread work, such as centerpieces, 
tray mats, tea cloths, and doilies. 



DESIGNS TAKEN" PROM SPIDER'S WES-. 

The designs used for making the lace are 
taken from the curious webs of the semi- 
tropical spiders that are so numerous. On 
this account it is called "nanduti," an In- 
dian name which means spider web. This 
industry may be of service to American 
trade. There is scarcely a dealer in Para- 
guay who would not purchase American 
goods, if it were not so difficult to get a 
draft on the United States. As yet the 
lace-making industry is not developed in 
this country, the "Zion" enterprise at Wau- 
kegan, Illinois, being the first attempt. 



CHINESE RICE PAPER 



Among the many unique products and so-called rice paper. It is somewhat per- 
peculiarities of Chinese ingenuity is the plexing to determine how such a name came 




RICE CULTURE IN CHINA. 



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358 FACTS CONCE&NING DIFFERENT NATIONS 




LAPIDARY — STONE CUTTER. 

to be applied to this article, as no element 
of rice is supposed to enter into its manu- 
facture. 

As in most warm climates, however, rice 
is cultivated to an extensive degree in 
China, and forms a considerable portion of 
the subsistence of its inhabitants. 

It would naturally be inferred that the 



Chinese rice paper would bear some rela- 
tion to rice itself, but on the contrary it is 
said to be made by cutting the pith of a 
large herb (Fatsia Papyrifera, akin to gin- 
seng) into one roll or sheet, which is flat- 
tened out under pressure. The Chinese use 
this paper for painting upon, and for the 
manufacture of fancy articles. 



CHINESE MERCHANT, WITH JAPANESE AND 
MALAY EMPLOYES. 



CANTON— EXAMINATION HALL 



The Examination Hall, or Kuong Yiiin, 
as it is called, at Canton, contains 7,500 
cells measuring four feet by three, and high 
enough to stand up in ; the furniture consists 
of two boards, one for sitting and the other 
contrived to serve both for an eating table 
and writing desk. The cells are arranged 
around a number of open courts, receiving 



all their light and air from the central 
area, and exposed to the observation of 
the soldiers who guard the place, and 
watch that no one has the least in- 
tercourse with the imprisoned students. 
Confinement in this cramped position 
where it is impossible to lie down, 
is exceedingly irksome and is said 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



359 



to cause the death of, many old students, last succeeding. The characters on each side 
who are unable to go through the fatigue, side of the cells indicate the particular 
but who will enter the arena in hopes of at place for each student. 




CANTON— EXAMINATION HALL. 



CHINESE WEDDINGS 

A Chinese marriage is all ceremony — no The solemnity of a funeral prevails, 
talk, no levity, but much crying. After the exchange of presents, the bride is 




TUH PRIVATE SEDAN CHAIR-CHINA. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



dressed with great care in 
a red gown; brocade or 
silk, if she can get it, her 
eyelashes are painted a 
deep black, and she wears 
a heavy red veil attached 
to a scarlet head dress, 
from which imitation 
pearls are pendent over 
the forehead. A feast is 
spread upon a table, to 
Which the blushing bride 
is led by five of her best 
female friends. 

They are then seated at 
the table, but no one eats. 
The utmost silence pre- 
vails, when finally the 
mother leads off in a cry, 
the maids follow, and the 
bride echoes the chorus. 
Then all the bridesmaids 
leave the table, and the 
disconsolate mother takes 
a seat beside the chair of 
state, where the bride sits. 
The bridegroom now en- 
ters, with, four of his best 
men. The men pick up 
the throne on which the 
bride sits, and, preceded 
by the bridegroom, form 
in procession and walk 
around the room, or into 
an adjoining parlor, signi- 
fying that the bridegroom 
is carrying her away to 
his own home. The guests 
then throw rice at the 
happy couple,, a custom 
which we have borrowed 
from the heathen. 




HONGKONG. 

SHe View of the pec& Railway. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



361 



ELEPHANTS USED FOR PLOWING IN INDIA 



The. use of a sledge hammer to drive a 
tack would appear scarcely more incongru- 
ous than the occasional practice of the Hin- 
doo husbandman of having an elephant 
draw his plow. The employment of this 



as elsewhere, when well trained, need not 
be asserted. Neither stump nor stone in 
the way of the plowshare could stop him, 
although the implement itself might give 
way. 




ELEPHANT HUNTING OR KRAALLING IN CEYLON. 

The two tame ones are helping to capture the wild one between them. If he attempts to escape, 
tbey throw their trunks around him and hold him fast. 



powerful and sagacious animal in impor- 
tant work where heavy lifting is required, 
does not seem to detract from his dignity; 
but plowing appears a petty task for so 
noble a beast. That he does his duty, here 



THE INDIAN PLOW. 

The plow, as it is in India, is a peculiar 
device, with a single handle and a very long 
beam. The farmers of the United States 
would utterly scorn it, The area which 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



can be turned up in a day with an elephant 
is large, and the animal is remarkably 
handy in one respect At the close of the 



day's labor, he picks up the plow and car- 
ries it home in his mouth. In many ways 
the huge beast proves useful to his owner. 




DOMESTIC ELEPHANTS. 



WHERE CERTAIN THINGS CAME FROM 

Madder came from the East. Celery inated in Egypt. Tobacco is a native of 
originated in Germany. The onion orig- Virginia. The nettle is a native of Europe. 




OYSTER CATCHING, CEYLON. 



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363 



The citron is a native of Greece. The pine 
is a native of America. The poppy came 
from .North Africa; rye, from Siberia; 
barley, from the mountains of Himalaya; 
wheat, from Tartary; parsley, from Sar- 
dinia ; the sunflower, from Peru, as, also, 
the potato ; the parsnip, from Arabia ; the 
cabbage, from England, although it grows 
wild in Siberia ; millet came from India ; 
the apple and pear, from Europe ; spinach, 
from Arabia; the mulberry tree, from 
Persia; the horse chestnut, from Thibet; 
the cucumber, from the East Indies; the 
quince, from the Island of Crete; the 
radish, from China and Japan ; peas, from 
Egypt; garden cress, from Egypt and the 
East; horse radish, from the south of Eu- 
rope; the Zealand flax shows its origin by 
its name. The coriander grows wild near 
the Mediterranean. The Jerusalem arti- 
choke is a Brazilian production. Hemp 
came from Persia and the East Indies. The 
tomato came from South America, but was 
known in England as early as 1587. Do- 




PLOWIKO IN CEYLON. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



365 



doens, a Holland agriculturist, mentions 
the tomato in 1853, as "a vegetable to be 




BUDDHA'S TOOTH IN BUDDHA TEMPLE. 

This is most sacred; Buddhists come 
from all over the world to see It 



eaten with pepper, salt and oil." The bean 
came from Persia; the beet from Africa 



and Asia; cayenne pepper, from the West 
Indies ; and the sweet potato, from tropical 




CINNAMON TREE, CEYLON. 



America, whence it was early introduced 
into Europe. 



THE DELHI D 

The Coronation Durbar at Delhi, India, 
in January, 1SJ03, was in some ways the 
most imposing ceremonial of this genera- 
tion. The Viceroy made his state entry 
into Delhi on Monday, and the grand Dur- 
bar on Thursday, in honor of the accession 
of Edward VII., formed the climax of the 
gorgeous pageant. 

Down the Chandni Chowk, the "Silver 
Koad," which is the grandest of Indian 
streets, streamed a procession in which 
were included all the white rulers of India, 
and nearly every Indian Prince of sover- 
eign rank, Holkar and the Gaikwar being 
the only two important exceptions. 

All rode, as beseemed a grand Asiatic 
celebration, upon elephants, and every ele- 
phant carried a gold or silver howdah, often 



RBAR OF 1903 

flashing with gems, and was clothed in 
cloth of gold or silver, which under that 
sky shone as in Europe even gold and silver 
cannot be persuaded to shine. 

The Englishmen were, erf course, in the 
fullest uniform, and the princes, with the 
single exception of the Nizam, who was 
dressed in plain black, displayed those won- 
derful robes so seldom seen even in the 
East, — robes blazing with gold and gems, 
and embroideries almost more costly still. 
Everything was on a scale which impresses 
the Asiatic mind — elephants in endless 
lines, soldiers in armies, retinues in tens of 
thousands and myriads of delighted people, 
all assembled to hail in Asiatic fashion the 
accession of their British lord. 

There was but one distinctively Western 



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feature in the whole display. Beside the 
Viceroy in the same howdah, sat Lady Cur- 
zon, beside the Duke of Connaught, the 



King's brother, and his Duchess, a thing 
not seen in Indian since Alexander re- 
treated from the Punjab. 



THE GREAT PYRAMIDS 



Not least among the wonders of the 
world are the Pyramids of Egypt. These 
stupendous monuments of ah ancient 
dynasty stand on the right bank of the Nile 
over against Old Cairo. The eye follows 



Arab proverb, — "but time fears the Pyra- 
mids." 

THE PYRAMID OF CHEOPS. 

The Pyramid of Cheops, or Khufu, the 
largest of the three, is estimated to cover 




"CHEOPS" — THE GREATEST OF THE PYRAMIDS. 
The Sphinx. 



with amazement the graded lines of the 
prodigious masses, showing in the light the 
profile of their rugged slopes, disposed in 
flights of fractured steps. They resemble 
mountains hewn into square blocks rather 
than structures raised by mortal hands, re- 
vealing at it were "the transition between 
the colossi of art and the giant works of 
nature." "All things fear time," — says the 



an area of over' 12 acres, while its four 
triangular sides present altogether a sur- 
face of no less than 20 acres in extent. A 
quantity of material measuring 90,000,000 
cubic feet was brought from great distances 
by way of the Nile, placed on the rocky 
foundations, raised to a height of over 
500 feet, and adjusted with the greatest 
care. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



HEIGHT OF THE PYRAMIDS 

The Pyramid of Cheops, diminished by 
about 40 feet through the loss of its stone 
facing and the subsidence of its founda- 
tions, has a present height of 456 feet; that 
of Khephren, or Kephra, about 450 feet; 
while that of Mycerinus, or Menkera, has 
less than one-half of these elevations. There 
are several others on the plateau, of smaller 
dimensions. 

AGE OF THE PYRAMIDS OE GIZEH. 

Those above named are known as the 
Pyramids of Gizeh, which is a village in the 
vicinity. They were constructed during 
the Memphite Dynasty, which began, ac- 
cording to different authorities, 4235, 3733 
or 3666 years before Christ 

TRAVELERS CLIMB TO THE TOP OP 
CHEOPS. 

Travelers often ascend the Pyramid of 
Cheops before dawn in order to contem- 
plate the morning sun lighting up the limit- 
less spaces of the desert in one direction. 



and in another, the verdant plains with 
their dark groups of hamlets, and the silver 
lakelets left by the last overflow of the Nile. 




CLIMBING TO THE TOP OF THE PYRAMIDS- 
EGYPT. 



SCENES OF GREAT 

The remarkable monetary crises during 
the 19th century were as follows : 

1814 — In England, 240 banks sus- 
pended. 

1825 — In Manchester, the failures 
amounted to £2,000,000. 

1831 — In Calcutta, the failures aggre- 
gated £15,000,000. 

1837 — In the United States, this was the 
time of the "wildcat" crisis; all banks 
closed. 

1839 — The Bank of England was saved 
by the Bank of France. The crisis wa3 



FINANCIAL PANICS 

severe also in France, where 93 companies 
failed for $20,000,000. 

1844— In England, the government 
loaned to merchants ; the Bank of England 
was reformed. 

1847 — In England, the failures amount- 
ed to $20,000,000; discount was 13 per 
cent. 

1857 — In the United States, 7,200 
houses failed for $111,000,000. 

1866 — In London occurred the Overend- 
Gurney crisis; failures exceeded over 
$100,000,000. 



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369 



1869 — September 24th of this year was 
Black Friday in New York (Wall 
street). 

' 1873 — Many banks failed and great 
commercial enterprises were driven to the 
wall in the United States. 

SCENES OF 

Nine years after Christ, the Thames 
overflowed and destroyed a number of the 
inhabitants living along its banks. An- 
other flood, A. D. 323, destroyed all the 
inhabitants in Feme Island, seven miles 
southwest from Holy Island. In A. D. 
3, 535,000 people were lost in Cheshire by 
, flood. An overflow of the Dee drowned 40 
families in 415 A. D.; an inundation of 
the sea at Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex oc- 
curred in 575 ; an inundation took place 
at Edinburgh, which did great damage, A. 
D. 730; there was an inundation at Glas- 
gow, which drowned nearly 400 families, 
A. D. 738; also an inundation of the 
Tweed, which did immense damage, A. D. 
836; an inundation of the Medway oc- 
curred A. D. 861 ; and another took place 
at Southampton, which destroyed many 
people, A. D. 935; the Severn overflowed 
and drowned hundreds of cattle in 1046; 
the sea overflowed 4,000 acres of Earl 
Goodwin's land, in Kent, since called Good- 
win Sands, in the year 1100 ; a great part 
of Flanders was overflowed by the sea in 
1108; an inundation of the Thames for 
about six miles occurred at Lambeth in 
1243 ; and another took place on the Dol- 
lert Sea in 1277. At Winehelsea, 300 
houses were overthrown by the sea in 1280 ; 
120 laymen, and several priests and women 
were drowned by an inundation at New 



1893-95 — The question of a silver or 
gold standard was greatly agitated, and the 
United States passed through a financial 
crisis which wrecked thousands of business 
firms and brought on general financial dis- 
aster. 

GREAT FLOODS 

Castle-upon-Tyne in 1339. There was a 
flood at the TexeL, which first raised the 
commerce of Amsterdam in 1400; the sea 
broke in at Dort, drowned 72 villages and 
100,000 people, and formed the Zuyder Zee 
in 1421. In 1530 the Holland dykes 
broke and $400,000,000 worth of property 
was lost. In February, 1735, a flood oc- 
curred at Dagenham, and upon the coast 
of Essex, which carried away the sea walls 
and drowned several thousand sheep and 
cattle. Another, at Bilboa, in Spain, de- 
stroyed property valued at 3,000,000 livres, 
in April, 1762. At Naples, a flood carried 
away a whole village, and drowned 200 of 
the inhabitants, November 10, 1773. At 
Navarra, in Spain, in September, 1787, 
2,000 people lost their lives, and all the 
buildings of several villages were carried 
away by currents from the mountains. A 
terrible inundation of the Liffey, in Ire- 
land, did considerable damage in Dublin 
and its environs on November 12, 1787. 
At Kirkwald, in Scotland, the breaking of 
the Dam-dykes, October 4, 1788, nearly 
destroyed the town. The melting of the 
snow caused floods almost throughout Eng- 
land, and the greater part of the bridges 
were either destroyed or damaged in Febru- 
'ary, 1795. A flood occurred at St. Domingo, 
which destroyed 1,400 persons in October, 
1800. The coast of Holland and Germany 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



was overflowed in November, 1801 ; there 
was a flood in Dublin and parts adjacent 
December 2 and 3, 1802. 

THE JOHNSTOWU" FLOOD. 

The flood, in June, 1889, at Johnstown, 
Pennsylvania, was caused by the breaking 
of a dam on the upper waters of the Cone- 
maugh River, which confined a great lake 
on top of the Allegheny Mountains. Sev- 
eral small towns and the city of Johnstown 
were swept away, and 6,111 persons per- 
ished. The water in its passage to Johns- 
town descended about 250 feet. The theo- 
retical velocity due to this descent would 
be ahout 127 feet por second, or between 
86 and 87 miles an hour. According to 
the best accounts from 15 to 17 minutes 
were occupied in the passage to Johns- 
town, a distance of about 12 miles. Thus 
the average velocity could not have been 
far short of 50 miles an hour. The im- 
petus of such a mass of water was irresist- 



ible. As the flood burst through the dam 
it cut trees away as if they were stalks of 
mullein. 

THE GALVESTON FLOOD. 

In September, 1900, a hurricane along 
the southern coast of the United States 
reached the climax of its fury at or near 
Galveston, Texas, at 1 o'clock at night. It 
literally blew the Gulf waters over the 
island on which Galveston is situated, caus- 
ing a loss of life and property unparalleled 
by any similar disaster in the United States. 
The city of Galveston was well nigh anni- 
hilated, 7,000 lives being lost and $30,000,- 
000 worth of property destroyed. This 
appears the more frightful in view of the 
fact that the population was less than 
40,000. Thousands escaped by clinging to 
the wreckage of houses and ships, which 
the wind blew far inland on the high tide. 
About $1,000,000 was subscribed through- 
out the country for the relief of the suf- 
ferers from this disaster. 



SCENES OF TEN TERRIBLE PLAGUES 



During the years 1656 to 1871, there oc- 
curred ten great plagues, which are remark- 
able for the large number of lives destroyed. 
The dates and places are as follows : 



Date. Place. Deaths. 

1656 Naples 380,000 

1665 London 68,800 

1720 Marseilles 39,100 



Dura- Deaths 
tlon in per 
Weeks. Week. 

38 13,600 
33 2,100 
36 1,100 



Date. Place. Deaths. 

1771 Moscow 87,800 

1778 Constantinople 170,000 

1798 Cairo 88,000 

1812 Constantinoplel44,000 

1834 Cairo 57,000 

1835 Alexandria ... 14,900 
1871 Buenos Ayres. 26,300 



Dura- 
tion in 
Weeks. 

32 
18 
25 
13 
18 
17 
11 



Deaths 
per 
Week. 

2,700 

9,500 
3,500 
11,100 
3,200 
900 
2,400 



COUNTRIES SMITTEN BY THE GREAT FAMINES OF HISTORY 



Walford mentions 160 famines since the 
11th century, namely: England, 57; Ire- 
land, 34; Scotland, 12; France, 10; Ger- 
many, 11 J Italy, etc., 36, The worst in 



modern times have been as follows: That 
in France, 1770, 48,000 victims; Ireland, 
1847, 1,029,000 victims; and India, 1866, 
1,450,000 victims. 



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371 



THE CULTURE OF TAPIOCA 



Tapioca is probably a native of Brazil, 
but is also largely cultivated in Peru, 
Guiana, Venezuela, the West Indies, South 
India and Malaysia. The bitter kind, 
which is more productive than the sweet 
species, is propagated by cuttings from the 
ligneous part of the stem, planted in rich, 
dry soil. The tubers are ready for digging 



in earthen ovens, some fresh manioc paste, 
which has fermented being always added. 
In the dry process the root is rasped by 
hand, and, after adding water, is pressed; 
after drying and sifting it is baked. The 
feeula deposit is washed three times and 
sun-dried. The collected starch, heated on 
iron plates, becomes partially cooked and 




TAPIOCA PLANTATION. 
Malayan, Peru. 



up in from six to twelve months, accord- 
ing to the variety. 

There are two modes of preparing the 
starch. In the wet method the grated root 
is placed in water for about five days, then 
kneaded with water, and pressed to extract 
the juice. The fecula is sifted and baked 



agglomerates in small, hard, irregular 
lumps, constituting tapioca. 

The culture of tapioca is inexpensive and 
the product is highly remunerative, so that 
the growth of the plant is becoming very 
general throughout the tropics. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



COTTON CULTURE 



Herodotus, surnamed the Father of His- 
tory, who was born B. C. 484, traveled 
through Europe, Asia and Africa, and 
when in India, saw and described the cotton 
plant. He says: "The wild trees in that 



VARIETIES OP COTTON IN AMERICA. 

In America are no less than 130 varieties 
of cotton. Among the chief commercial 
types is the "G-ossypium Barbadense," 
which is indigenous to the Lesser Antilles, 




LOADING COTTON, NEW ORLEANS. 



country bear for their fruit fleeces surpass- 
ing those of sheep in beauty and excellence, 
and the natives clothe themselves in cloths 
made therefrom." 

SELF PERPETUATED IN ANCIENT TIMES. 

In those ancient times the cotton plant 
perpetuated its own species through the dis- 
persion of its seeds by the winds. The root 
of the plant is top-shaped, and penetrates 
very deeply into the earth. 



and is extensively cultivated in the United 
States, as well as in the West India Islands, 
Central America, Western Africa, Bour- 
bon, Egypt, Australia and the East 
Indies. 

BRAZILIAN COTTON. 

Another variety of cotton is cultivated 
very extensively in the coast region of 
Brazil. Just after the Civil War the cot- 
ton export from Brazil was over 100 ? 000,- 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



373 



000 pounds per year. It 
afterwards fell to 50,- 
000,000. 

Pernambuco, Para- 
hyba and Alagoas are 
the chief producers of 
cotton in . Brazil, al- 
though its culture ex- 
tends as far south as 
Rio Grande do Sul. It 
requires little labor in 
that region, and a very 
limited capital is suffi- 
cient. 

The height of the spe- 
cies common to the 
United States varies 
from three to four feet, if cultivated as an 
annual, and from six to eight feet, if al- 
lowed to grow as a perennial. When in full 
leaf and flower, it is a most graceful look- 
ing plant. Yarns having the finest counts, 
as they are called, are all spun from Sea 
Islands, which helongs to this class. 




A THREAD 160 MILES LONG. 

A single pound of this cotton is often 
spun in a thread 160 miles long. 



PORTION OF LARGE SOUTHERN COTTON PLANTATION. 

In the United States cotton is cultivated 
in North Carolina, South Carolina, Geor- 
gia, Florida, Arkansas, Tennessee, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. 

In the beginning of the 19th century 
South Carolina produced more cotton than 
any other state. Fifty years later, Ala- 
bama went to the front. Ten years later, 
Mississippi led, and in 1890, Texas was 
first, with 1,471,242 bales. 

COTTON PICKING. 

Late in July, or 
early in August, the cot- 
ton pods begin to show 
a few ripe open bolls, 
and the sacks and bas- 
kets are made ready for 
picking. Picking cot- 
ton must be done under 
a shining sun, and is 
very wearisome work. 
After being picked it 
must be carried to the 
gin house before the 
night dews touch it. 




HAULING COTTON TO THE GIN. 



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FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENT NATIONS 



At present most of the cotton produced 
in the world is ginned by machinery. Gin- 




BALES OF COTTON' AS IT IS PICKED. 

ning consists in separating the cotton from 
the seeds. From 6G to 75 pounds of seeds 



are got from every 100 pounds of seed cot- 
ton. After this process, it is gathered into 
bundles and roughly baled. Then it goes to 
the "compressors," where it undergoes, un- 
der enormous pressure, great reduction in 
bulk. After this, it is subjected to several 
important processes before being ready for 
commercial use. 

GREAT VALVE IN COTTON SEED. 

In no direction have modern processes 
for the utilization of so-called waste mate- 
rial produced larger or more gratifying re- 
sults than in the conversion of cotton seed 
into a valuable commodity. 

Forty years ago there was no use for cot- 
ton seed, the decaying accumulations of 
which were a menace to the health of 
Southern communities. In 1900, when 53 
per cent of the seed produced was utilized, 
the planters received $28,632,000 for seed 
sold to the oil mills, and the value of the 
products of those mills was $41,411,000. 
Half (46,902,000 gallons) of the oil made 
in that year was exported. To invest an 
article with a value of millions of dollars 
which, 40 years ago, was deemed worthless, 
is certainly an achievement worthy of a 
place among the miracles of modern times. 




COTTON COMPRESS AT BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA, 

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A THOUSAND THINGS WORTH KNOWING 

INFORMATION that enriches the mind and enlivens the heart 



FIRE FIGHTING TO-DAY 



T HE American system of fighting fire 
is considered the most perfect in 
existence. That the American mind, 
which runs to mechanical devices and 
machinery, has something to do with 
it, there can be no doubt. 
. The Germans and 
French say that we 
ought to have the best 
fire departments in 
the world, because we 
have more fires than 
any other country, 
and, consequently, 
more experience in 
fighting them. Our 
force is nearly four 
times that of Ger- 
many or Trance in 
proportion to the pop- 
ulation, and three times that of England. 

FREQUENCY OF FIRES XN" AMERICAN 
CITIES. 

There are several reasons why our Amer- 
ican cities should have moTe fires than Eu- 




Geo. Washington Fire Engine, Presented to the City 
of Alexandria, Va., by Geo. Washington. 



ropean cities. In the first place, the 
wooden structures, common in earlier years, 
made our cities almost as vulnerable to fire 
as are the Chinese and Japanese towns of 
today, where fire sweeps away whole quar- 
ters almost periodically. The value of one 
solid structure as a 
stay to fire has been 
shown over and over 
again in the last 
twenty years. In the 
second place, our cli- 
matic conditions fa- 
vor the fire fiend. In 
European countries, 
the temperature is 
comparatively equa- 
ble; here, we always 
have a tropical sum- 
mer and a rigorous 
winter. After a summer heat that dries 
everything to a tinder, we have sudden-cold 
calls for the lighting of every stove and fur- 
nace. The sudden overheating results in fires. 
It may be also added, that European econom- 



376 



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376 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



ists mention our pros- 
perity as a reason for 
our many fires; we 
bear, without com- 
plaint, a yearly fire loss 
that to Europeans, 
seems a wicked and un- 
necessary waste. Our 
American fire houses 
compare favorably with 
those of Europe, al- 
though some of the 
English cities provide 
better accommodations 
in the way of gym- 
nasiums and baths than 
any of our departments. 




SELFPHOPELLING STEAM FIHE ENGINE— ENGLISH STYLE- 
LONDON, ENGLAND, FIRE DEPARTMENT. 




COMBINATION COMPOUND BABCOCK CHAMPION CHEMICAL ENGINE AND HQSfi 
WAGON, WITH PECK TURRET NOZZI.ES. 

Digitized by the Center for Adventist Research 




By courtesy of the Fire Extinguisher Mfg. Co. — 1 
AMOSKEAG SELF-PROPELLING STEAM FIRE ENGINE. BOSTON, MASS. *-* 

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378 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



One difference between London and Chi- 
cago is that there the fire stations offer liv- 
ing accommodations to the wives and chil- 
dren of the married men. 

GLASGOW'S SUPERB FIRE-ENGINE 
HOUSE. 

Glasgow boasts of an even finer fire house 
than London can show. Its headquarters 
fire station, opened in 1898, is a six-story 
building, with a granite and marble front. 

The walls of the rooms where the en- 
gines and trucks stand are of highly pol- 
ished onyx and granite. The building 
contains a large sitting-room, billiard room, 
and gymnasium. The fire station cost 
$300,000, and is, probably, the finest in the 
world. 

VALUE OE TIME IN FIRE FIGHTING. 

There is no business in which the value 
of the stitch in time tells more than in fire 
fighting. The insignificant burning of a 
window curtain may, in two hours, become 
a blaze before which a thousand men and 
an equipment costing millions of dollars 
will stand helpless. Therefore the finest 
record of any department is likely to be 
found in the number of small fires put out 
before they become dangerous' to property 
and life. 

CHICAGO'S FIRIi DEPARTMENT. 

The last printed report of the Chicago 
fire department, which may be taken as 
typical of that in this country, shows that 
in 1901, out of a total of 5,135 fires, the 
loss, at 1,716 fires, was less than $10. At 
1,334 fires, the loss was between $10 and 
$50; at 1,074 fires, the loss was between 
$100 and $1,000. 

On paper, the record of an ordinary 
day's work by our fire department — the ex- 



tinguishing from ten to fifteen insignificant 
blazes, with a loss of from $10 to $25 a 
piece — looks insignificant. In reality, it is 
one to be proud of, for it shows that the 
vital elements of a perfect fire department 
— the ability to put out the blaze in as few 
seconds as possible, the ounce of prevention, 
has been attained. The $25 fire is not a 
spectacular affair, yet it is the one over 
which the fire department may really take 
pride. The gradual decrease in the average 
loss per fire attests the value of its work. 
In 1876-1880, the average loss at impor- 
tant fires was $2,786; in 1896-1901, it had 
fallen to $876. As already said, the first 
aim of a perfect fire department is to put 
out the fire as soon as possible ; and to this 
end every important device introduced in 
the last thirty years has tended. First, find 
out where the fire is; second, get the ex- 
tinguishing apparatus there as fast as pos- 
sible; third, put out the fire, using any 
device that serves, with as little loss to 
property as possible. 

THE ELECTRIC FIRE ALARM SERVICE. 

In early times fire towers were used ex- 
tensively, but these gave way in 1873 to 
electricity, which became known as the 
electric fire alarm system. Chicago alone 
has something like 2,600 stations, or fire 
alarm boxes, attached to poles distributed 
throughout the city. Then there are hun- 
dreds of "watch service" fire call boxes 
which are located in private stores, manu- 
facturing establishments and at the big 
packing houses. The directions on each 
box, which are painted red and are sur- 
mounted by a red light, are: "Turn 
the Handle to Eight Until Door Opens. 
Then pull inside Hook Once and Shut 
the Door." The opening of the door 



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379 



of the box rings a bell in the door, which is 
intended to notify anyone in the neighbor- 
hood, especially a policeman, that the box 
has been opened. When the inside lever is 
pulled down and let go, it sets in motion 
a certain clock work that ticks out the num- 
ber of the box three times in succession at 
headquarters. Not only that, but it makes 
a record upon a tape, showing the number 
of the box and the exact second at which 
the lever was pulled. An operator, who 
sits night and day beside the instrument at 
headquarters, notes the number and selects 
from a drawer a certain disk, which, when 
placed in the proper apparatus, causes the 
alarm to be rung in all houses throughout 
the city. The average time for sending out 
an alarm to all parts of the city is about 
ten seconds. 

FERE FIGHTING IN LONDON. 

In London the signal from a street 
station sounds in the nearest fire- 
house. The objection to this is that that 
particular engine may be out, which might 
mean much before another engine could be 
notified. At headquarters, the moment an 
alarm is sent out which calls away an en- 
gine, a note is made of it upon a frame or 
chart, which shows at a glance the sign 
"out" opposite the engine's number. When 
the company returns to the house, the first 
thing the captain does is to report the re- 
turn of his company to headquarters. When 
an alarm is received at the engine house, 
all is orderly excitement. The chains fall 
down from in front of the horses, allowing 
them to run to their places in front of the 
engine or hose trucks, the men come sliding 
down the brass poles from the story above, 
and the collars are snapped around the 
horses' necks, and, by the time the signal 



stops, all is ready for a dash out of doors 
or a quiet return to quarters. 

AWAY IN TEN SECONDS FROM THE 
ALARM. 

The equipment that makes the departure 
of a fire engine from its house possible in- 
side of ten seconds after the first clang of 
the alarm bell, with steam up and its regu- 
lar crew, is the result of many inventions 
and persistent drill. As it is essential that 
no time be lost in getting up steam in the 
engine, steam is always maintained under a 
pressure of from five to twenty pounds in 
the engine boiler by means of a stationary 
boiler in the basement. This is connected 
with the engine by a pipe which is discon- 
nected automatically when the horses start 
off. At the same instant the fireman lights 
the fire under the engine boiler with a hand- 
ful of oil waste, and by the time it has gone 
two blocks, there is a blaze of hot coals and 
a head of steam to work with. Electricity 
drops the stall chains in front of the horses 
at the same time it begins to ring the alarm. 
The men, who sleep with one eye open, 
come down the poles faster than they lould 
tumble down any staircase. 

THE FIRE HOUSES. 

The fire horses, two for light engines, 
and three when the machines weigh more 
than four tons — aie trained as finely as the 
men. They are the pets of the house and of 
the neighborhood. Some of them learn in 
a week to run to their places at the signal ; 
others require a month's training. The 
lessons are simple enough. A raw horse is 
made to feel the whip as he hears the signal 
bell. If he is an intelligent animal, the 
two so soon become synonymous that he 
starts for his place the instant the bell 
rings. Many horses seem to know quite as 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



well as the men, when the alarm is one that 
means business. They really seem to count 
the strokes. 

ELECTRICITY FOR FIRE ENGINES. 

It is highly probable that the days of the 
fire horse are numbered. Steam as a motive 
power for fire engines, although used in 
several American cities, and in many Eu- 
ropean ones, has never found favor in Chi- 
cago. The difficulty in getting up power 
quickly enough seems to be the trouble. 
Electricity, however, which is now used in 
Paris and Berlin, is pretty certain to dis- 
place the horse within the next few years. 
Its chief advantages are that it makes a 
quicker start possible than with horses, and 
that the same power which propels the ma- 
chine through the streets can be used for 
pumping-apparatus when the fire is 
reached. Moreover, no fire 'is needed, thus 
doing away with lots of smoke and noise 
that add to the confusion inseparable from 
any fire alarm. Another fact in favor of 
electricity is that if, as so often happens, 
there is no fire worth talking about, or one 
that can -be put out with an extinguisher, 
there is no loss of fuel and labor. At pres- 
ent, every engine is expected to arrive at 
the fire with its own fire blazing hot. The 
cleanliness and neatness of an engine house 
that requires no boiler, handles no coal or 
ashes, and keeps no horses on its premises, 
may be imagined. Heretofore, it has been 
objected that if electrical apparatus gets 
out of order the men are helpless, and, for- 
merly, electricity was not so commonly used 
as at present ; this may have had some force. 

MODERN EQUIPMENT FOR EIRE-FIGHT- 
ING. 

The modern equipment for fire fighting 
consists of engines for pumping water, hose 



for distributing it at the fire, various sizes 
and lengths being used, according to need, 
ladders for getting up into buildings, life- 
lines, and nets into which people jump, if 
they have to. Each hose-cart also carries 
two chemical extinguishers, having a 
capacity of fifty gallons each. In the la.st 
five years an average of forty fires a year 
has been put out with the aid of these ex- 
tinguishers alone. The ladders are of 
various types, from small ones, to be car- 
ried by the firemen, to the extension ladders 
raised by a crank, which reach to a height 
of ninety feet, or to the sixth story of an 
ordinary building. 

COMPRESSED-AIR EXTENSION LADDER. 

One of the most interesting novelties 
shown at the Paris Fire Congress of 1900 
was an eighty-five-feet extension ladder 
from Frankfort, Germany, built on the 
telescope plan, and Taised by compressed 
air to its full height in 25 seconds. 

THE SCALING LADDERS. 

The scaling ladders used by firemen, to 
climb up the outside of a building where 
ordinary ladders fail, consist of long poles 
into which crosspieces, or rungs, are in- 
serted, by which a man may climb. At the 
end of each pole is a long spike-projection, 
to be thrust through the window sash. With 
a supply of such ladders trained firemen 
can get to the top of a building in an in- 
credibly short time. 

THE WATER TOWER, SEARCHLIGHT AND 
GUN. 

It is largely a matter-of-practice period. 
In addition to all this apparatus, there must 
also be mentioned the water tower, which 
raises a hose nozzle to the level of the upper 
stories, a searchlight, for use upon dark 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



381 



nights, and a gun, by which, a rope may be 
sent up to the tops of buildings. 

In the fireboat Illinois, Chicago has the 
most powerful and effective fire fighter in 
the world. There is a boat in New York 
that approaches it in completeness and 
capacity to throw river water, yet nowhere 
has it an equal. The Illinois was built in the 
year 1888, and is the newest and most mod- 
ern fire boat that floats. The Illinois is 
118 feet in length, twenty-four feet in 
depth, and has a hold depth of twelve and 
a half feet. To construct and fit it out 
cost about $100,000. In viewing it from 
some distance an uninitiated observer might 
well take it for an engine of destruction in- 
stead of saving warfare, for its big brass 
bores at the bow and stern suggest the shell- 
throwing howitzers we read about. The 
Illinois is throughout protected from fire, 
its exterior and interior being metal plated. 

WHAT A POUND 

Considerable interest has been evinced 
as to what a pound of coal could do. An 
experienced engineer has taken the time 
to figure out the power in a pound of coal 
and the results of his calculations are as 
follows : 

ITS W"ONI>EBPUL POTENTIAL ENERGY. 

A pound of coal can produce sufficient 
power to pull a large express train a dis- 
tance of one-sixth of a mile, going at the 
rate of 50 miles an hour. A pound of aver- 
age coal contains about 10,000 heat units. 
This would be somewhat smaller in size 
than a man's fist. If this pound of coal 
could be burned completely and entirely 
under water, and all of its heat should go 



The hull of the boat has two novel features 
suggested by its liability, in the winter sea- 
son, to meet ice obstructions. The prow 
does not extend down into the water the 
usual depth, while the bottom line of the 
vessel slopes upward, so that when the boat 
encounters ice in hurrying to the scene of 
a conflagration, it glides upon it, and its 
own weight carries down the ice. 

All the machinery of the Illinois is be- 
low the water line. There are six double 
cylinder engines, three of which supply the 
power of operating the great double pumps 
which rush the water through the stand 
pipes and hose lines. The other three en- 
gines run the electric dynamos and supply 
motive power to the boat. So powerful are 
the pumps of this boat that eleven streams 
of water may be thrown at one time, or a 
double stream may be shot up to a distance 
of one hundred and ninety feet. 

OF COAL CAN DO 

into the water, 625 pounds of water could 
be raised to the height of one foot. 

THINGS ALMOST INCREDIBLE. 

If the same pound of coal could be 
burned in water one foot deep, with a tem- 
perature of 64 degrees, and all the heat 
from this coal should be imparted to the 
water, it would become 16 degrees hotter, 
thus being suitable for a bath. If adapted 
to mechanical work, the 10,000 heat units 
in one pound of coal would be equivalent to 
236 horse power. This amount of potential 
energy is sufficient to haul a train of eight 
cars for a period of one fifth of a minute, 
or a distance of one sixth of a mile. It is 
filso capable of drawing a cable train, jn= 



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382 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



eluding the grip car and trailer, for a dis- 
tance of two miles, at the rate of nine miles 
an hour. It will also pull an electric car 
well filled with passengers for two miles 
and a half, at the rate of ten miles an 
hour. 

Compared with the work of a strong man, 
this pound of coal would do the work of five 
men for one minute. Another line of work 
in which the superiority of a pound of coal 



is shown beside the labor of a man, is that 
of sawing wood. A man may consider him- 
self a swift sawyer by making sixty strokes 
a minute, each stroke of the blade having 
progressed five feet a minute, but a circular 
saw drawn by machinery, may be put 
through 70 times that distance, and saw 70 
times as much wood. Still, this little pound 
of coal has the power to keep in operation 
180 such saws. 



THE CYCLONE 



The general ideas on the subject of cy- 
clones are rather vague. Take a small 
butter pot, and set it down on your largest 
map of the world at about 20 degrees north 
latitude, anywhere in the Atlantic between 
two continents, say east of the West Indies. 

ITS PATHWAY. 

Then, with a piece of whalebone twice as 
long as from the butter pot to the North 
Pole, bent into a parabola, with one end at 
the pole, the other at the butter pot, maTk 
out thus the path of the cyclone. The apes 
of the bent whalebone will be somewhere in 
the western United States. Imagine your 
butter pot to be revolving on its own center 
in the manner of the hands of a watch, at 
the rate 100 miles an hour. 

ITS EDGES. 

Its northwestern edge will be the danger- 
ous storm rim, blowing a hurricane, lashing 
the seas, and precipitating the rain; the 
other edges will be breezy, but not so 
stormy, as they contain less moist air. 

ITS CENTER. 

The center will be the low barometer and 
calm area, because here the air has less 



weight and is flowing upward. Now, move 
your pot slowly along the parabola, still 
supposing it to be turning. By the time 
you reach the center of the United States, 
exchange the pot for a saucer, with the same 
supposed conditions, only by this time, if 
wintry, a snow storm will take the place of 
the rain. Keep it moving circularly, and 
northward also along the parabola, and 
about Hudson Bay, change to a breakfast 
plate, and in Greenland, to a dinner plate, 
and about the 80th degree north, before the 
storm reaches the size of a buggy wheel, it 
breaks up. 

ENLARGEMENT OF THE STORM SPACE. 

Thus you see the space over which the 
storm travels enlarges as it passes north, the 
winds blow around its rim, and the calm 
center moves with it. 

THE HORN CARD. 

Mariners now carry what is called a 
horn-card, a transparent piece of flat 
cow's horn, with a circle on it, inside which 
are several smaller circles, with arrows 
pointing as a watch's hands travel. When- 
ever the barometer changes and clouds scud 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



383 



by, this horn-card is placed on the chart at 
the ship's position. Knowing the wind's 
direction and the weight of the air, the 
horn-card tells whereabouts in the cyclone's 
course the ship is, and from this is reasoned 
how to sail to avoid its violence, or if un- 
avoidable, how to manage in it, and if 
possible to profit by it. 

HOW THE OTCTLONE FORMS, DEVELOPS 
AND ADVANCES. 

The formation and development of a cy- 
clone is thus described by the intelligent 
observer of its progress, who 
furnished the accompanying 
illustration. 

"In the afternoon a cloud 
of smoke was noticed on the 
horizon a few miles away. 
Spiral puffs arose from time 
to time, and we wondered 
whose house was burning. 
, Presently we noticed a cloud 
in the sky above the burning 
house, of the same color, 
only darker. 

"The cloud was quite a 
distance above, and entirely 
detached from the smoke 
below. While we looked a 
long finger suddenly de- 
scended from the upper 
cloud and touched the 'burning house,' 
and the two united and moved rap- 
idly forward. Then we knew there 
was no burning house, and that we 
had witnessed the formation of a cy- 
clone. Those who were nearer than we were 
told us that they first noticed a little whirl 
of dust, such as one often sees in a dusty 
road. Only a foot or two high at first, it 
usually scatters and disappears in a few 



minutes. This one did not. It rapidly 
grew larger and clung to the same spot. The 
cloud we saw in the sky did not come from 
anywhere. It suddenly formed in the sky 
above the little whirl of dust, grown larger 
by that time. • 

TWO CLOUDS UNITE. 

"The two clouds moved forward at once 
on uniting. The long finger thickened at the 
top, forming an inverted cone. The lower 
cloud became absorbed in the upper, form- 
ing an immense, funnel-shaped, whirling 




By courtesy of "The Oaks," 
A CYCLONE AS IT STRIKES. 
(From a photograph.) 

horror, of inky blackness. Flashes of light- 
ning constantly darted forth from its sides, 
and a sullen, thunderous roar was continu- 
ous. It moved with a swaying, graceful 
motion, rising and falling with the inequal- 
ities of the ground. It seemed to move 
slowly. A good horse could outrun it. As 
the long finger swayed back and forth what- 
ever it touched vanished. 

"Houses, barns, haystacks and trees, a" 



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384 A THOUSAND THINGS 

were taken up by the suction of the cyclone. 
The whirling motion was so rapid the eye 
could not follow it, but the forward move- 
ment was so slow that anyone who saw it 
in time could easily get out of its way. 
For that reason few lives 'were lost. It 
lasted three-quarters of an hour, then it 
struck a slight shower cloud and dispersed, 
Its track was eighteen miles long and one- 
quarter mile wide. It came within a half 
mile of our home. The courageous photog- 
rapher who took the picture was handi- 



r ELL WORTH KNOWING % 

capped somewhat by his shrieking family 
clinging to him and trying to get him into 
the cyclone cave. 

"The photograph does not do justice to 
the 'sitter/ as at the moment of taking the 
shot it was passing over a plowed field, and 
the dust it kicked up destroyed the sym- 
metry of its funnel. There was no other 
cloud in the sky except the cyclone. We 
could see the blue sky above and on all sides 
of it all the timej, in unique and startling 
contrast" 



HOW MUSIC IS PRINTED 



Millions sing popular songs, but few 
know what a page of music represents. Just 
to give an idea of the subject, it may be put 
down in the outset that an ordinary piece, 
of three sheets, selling for 10 cents, in- 
volves the use of more than 5,000 separate 
types. 

Chicago is one of the great music pub- 
lishing centers of the country, and its daily 
output ranges through all the grades of 
vocal and instrumental literature — from 
the symphony for a full orchestra, repro- 
duced for the first time from the manu- 
script of the Chicago composer, to the 
cheapest reprint of tho newest thing in 
concert hall music. 

WOMAN IN MUSIC PRINTING. 

Woman is on an equality with man in 
this department of the publishing trade. 
She commands a roan's wages for "com- 
position," and, as the work is of the most 
delicate and perplexing kind, her patience 
and dexterity usually give her a marked 
superiority over the men of the guild. 



DIFFERENT METHODS IN PRINTING. 

A composer with a piece of music to pub- 
lish has his choice among four kinds of 
printing. If he is rich, he may have the 
score engraved on copper and printed as if 
it were an expensive picture, or he may 
have it stamped in zinc, or it may be" 
lithographed. But if he is bent on money- 
making and celebrity, he will go to the 
musical type-setter. 

THE MUSIC PRINTER'S CASE. 

The case of the music printer is divided 
into TOO boxes, one for each character, and 
the compositor must have learned her case 
perfectly or she will be able to make poor 
headway with her work. Jirst, she sets the 
character for the clef, and the end of the 
staff. Then she inserts the "sharps or flats 
of the signature, and spaces out the staff 
with short pieces of brass rule. Next, she 
pieces to get her figures and staff rules to 
indicate the time. 

THE NOTES. 

Suppose the first note of the piece of 
music is a quarter-note in the second space, 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



385 



with a sharp before it. The compositor 
puts in the sharp first and fills up the space 
with bits of brass rule to continue the staff ; 
then she inserts the body of the quarter- 
note with two lines below, and above it puts 
the two types necessary to make the stem 
of the note, and to keep the staff unbroken. 
Sometimes five more separate types must 
be inserted, A measure of eight consecu- 
tive notes, three-four time and a tenor clef 
indicated, seem to contain ten characters. 
As a matter of fact, the number is 78, at 
the very least, and more if the measure has> 
accidentals or complicated harmony. It 
takes about five years for an apprentice to 
learn the trade. It is not necessary to have 
musicians to set music type, yet in correct- 
ing proof it is the aim of the typesetters to 
know enough music to avoid errors. 

MTJSIO TYPE. 

On this side of the Atlantic music type 
is made only in Philadelphia, v and so great 
is its cost that it is never put to the wear 
and tear of the presses. As soon as the 
proof is corrected by the proofreader, the 
form of type is molded in wax and then 
an electrotype is cast from this matrix. 
After that comes the tedious work of dis- 
tributing the several thousand types, for 
the wax sticks in between and makes the 
sorting of the type difficult. 
LITHOGRAPHIC PROCESS OF ENGRAVING 
FOR MUSIC. 

Next in importance is the lithographic 
process of engraving for music. A plate of 

A BIG 

On the House of Parliament in London 
is a clock, the striking part of which takes 
one-half a day to wind up. The clock has 



zinc is ruled off with the series of five lines 
of the staff. Then the music is copied in 
reverse on the zinc, and the engraver, with 
many separate dies and punches, stamps in 
the notes, bars and rests. When this is done 
and the plate is hammered straight, it is 
filled up with thick transfer ink. An 
etcher's proof is taken of this, and while 
the ink is yet wet, it is pressed upon a 
lithograph stone. Prom this point the work 
of printing is the same as that of a one- 
color lithograph, that is, the stone is kept 
wet and the ink adheres only to the char- 
acters of the music. 

Sometimes, to avoid expense in printing 
small batches, music is printed direct from 
the stamped zinc sheets. In this case bees- 
wax is filled into the lines and dots for some 
depth, as otherwise there would be so much 
ink taken up by the indentations that tho 
sheet music would be blurred. 

THE PROCESS OF PRINTING. 

In printing the music, dampened paper 
is used. In the press, a heavy bed of iron 
supports the engraved plates with paper on 
them. By means of a big capstan wheel, 
this bed is moved in between two iron cylin- 
ders moving in the same direction. A heavy 
blanket of felt is wrapped about the upper 
roller, and the pressure causes the ink in 
the plate to be sucked up on the paper. 
These presses must be run by hand, and the 
plate inked and wiped off for each impres- 
sion. Thus the cost of printing is about 
half a cent a sheet. 

CLOCK 

four dials — one on each side of the square 
tower. See illustration on page 332 of this 
book. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



HOW THE MODERN THEATER IS CONDUCTED 



Something of the glamour of romance 
and mystery veils the world behind the foot- 
lights to those who have never lived within 
that mystic circle, but the life is anything 
but romantic and mysterious to the players 
and the workers. 

THE THEATER "WORKHOUSE. 

On the contrary, while to the public a 
theater is a playhouse, it is, to those con- 



less plays, and selects the one he thinks will 
most please the public. 

THE MANAGER'S SELECTION OF A PLAY. 

These manuscripts are obtained either 
from the playwright direct, or from the 
playwright's agent. Accompanying each 
manuscript is a statement of the royalty to 
be paid for the plays used. This right of 
royalty sometimes costs the manager as 




WHEltE COSTUMES ARB MADE. 



nected with it, something of a workhouse. 
Either a mental or physical effort is re- 
quired almost every minute of one's work- 
ing hours. The ceaseless routine of duties 
necessary to the completion of each produc- 
tion commences at the desk of the man- 
ager, who reads the manuscripts of count- 



much as $1,000 a week. There are plays 
that cost even more than that ; but the aver- 
age cost is about $500 per week. 
THE STAGE DIRECTOR'S PREPARATIONS. 

After the manager has selected a play to 
follow any given production, the manu- 
scripts go immediately to the stage director, 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



387 



who is the power behind the throne (foot- 
lights), and the autocrat of the world on 
and beneath the stage. It is his province to 
direct, and his duty to apportion, the 
various tasks involved in the mechanical 
construction and the mental preparation of 
a play. 

After having read the manuscript the 



THE SCENIC ARTIST, PROPERTY MAN, 
ELECTRICIAN AND STAGE CAR- 
PENTER. 

This finished, he turns over the scene plot 
to the scenic artist, who immediately 
wrinkles his brows for an imaginative con- 
ception of an original interior or a fresh 
landscape. The stage director assigns the 




. By courtesy of Geo. R. Lawrenee, Chicago. 
VIEW SHOWING PROSCENIUM AND BOX ARRANGEMENT OF A MODERN THEATER. 
Illinois Theater, Chicago, 



stage director begins "to plot," not like the 
villain in the play, but with pencil and 
paper. Using those business materials, he 
draws the scene plot, and several other 
minor plots, varying in number and im- 
portance according to the extent of the pro- 
duction. 



property plot to the property man, who be- 
gins to get the hundred and one articles 
that are to be a part of the coming produc- 
tion. The light plot goes to the electrician, 
who at once begins planning the light 
effects for this particular play. Still an- 
other plot goes to the stage carpenter, who 



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388 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



at once sets about with saw, hammer and 
nails to make such frames as are necessary. 

THE ORCHESTRA LEASER. 

The "plotting" does not end here, for, the 
leader of the orchestra, whose duty it is to 
select the proper charac- 
ter of music for each 
situation — something 
tremulous, for the tears, 
something lively, for 
laughter, and something 
heroic for the melodra- 
matic, is given a "plot." 

ASSIGNMENT OP 
PARTS. 

These plots having 
been formed and dis- 
tributed, the stage man- 
ager then proceeds to 
cast the play — that is, 
he mentally canvasses 
the individual talents 
of the members of the 
company and assigns to 
each one the part most 
suited to that person. 
Sometimes a player pos- 
sesses sufficient versa- 
tility to fill any role, 
but such versatility is 
rare. Good judgment 
in assigning the parts 
is therefore an indis- 
pensable attribute of a 
good stage manager. 
Not every player, to be 
sure, is invariably as- 
signed to the part he 
would most like to play, 



but the part he would most like to 
play is not always the part he could 
play best. As to that, the stage di- 
rector is the judge, and upon the 
correctness of his judgment frequently 
depends the success of the production. 




By courtesy of the Columbia Theater, Chicago. 
WHERE SCENERY IS PAINTED. 



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389 



UP IN THE "PLIES." 

While the property man goes ahout the 
getting together of the "props" the scenic 
artists high up in the flies are busily work- 
ing upon the scenery for the coming pro- 
duction. The paints are "cooked" and the 
colors blended upon such canvases as are 



are the methods of the modern stage that a 
locomotive may be made to appear as if 
going through flames at a terrific rate of 
speed, while in fact it is absolutely station- 
ary. Flame is often made with cloth and 
colored lights. Steam is made to take the 
place of smoke. The ear, too, is deceived 




By courtesy of the Columbia Theater, Chicago. 
MODEL FOR STAGE SCENE. 



to be used. For each production there is 
an entirely new outfit, giving a freshness of 
scenic investiture to each play that is prac- 
tically impossible with traveling organiza- 
tions. 

MODERN FEATURES IN STAGE PRODUC- 
TION. 

In producing plays at the present time 
nothing is impossible. Lightning is made 
to go zig-zag across the stage at the will of 
the electrician, miniature lakes and foun- 
tains are the work of the stage carpenter 
and manager, and, in fact, so far advanced 



as well as the eye, and thus the most realise 
tic effects are achieved. 

All this varied and elaborate procedure 
involves a large expenditure, which finds 
its return, with a very handsome margin of 
profit, in the patronage received from the 
theater loving public. The popular ten- 
dency to crowd before the footlights never 
seems to diminish, and if the plays are of 
the proper character, the amusement and 
edification obtained from witnessing his- 
trionic productions constitute a wholesome 
diversion. 



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390 A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



HOW LIQUORS ARE DISTILLED 



Alcoholic liquors are made from mate- 
rials containing starch or sugar in sufficient 
quantities to cause fermentation. If, after 
fermentation, the liquor is subjected to dis- 
tillation it is called distilled liquor, and to 
this class belong whisky, brandy, rum, 
absinthe, etc. Brandy is made from fer- 



common spirits with juniper berries. Fre- 
quently other materials are used for flavor- 
ing, such as cardamon seed and oil of 
fennel. Liquors are made from brandy and 
alcohol by flavoring them with aromatic 
substances, such as orange peel, absinthe 
and anise; then the flavored liquid is dis- 




TESTING LIQUORS IN THE BUREAU OF REVENUE. 
A sample of all liquors imported and exported is brought here and tested to decide the Revenue Tax 

to be placed thereon. 



mented grape juice. The best grades of 
cognac brandy are made from white French 
wines; inferior qualities are made from 
Spanish and Portuguese wines. Whisky is 
made from the fermented extract of rye, 
barley or corn. In Scotland and Ireland 
malted barley is used — sometimes alone, 
sometimes mixed with other grains. 

Bourbon whisky is made from rye and 
malted corn. Gin is produced by mixing 



tilled, and after distillation, it is colored 
with caramel and sweetened in most cases. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF WHISKY. 

The manufacture of whisky will serve as 
a type for the manufacture of other spirit- 
uous liquors. The first step in the process 
is the saccharifying of the grain — that is, 
turning the starch into sugar. The grain 
is mixed with malt and ground in a suit- 
able mill and then run into a mash tub, 



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391 



where it is agitated with water at a tem- 
perature of 150 degrees Fahrenheit. 
THE MASHING PROCESS. 

The mashing process is continued until 
the starch is changed entirely into malt 
sugar or maltose. This requires from one 
to five hours, according to the amount of 
grain in the mash. Malt contains a sub- 
stance known as "diastase," which possesses 
the remarkable property of turning starch 
into maltose or malt sugar. It is for this 
reason that malt is added to the grain in 
the mash tub. Starch is changed by pro- 
longed boiling into dextrin, which does not 
ferment readily, while maltose ferments 
very easily. Great care, therefore, is taken 
during the mashing process that the dextrin 
formation is reduced to a minimum. This 
is done by keeping the temperature near 
150 degrees during the whole process. 

"WORT." 

The liquor obtained in the mash tub is 
called "wort." When the wort is as strong 
as possible, it is drained off, and the grain 
is treated with a fresh supply of water and 
the wort so obtained is added to the first. 
The wort, on coming from the mash tub, 
must be cooled rapidly, otherwise an acid 
fermentation will set in which produces 
vinegar, and the presence of such substance 
is undesirable. The wort is cooled by al- 
lowing it to trickle over cold pipes, which 
are kept at a low temperature by some 
method of artificial refrigeration similar to 
that by which ice is manufactured. It 
takes about five hours to reduce the con- 
tents of the mash tub to a temperature of 
60 iegrees. 

TERMENTATKHST. 

The wort is now ready for fermentation. 
Fresh brewer's yeast, or softened com- 



pressed yeast, is added to the liquid, which 
is stored in wooden tanks in the cellar of 
the distillery. One gallon of hrewer's 
yeast, or a half pound of compressed yeaat, 
is used for every 100 gallons of wort. In 
the early stages of fermentation the yeast 
cells grow without producing much alcohol. 
Later, the malt sugar ferments and alcohol 
is formed ; carbon bioxide is generated after 
the sugar is formed ; the dextrin gradually 
is changed to maltose, and this is then 
changed to alcohol by fermentation. Dur- 
ing fermentation the temperature gradually 
rises because of the chemical changes taking 
place. The temperature is kept near 93 
degrees to get the best results. Fermenta- 
tion is complete when no more alcohol 
forms, and this takes from five to nine days. 
The yeast is skimmed off, and the fer- 
mented wort at once is subjected to distilla- 
tion. 

DISTILLATION'. 

The object of distillation is to increase 
the percentage of alcohol in the liquor and 
at the same time to remove undesirable sub- 
stances from it. The undistilled liquor 
contains alcohol, water, solid matter, fusel 




By courtesy of the Sunny Brook Distillery Co., Chicago. 
THE FBRMENTBR. 



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392 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



oil and other substances. Alcohol boils at 
172 degrees, water at 212 and fusel oil 
boils, some at 207, and some at higher 
temperatures. If a mixture of such liquids 
be boiled and the resulting vapors be cooled 
the process is called distillation. If the 
liquid which distills over and is condensed 
be collected in different portions or frac- 
tions, the first fraction will contain a larger 
percentage of alcohol than the original 
liquid, for the alcohol distills off at the 
lower temperature. The remaining frac- 
tions will contain more water and fusel oil; 
The first portion will not contain all of the 
alcohol, nor will it be entirely free from 
water and fusel oil, but if it is redistilled 
the percentage of alcohol will be greatly 
increased and the amount of water and 
fusel oil will be diminished correspond- 
ingly. 

THE OLD STXI.Ii. 

The old stills were based on this prin- 
ciple, and many such stills are used today 
in Scotland and Ireland. They consist of 
large flat-bottomed vessels of copper set in 




By cotfrtesy of the Sunny Brook Distillery Co., Chicago. 
THE VAT. 



brickwork and heated underneath by direct 
firing. The still is connected at the top 
with a long spiral pipe called a "worm," 
which passes through a tank of cold water, 
where the alcoholic vapors are cooled and 
the distillate is collected at the other end 
of the worm in a suitable tank. This 
method of distillation is wasteful of fuel 
and for that reason a number of devices 
have been introduced for reducing the cost 
of the product and increasing the quality. 
THE MODEB1T STILL. 
The improved stills are. somewhat com- 
plicated in construction, and they are con- 
tinuous in action; that is, the liquor to be 
rectified is fed in a "steady stream without 
interruption to the process and the rectified 
spirits are drawn off continuously. A 
standard still consists of two columns made 
of wood, copper lined, called respectively the 
"analyzer" and the "rectifier." The 
analyzer is divided into a number of com- 
partments by perforated copper plates, sup- 
plied with valves opening upward. Small 
pipes pass through each plate, projecting 
about half an inch above each plate and 
reaching down into small copper pans 
placed on the plate below. From the 
analyzer the vapors enter the rectifier, 
which also is divided into compartments 
with perforated plates until near the top of 
the column, which is free from plates. 
There the finished spirit is held back and 
carried away to the condensing worm. The 
liquor to be distilled is pumped through a 
zigzag pipe which circulates through the 
rectifier. When it reaches the bottom of 
the rectifier, it is entirely changed into 
vapor. The vapor then goes to the analyzer, 
which is heated from below by steam. The 
water condenses and runs off at the bottom 
of the analyzer; the vapors of the alcohol 



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393 




By courtesy of the Sunny Brook Distillery Co., Chicago. 
STOREROOM. 

pass into the rectifier, where they circulate 
through compartments, and as they ascend 
they are almost entirely freed from water 
and fusel oil. The vapor then passes 
through a condensing worm, where it is 
thoroughly cooled and liquefies, running 
into storage tanks. 



ADULTERATION AND IMPOSITION". 

There is much adulteration and imposi- 
tion in the manufacture of liquors. Some- 
times sulphuric acid, blue vitriol, ammonia 
and acetate of potassium are used. A good 
deal of it is made by mixing a little genuine 
liquor with coloring matter and different 
oils to add proper flavor. Prune juice is a 
favorite flavor with compounders, and an 
extract of tea and currants is used for rye 
whisky. In order to make certain liquors 
foam properly in imitation of the genuine, 
they are treated with a beading oil made 
from the oil of bitter almonds. Bourbon 
whisky is made sometimes by adding fusel 
oil which has been treated with black oxide 
of manganese and the poisons just men- 
tioned. "Scotch" whisky is made by add- 
ing to a small quantity of real Scotch 
whisky, oil of birch and spirits. Cognac is 
made from spirits by flavoring with cocoa- 
nut oil and coloring with burnt sugar. 



A TINY TYPEWRITER 



The pocket typewriter is 
the very latest device to less- 
en the labor of newspaper 
men, detectives and any and 
all persons who need to take 
notes on any subject when 
the use of pencil and paper 
would be an inconvenience. 
This new invention makes it 
possible for one to take down 
conversation, speeches or any 
remarks that he may choose 
to record, without even re- 
moving his hands from his 
pocket. 




By courtesy of the Lambert Typewriter Co. 
THE POCKET TYPEWRITER. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



ITS SIMPLICITY OF DESIGN. 

The inventor of this little typewriter is 
Eugene MeClean Long, son of the late Con- 
federate general, Long, of Charlottesville, 
Virginia. The feature of this unique little 
word recorder is its simplicity. Its casing 
is of hard rubber, and its interior, of alu- 
minum. The dimensions of the casing are 
four inches by three inches. 

ITS MECHANICAL OPERATION. 

In the casing are two little spools, that 
hold rolls of tape quite similar to the white 



paper in the ordinary ticker. By merely 
pressing four keys on one side of the easing 
and by the manipulation of a space key and 
a number indicator, anything that the 
human tongue utters can be put down ip 
symbols. In designing this typewriter, the 
inventor first observed that an instrument 
must be constructed which would make a 
separate and distinct sigh for each letter of 
the alphabet, and of such a mechanism that 
these signs would be produced with greater 
rapidity than the corresponding words can 
be written with the pencil. 



MAKING DIAMOND 

The prospect of the manufacture of dia- 
monds by scientific means is now consid- 
ered so likely as to be predicted in a gov- 
ernment report T. G-. Martin, an expert 
agent of the census office, has written a long 
and interesting report on the electrical in- 
dustries of the United States, in which he 
makes mention of the attempt to make dia- 
monds by artificial means. 

In this report Martin recalls the fact that 
Moissan, the French inventor, pushed the 
employment of the electric arc so far as 
to produce minute fragmentary diamonds, 
in his furnaces. Moissan also noted the 

CHEWING GUM AND 

Cleveland is said to be the headquarters 
of gum chewing and chewing gum. Prob- 
ably more gum is made in that city than in 
any other. Chicago, however, is headquar- 
ters for the chewing gum trust and has be- 
come a great distributing point. About 
half<g|;he annual product of the trust, The 



BY ELECTRICITY 

production of graphite from a diamond 
heated in the arc, and from the similar 
treatment of sugar charcoal purified by 
chlorine, and of purified wood charcoal. In 
fact, the investigations in this field tended 
to prove that diamonds are formed by the 
sudden cooling in mercury or lead, of 
molten iron saturated with carbon. 

With these experiments before them, the 
world's chemists are now cudgeling their 
brains to ascertain whether, in all our mod- 
ern electrical furnaces, diamonds may be 
produced. 



ITS MANUFACTURE 

American Chicle Company, is handled- in 
Chicago. The output of the chewing gum 
combination amounts annually to .8,400,- 
000 boxes of 100 pieces each, which, at one 
cent a stick, costs the public over $8,000,- 
000 a year for a total of about 4,000 tons 
of gum. This does not count the amount 



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I A THOUSAND THINGS 
of white and spruce gum made by druggists 
md makers outside of the trust. 
The first gum maker of prominence in 
this country was named Curtis. He 
founded a spruce gum factory in Portland, 
Maine, in 1835, which is still doing busi- 
ness. It is said that the ancient Egyptians 
chewed gum in the time of the Pharaohs 
and Cleopatra. 

THE ZAPOTE TREE — CHICLE, 
The gum sold today is made from a sub- 
stance called chicle, which exudes from the 
zapote tree, a tropical fruit cultivated in 
Mexico and the Central American states. 
This fruit looks like a russet apple, tastes 
like custard, and when on ice, is like ice 
cream. The sap of the zapote tree is ob- 
tained by cutting a gash in the bark, and 
when it is boiled it assumes a heavy elastic 
quality not unlike rubber. Thomas Adams 
and his wife, of Brooklyn, on experiment- 
ing with it, learned that chicle would pro- 
duce "rubber gum," and manufactured the 
celebrated "tutti frutti" gum, from which 
they made a fortune. Mr. Adams is now a 
director in the trust and was the first mil- 
lionaire who made his money in chewing- 
gum. 

William J. White, of Cleveland, is the 
second millionaire of the chewing-gum 
product. Formerly he used to peddle his 
own gum. about the streets. In 1887, he 
brought out a gum flavored with pepper- 
mint which was very popular. Another 
man who has made a fortune is Dr. Bee- 
man, of Cleveland, who was formerly a 
druggist. One day his clerk, Miss Horton, 
suggested that pepsin be added to gum to 
aid in digestion. The idea caught well 
with the public and made the two rich, 
besides the man who promoted the busi- 
ness. 



ELL WORTH KNOWING 895 

HOW CHEWING- GUM IS MADE. 

Gum is made by boiling the chicle in a 
huge kettle of steam. First the raw chicle 
is shipped to this country very dirty and 
has to be cleaned. This is done by melting 
it down before it is sent to the gum fac- 
tories. When the gum is being boiled, at 
a certain stage, sugar, cream paste and oil 
of wintergreen or other flavoring extracts, 
are added. A revolving paddle keeps the 
stuff stirred up and it continues to cook 
until the critical time comes for it to he 
removed from the fire. It needs a "gum 
eye" in the cook to tell when the chicle has 
boiled long enough. If it boils too long the 
gum is too brittle ; while if it is not boiled 
long enough, it is sticky and soft. It is 
said there are only twenty-five persons in 
the world who can boil gum just right, and 
that the chewing-gum millionaires had this 
faculty, which tended greatly toward their 
success. After being cooled the chicle is 
kneaded like bread, only that the finest pul- 
verized sugar is added instead of flouT. 
When it is just thick enough the loaves are 
flattened out, cut up, and rolled through a 
machine. The sticks aTe then wrapped and 
are ready for market. 

The habit of chewing gum has become in 
recent years one of the most prevalent in- 
dulgences observable. It is safe to say that 
two-thirds of the boys and girls in attend- 
ance at the common schools chew gum con- 
tinually. While it is not a commendable 
practice, it is not open, fortunately, to the 
objections that pertain to the chewing of 
tobacco, or the use of certain other articles 
that satisfy the taste, but leave their effects 
upon the system in the shape of nervous 
disorders and other ailments. If the 
juvenile element must chew anything, by 
all means let it have gum. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



TEA AND COFFEE CULTURE 



England is a nation of tea drinkers, with 
little favor given to coffee. In fact tourists 
claim that it is the next thing to impossible 
to get a good cup of eoffee in Great Britain. 
From the English comes the retort that the 
same condition regarding tea prevails in 
America. One thing is certain, Americans 
know how to brew excellent coffee, and 
hence that beverage has become very popu- 
lar with the people of the new world. 

FRANCE PREFERS COFFEE. 

France offers coffee as its favorite bever- 
age, with tea and chocolate in the order 
named. The French also practice adultera- 
tion, with the result that in many of the 
big restaurants where coffee -is served the 
taste of, that article cannot be detected. 
TEA THE FAVORITE OF RUSSIA. 

The Russians are the greatest of all tea 
drinkers, obtaining 
their supply chiefly 
by caravans, into 
Siberia, from the 
Chinese provinces, 
where the best crop 
is produced. The 
Russian samovar, or 
tea-urn, is perpetually 
alight in every house- 
hold of the empire, 
and tea is served not 
only at every meal, 
but to every caller 
between meals, and 
on all sorts of sur- 
prising occasions. 
Even ..a business call 



at a bank or ofBce is almost certain to bring 
the offer of a glass of scalding tea, to be 
taken while the errand is explained. 

Coffee culture extends over aimost the 
whole of the tropical belt of the globe. The 
plant seems to bear greater climatic ex- 
tremes than most members of the vegetable 
kingdom, and thrives in localities differing 
as much as thirty degrees in- average tem- 
perature. 

THE COFFEE TREE IN BRAZIL AND JAVA. 

In Brazil, there are 16 varieties of coffee 
growing wild. The limit of productiveness 
is about 30 years. After that time, the trees 
may live and continue to grow, but they 
yield little or no fruit. In Java, coffee 
trees, planted nearly a hundred years ago, 
are said to be in existence, being now about 
40 feet high, with trunks a foot in diam- 




COPFBB PLANTATION. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



397 



eter; but they grow 
entirely wild and 
produce no berries. 
On an average, trees 
are replaced on the 
plantations every 20 
ears, and this pro- 
cess of replanting 
goes on constantly. 

HOW COFFEE IS 
GROWN. 

Coffee grows best 
on the uplands, usu- 
ally on the mountain 
ide at an elevation of from fifteen hundred 
to forty-five hundred feet above the level of 
the sea. The trees are raised from the seeds 
m nurseries, and transplanted when about 
a year or eighteen months old. The plants 
are usually set at intervals of eight or ten 
feet. They begin to bear at the age of three 
or four years, and when six years old, may 
be said to be in full bearing. Taking one 
year with another, a tree in full bearing 
produces from two to three pounds per an- 





TRANSPLANTING TEA. 
The plant la brought from the nursery. 



DRYING THE COFFEE. 

num. The average diameter of the trunk 
in full bearing trees is about the size of a 
man's wrist. They bear a profusion of 
dark-green, glossy leaves, and the fruit or 
berry forms on the woody stems, usually 
at the base of these leaves. 

The berry, when ripe, is red in color, and 
much resembles a large cranberry. The two 
beans He within, face to face, and surround- 
ing them are five successive layers of skin 
and pulp, which cover and protect the beans. 

COFFEE PICKING. 

Picking begins, in 
Java, in January, 
and lasts for three 
or four months. The 
chief part of the 
Ceylon crop is gath- 
ered from April to 
July. A small crop, 
chiefly of young cof- 
fee, is picked from 
September to Decem- 
ber. In Brazil, they 
commence gathering 
crops in Ap ril or 
May, and work con- 



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399 




TEA NURSERY SHADED BY PERNS. 



tinuoiisly until September. Women and 
children are largely employed in gathering 
the fruit, carrying it ' from the trees in 
baskets to the place where the preparation 
of the berries for market commences. 

PULPING AND DRYING. 

After the berries have been gathered, the 
first operation to which they are treated is 
called "pulping." This means to remove 
the outer covering of skin and pulp from 
the beans themselves. The berries may be 
treated while in the soft state, or they may 
be permitted to dry, after which the dried 
husk is removed by a machine. When this 
process is chosen, the berries are spread 
upon the drying grounds of stone, mortar 
or cement, where they stay until the heat of 
the sun prepares them for the machine. It 
is a similar machine, differing only in de- 
tails to that which is used when the berries 
are to be treated in the soft state. Succes- 



sive cleanings, washings and dryings finally 
bring the coffee into a condition for ship- 
ment to the markets, thousands of miles 
from the plantation where it is raised. 

PRINCIPAL TEA PRODUCING COUNTRIES. 

Tea in the Western Hemisphere does not 
figure very largely in a commercial sense, 
although in our own Southern states cer- 
tain experiments have been made which 
suggests that good tea could be cultivated, 
even though it might not be highly profit- 
able. 

TEA CULTIVATION. 

Japan, China, the Island of Formosa, 
India, and Ceylon are the principal tea pro- 
ducing countries. The tea plant is a species 




HOW TEA IS POWDERED BY THE FEET. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



of camellia, bearing a thick and glossy leaf, 
which, when green, has no tea flavor, or 
rather has a flavor very unlike the cured 
leaf known to us as tea. There is consider- 
able variety in the mode of cultivating, but 
the prevailing system is to plant in rows 
about six feet apart. Three 
or four plants are placed to- 
gether in hills, which are 
about three feet apart, and 
usually as they grow larger 



serve the double purpose of protecting them 
first from cold which might injure them, 
and, later, from the sun, which tends to 
make the leaf tough and injures the deli- 
cacy of the flavor. The first picking, which 
is considered the best, takes place, in Japan, 
during the last of April or the be- 
ginning of May; the second, a 
month later; while the third, 
which is often omitted, usually 
takes place during July. Left to. 




WEIGHING TEA CHESTS — 85 POUNDS EACH. 



they fill nearly the whole original 
space left between the hills, thus making 
an almost continuous row. The plants are 
raised from the seed, and take from three to 
four years to mature sufficiently to yield the 
first crops. After that they are picked con- 
tinuously for many years. 

TEA PICKING. 
In the districts yielding the best variety 
of tea, the plants are covered, during the 
winter and early spring, with mats, which 



themselves, the plants would prob- 
ably grow to a considerable height, 
but they are trimmed and pruned 
down so that they are seldom more 
than three or four feet high. This results 
in a number of small branches, producing 
small and tender leaves, which are the only 
ones sought for, although in rapid picking 
different sized leaves would naturally be 
taken, together with a considerable quan- 
tity of stems and other trash. 



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401 



THE CURING AND FIRING PROCESS. 

From the field, the leaves are taken to 
buildings for the curing processes. The flat 
baskets in which the tea is brought from 
the fields are placed over the steaming ap- 
paratus for a few seconds, the steam per- 



meating the mass and wilting the leaves. 
This gives them the dark-green color, and 
enables the leaf to be rolled and doubled 
up, so that there is less liability to crumble 
when fired. They are then thrown upon 
large paper pans beneath which a gentle 




INSIDE A FACTORY HOLLER— FERMENTATION TO GET RID OF USELESS ELEMENTS. 



'"'''Wi^r:';-'^* 





GETTING DUST OUT OF TEA. 



FORCING MOISTURE FROM THIS 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



coal fire is maintained. They are roasted 
here for several hours, during which they 
are constantly rolled and stirred with the 
hands, so as to make the leaf as 
compact as possible. The tea is then 
placed in large baskets to await the sort- 
ing process. 

HOW TO .PRESERVE 

/ 

The process is a very simple one. The 
enly articles necessary are ,a close box, a 
quantity of stick sulphur and 1 a pan to use 
it in. Collect enough flowers to fill a half 
peck basket and then obtain a square 
wooden box, like those in which tea is 
packed. 

PREPARATION OF AIR-TIGHT BOX. 

Across the inside of the top of this "tack 
two narrow strips of wood on opposite sides, 
upon which rest rods or strips for the 
bunches of flowers to hang from. The box 
must be air-tight; but as the burning sul- 
phur would very quickly consume the 
oxygen of the air contained in it, and ex- 
tinguish the fire, a hole or two must be 
bored, or a small door cut, in the lower part 
of one side. These may be closed »r opened 
at will, — the former by means of plugs and 
the latter, with hinges. 

SELECTION AND ARRANGEMENT OP THE 
FLOWERS. 

Arrange the flowers in loose clusters of 
from two to a dozen, according to size ; two 
dahlias, passion flowers or callas, four half- 
blown roses, or two or three full blown, a 
spray or two of fuchsias, or larkspur, pinks 
or lantanas, one or two camellias, a dozen 
forget-me-nots or lilies of the valley, mi- 
gnonette and so on, according to the size. 
Hang each cluster, as tied, upon the rods, 



SORTING'. 

The leaves are afterwards spread out be- 
fore the sorters, who with a pair of chop 
sticks, dexterously pick out the stems and 
coarse leaves, which are thrown aside as 
refuse. Then the rest is sifted and packed 
to be sent to the market. 

NATURAL FLOWERS 

not touching each other. There will be 
room enough for about four rows. In an 
iron pan put a shovel partly full of clear, 
live coals, spreading them over the bottom, 
and place it on the bottom of the box. 
SULPHUR FUMES. 

Then sprinkle over the whole surface 
about two ounces of crushed sulphur and 
the process is begun. Leave the holes, or 
little door, open for a few minutes, until all 
progresses favorably and there is an abun- 
dance of sulphur fumes, then close the box 
tightly and envelop it, top and bottom, with 
a blanket or piece of heavy, thick carpet 
and leave it undisturbed for 24 hours. 
THE EFFECT IN 24 HOURS. 

If all has gone well the flowers will ap- 
pear quite perfect in form, but bleached to 
a dull, creamy-white shade. This, upon 
•exposing to a pure air in a dry place, they 
gradually lose, and assume their natural 
tints, although not so intense in shade as 
before the bleaching. 

RETENTION OF FORM AND COLOR. 

If the box has been made perfectly air- 
tight by sealing up all the edges, and has 
been kept in a dry room, the flowers thus 
treated, if tastefully arranged under a 
shade or in a recess, will retain their per- 
fection of form and color for any length of 
time. 



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403 



GATHERING CORK 



The cork tree belongs to the class of oaks, 
and grows in the impenetrable forests of 
Spain, in the southwestern portion of 
France, in Algiers and in Senegambia. 
There are two trees, quercus suber and 
quercus occidentalis, that, from time to 
time, shed their bark or outer coating. This 
coating covers the cork of trade; but the 
bark shed by nature is not marketable, be- 
cause it does not contain any sap, which is 
necessary to retain the elasticity. 
PEELING FOB INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES. 

Cork for industrial purposes is gained by 
peeling. After a tree is three years old, the 
peeling may commence; but cork of that 
age is of inferior quality, and the peeling 
would kill the tree. Trees of twenty years' 
growth give cork of a fair quality, improv- 
ing until the tree has gained the respectable 
age of 100 or 150 years, when the bark 
becomes hard and unwieldy. Circular in- 
cisions are made around the trunk of the 
tree, which are connected by perpendicular 
cuts, allowing the two half circles to be re- 
moved. Care must be taken not to disturb 
the fiber, or inner bark, which keeps the 
tree alive. 

PRESSING INTO PLATES. 

The peeling process can be repeated on 
the same tree at intervals of from eight to 
ten years, yielding cork plates from one to 
four inches in thickness. The half round 
cork pieces are pressed into plates while 
still moist from the tree. Then the rough 
coatings are removed, and the plates are 
immersed in boiling water for several min- 
utes and pressed again. After that they 



are piled in bundles, fastened by iron 
hoops, and are ready for the market. The 
raw material will sell from four to 70 cents 
per pound, according to the quality and 
thickness. The full-grown cork tree 
reaches a height of 70 feet, and a diameter 
of five feet. The quality of the cork de- 
pends very much upon the lay of the land, 
— that exposed to the greatest heat being 
the finest. Each tree yields cork of two 
dimensions, — the bark on the northern side 
of the tree being the thinnest. 

The imported tree is said to thrive in 
some portions of the United States, but the 
region of the Pyrenees supplies most of the 
world's demand for the cork of commerce. 

The tree blossoms in April or May ; the 
fruit ripens from September to January, 
falling on the ground as soon as ripe. The 
acorns are edible, and resemble chestnuts 
in taste. 

Cork intended for the market is gener- 
ally stripped off a year or two before it 
would naturally come away. The cork of 
the first barking, which is removed usually 
when the tree is about twenty-five years 
old, is known as the virgin bark. The tak- 
ing of this bark rather promotes the health 
of the tree. The average yield of commer- 
cial cork is about 45 pounds to one tree. 

USES OF CORK. 

Aside from stopping bottles and casks, 
cork is used for floats of nets, swimming 
belts, etc., and for inner soles of shoes. 
The waste bits are made into linoleum. The 
Spanish black used by painters is made by 
burning cork in close vessels. 



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404 A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



ARTIFICIAL HATCHING OF CHICKENS 



Although this art is not new, its present 
development is modern. It was practiced 
in Egypt as early as 1356. The heat neces- 
sary for incubation came from fermenting 
manure. Eggs were first hatched by the 
aid of fire, in 1770, by John Champion, of 
Berwick-on- Tweed, England. They were 
placed on a large round table in the center 
of a room through which passed two heated 



these the conditions aimed at were suitable 
heat, moisture and ventilation. 

METHOD Or HEATING INCUBATOR, 

The methods of heating have heretofore 
mainly been by warm air from a lamp, and 
by a tank of lamp-heated water. The eggs 
are carefully sorted, those laid in the latter 
part of the laying period being left out on 




By courtesy of the Axford Incubator Co., Chicago, 111. 
THE MODERN INCUBATOR— NOTABLY A SAFETY LAMP AND A SYSTEM OF PRODUCING 
SUPERIOR POULTRY. 



flues, opening into an adjoining room 
where the keeper sat and the coal was kept. 
As large a proportion of the eggs were 
hatched by this process as in the natural 
way. Few improvements were made in egg 
incubation from 1800 until about 1870, 
when the fancy for' raising Asiatic and 
Mediterranean breeds of poultry became 
strong in this country, and led to the con- 
trivance of scores of incubators. In all 



account of their deficient vitality. Ordi- 
nary incubators have a capacity for 600 
eggs each, but some have been made which 
hatch thousands at once. 

TEMPERATURE FOR INCUBATION". 

The heat generated varies from 102 to 
104 "degrees. Under the hen, the heat is 
rarely as much as 100 degrees until the 
ninth or tenth day ; her temperature is from 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



405 



106 to 110 degrees, but that of the eggs 
seldom exceeds 103°. 

In order that the temperature of the eggs 
may reach 102°, the air in the incubator 
immediately over them is kept about 103° 
until the first half of the hatching term is 
reached. Then it is allowed to decrease 
gradually. 




By courtesy of the Axtord Incubator Co. 
TWENTY DAYS UNDER A HEN. 



TURNING THE EGGS AND ALTERING 
THEIR LOCATION. 

The large end of the eggs, which con- 
tains the germ, is placed uppermost, and 
during the process the position of the eggs 
is ordinarily changed, and they are also 



turned twice a day. The period of artifi- 
cial incubation is 22 days. 

THE BROODER. 

After the incubator comes the brooder, a 
contrivance heated by the same method as 
the former. The warmth is sometimes ap- 
plied from the bottom, but generally from 




By courtesy of the Axtord Incubator Ca , Chicago, III. 
TWENTY DAYS IN THE INCUBATOR. 



the side. In the brooder the incipient fowl 
is developed into a condition for self-sup- 
port, food and water being first given 
from two to three days after the hatch- 
ing. 



HOW CELLULOID IS MADE 



Briefly defined, celluloid is a species of 
solidified collodion produced by dissolving 
gun cotton (pyroxylin) in camphor with 
the aid of heat and pressure. 



GRINDING GUN COTTON. 

The gun cotton is ground in water to a 
fine pulp in a machine similar to that used 
in grinding paper pulp. The pulp is then 



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406 A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



subjected to powerful pressure in a perfor- 
ated vessel to extract the bulk of the mois- 
ture, but still leaving it slightly moist for 
the next operation. This consists in thor- 
oughly incorporating finely comminuted 
gum camphor with the moist gun cotton 
pulp. With this mixture any coloring mat- 
ters required can now be embodied. 
SUBJECTED TO POWERFUL PRESSURE. 

The next step is to subject the mass to 
powerful pressure in order to expel from 
it the remaining traces of moisture, and 
incidentally to effect also the more intimate 
contact of the camphor with the pulp. The 
dried and compressed mass is next placed 
in a mold, open at the top, into which fits 
a solid plunger. A heavy hydraulic pres- 
sure is brought to bear upon the plunger, 
and at the same time the mixture is heated 
by means of a steam jacket surrounding the 



vessel to a temperature of about 300 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. When the mass is taken 
out of the press it hardens, and so acquires 
the extraordinary toughness and elasticity 
which are the distinguishing characteris- 
tics of this remarkable production. 

A SUBSTITUTE TOR TVORY AND PORCE- 
LAIN. 

Celluloid is very largely useful as a sub- 
stitute for ivory, which is imitated with 
great success. Tortoise shell, malachite, 
mother of pearl, coral and other costly and 
elegant materials are also so successfully 
imitated that an expert can hardly detect 
the original from the copy. 

Celluloid is also used as a substitute for 
porcelain in the manufacture of dolls, 
-which will stand a good deal of rough usage 
without breaking. Combined with linen it 
is used for shirt bosoms, cuffs and collars. 



THRASHING WATERMELONS FOR SEEDS 



Out in the West, where irrigation and 
sunshine combine to make the production of 
watermelons very successful, a novel indus- 
try has grown up, which is assuming huge 
proportions and promises a splendid rev- 
enue for the originators of the scheme. 

In the upper Arkansas valley, melons are 
grown for their seed, and great fields are 
yearly covered with the luscious green 
shapes, destined never to tickle a palate. 
The melons grow to large size and great 
perfection. When they are fully ripe they 
are harvested with as much precision as are 
the wheat and corn crops of the plains. . 
THE THRASHING MACHINE. 

The thrashing machine with which the 
melons are handled is simple. It consists 
chiefly of a cylinder driven by horse power 
or by traction engine. Great wagonloads 



of melons are brought to the side of the 
machine, and one by one they are thrown 
with great force into its hungry mouth, to 
break against the teeth below. The whole 
is ground to a fine pulp and run out through 
a sieve, the rinds being thus separated from 
the inner portion of the melon. ' The rinds 
are left to rot on the prairie, and the juicy 
mixture stands in large vats until the 
process of fermentation takes place, sepa- 
rating the seeds from the pulp. The seeds 
aTe then spread out on boards to dry and 
are ready for the market. 

SELLING THE SEEDS. 
The farmers sell the seeds to eastern 
firms, and in good years clear from $12 to 
$15 an acre for their labor. The harvest 
time is late in summer and in early autumn, 
and attracts much attention. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 407 



EFFECT OF ELECTRICITY ON MILK AND MEAT 



During serious electrical disturbances in 
the atmosphere, it is well known that beer 
may become "hard," milk may go sour, and 
meat may frequently "turn." Considerable 
speculation has arisen as to the cause of 
this. It has been suggested that an ozonized 
state of the air due to electric discharge has 
something to do with it, or that the forma- 
tion of nitrous acid in the air is responsible 
for the change. It is, however, not probable 
that the atmosphere undergoes any chem- 
ical change sufficient to account for the ex- 
tent to which certain foods "turn." More- 
over, any important quantity of ozone or 
nitrous acid would be calculated to exert 
a preserving effect, as both are powerful 
antiseptics. 

It may be urged, again, that the phenom- 
enon is due to oxidation by means of 
ozone, but this can hardly be the case, in 
view of the large quantities of beer and 
milk that are soured, in relation to the very 
small quantity of ozone which a thunder- 
storm produces. In the case of meat, at any 
rate, the "turning" can scarcely be attrib- 
uted to the action of the ozone or of 
oxygen. The change is probably due not 
directly to chemical agencies, but, purely, 
to a disturbance of the electrical equilib- 
rium. 

TEE FORCE 01" INDUCTION. 

It is well known that an opposite elec- 
trical state is set by induction, so that an 
electrical condition of the atmosphere in- 
duces a similar condition, though opposite 
in character, in objects on the earth. Per- 
sons near whom a flash of lightning passes, 
frequently experience a severe shock by in- 



duction, although no lightning touches 
them; and in the celebrated experiment of 
Galvani, he showed a skinned frog in the 
neighborhood of an electrical machine, 
which, although dead, exhibited conclusive 
movements every time that a spark was 
drawn from the conductor. In the ease of 
milk "turning," or heer "hardening," or of 
meat becoming tainted, it is probably, 
therefore, an instance of chemical convul- 
sion, or, it may be, of a stimulus given to 
bacteriological agencies set up by an oppo- 
site electric condition, induced by the dis- 
turbed electrical state of the atmosphere. 
Although these charges are most marked 
during a thunderstorm, yet, undoubtedly, 
they occur at other times, but not to the 
same degree, when there is no apparent elec- 
tric disturbance. 

ELECTRICAL TENSION. 

But even when the sky is clear, the at- 
mosphere may exhibit considerable elec- 
trical tension. The electroscope constantly 
shows that a conducting point elevated in 
the air is, as a rule, taking up a positive 
charge of electricity, the tension rising with 
the height of the point This effect in- 
creases toward daybreak until it reaches a 
maximum some hours after sunrise. It 
then diminishes until it is weakest a few 
hours before sunset, when it again rises and 
attains a second maximum degree some 
hours after sunset, the second minimum oc- 
curring before daybreak. There are ac- 
cordingly constant changes of electrical 
tension going on, — changes, however, which 
are more rapid and much more marked dur- 
ing a thunderstorm, and which are quite 



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408 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



powerful to exert an evil influence on cer- 
tain articles of food or drink susceptible to 
change, notably, meat, milk and beer or 
cider. i 

HEADACHE, ETC., DUE TO METEOROLOGI- 
CAL DISTURBANCES. 

There is no doubt that the unfavorable 
effects on the feelings experienced by many 



individuals, such as headache, oppression 
and nervous distress, on the advent of . a 
thunderstorm, have a similar foundation 
and are due to the same electrical differ- 
ences of potentiality, the effects passing 
away as the disturbed condition of 
the atmosphere changes, or the storm 
subsides. 



ATHLETIC SPO 

In the matter of athletic sports by which 
both exercise and enjoyment are obtained, 
America holds the lead. So important have 
exercises become to perfect the condition of 
the human body, that all colleges now main- 
tain departments of athletics in which 
sports are systematically taught. Great 



rS OF TO-DAY 

polo, lacrosse, basket-ball, rowing, running, 
jumping, pole-vaulting and many other 
sports are very enthusiastically followed in 
student life. 

FOOT BALL. 

Foot ball is so well known that it is al- 
most needless to describe it at length, and 




FOOT BALL— CHICAGO UNIVERSITY. 



rivalry is developed between the different 
teams of the various institutions. Probably 
the most popular sport in college circles of 
the present time is foot ball, although base 
ball has long been considered the national 
sport. Golf, of late years, has assumed a 
position of great prominence, and tennis, 



yet a few words may be said of the most 
complicated of the several games, Rugby 
foot ball. This game is played between 
opposing sides of eleven men each. These 
men fill positions as follows : Center rush, 
the man in the center of the 'line;" right 
and left guard, men on either side of the 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



409 




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410 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



center rush, who assist him in his work; 
right and left tackle, men who occupy posi- 
tions to the right and left of the guards, 
and right and left ends, who occupy posi- 
tions at the ends of the line of players, and 
next to the tackles. Behind the line and 
immediately back of the center, is the quar- 
ter-back, while near him are the right and 
left half-backs and behind them all the full 
back. 

Two elevens are drawn up face to face. 
One of the teams, by toss-up, has secured 
the ball, an oval-shaped affair, of pig's skin, 
which encloses an in- 
flated rubber bag. 
The object of the 
play is by a series 
of kicks, punts, 
rushes, or runs with 
the ball, to send it 
from the center of 
the foot ball field to 
the enemy's goalline. 
At the opposite ends 
of the field are sets 

of two high poles crossed by a 
central bar. These are the goal posts. 
When occasion presents, the ball may 
be kicked over this goal, thus making 
a score, but more generally the play is for 
a touchdown, that is, carrying the ball over 
the enemy's line and touching it down in 
that territory. 

Numerous trick plays and formations are 
used to send the ball from one end of the 
field to the other. The play is very rough 
at times, because of the scrambling to pre- 
vent the ball from being put in motion. To 
avoid danger, the players pad their clothing 
and use great head guards and shin guards 
of leather, and nose guards of rubber. 
Every year many players are seriously in- 



jured at the sport, and many people decry 
it as brutal. The players themselves, how- 
ever, its most ardent supporters, maintain 
it is a grand, healthful and not necessarily 
dangerous game. Great rivalry exists be- 
tween the teams of the great universities 
and colleges. The great foot ball day of the 
year is "Thanksgiving day," when every 
college team in the land plays great and ex- 
citing games. 

BASE BALL. 

What person does not know base ball? 
The smallest urchin seems born to a knowl- 




STEEPLE CHASE. 

edge of tossing and batting a ball. The 
national game is still so popular that sev- 
eral leagues, of many clubs each, are given 
good support in their public performances 
throughout the summer and fall months. 

GOLF. 

Golf has been the jjf'aze in fashionable 
circles of late years. This game consists 
of knocking a small gutta percha ball across 
specially prepared fields, called links. The 
course of the field is arranged with a num- 
ber of holes at greater or less distances from 
each other. The player, using one of a set 
of numerous kinds of specially prepared 
clubs, drives the ball from hole to hole, the 
one who covers the course in the fewest 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



411 





SURF BATHING— NEW JERSEY. 

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412 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



number of strikes, win- 
ning. In order to 
make the sport more 
exacting, hazards are 
interposed on the links. 
Huge banks of earth 
and grass called bunk- 
ers, ponds of water, 
and other hindrances 
so that where the ball 
will have to be driven 
far. and swiftly, make 
up these hazards. 




CURLING. 




A POPULAR WINTER SPORT. 

Ice Boats in a "Northeaster" on the Hudson River. 

The history of this pastime dates back to the 18th century, when Oliver Booth 
built the first yacht of this character at Poughkeepsie, New York. In many 
respects the study of models is fully as interesting as that of the sea boats, and 
one can easily understand its fascination when comparing the speed of water 
craft with the Ice boat— a comparison making the former seem like an anchored 
scow, for records show that the fast express trains are often beaten by the Ice 
yachts in a stiff gale. 



BASKET BALL. 

Basket ball is a 
great indoor sport, 
played principally dur- 
ing the winter months. 
The game is to drive a 
large inflated ball by 
throwing and bouncing 
to the enemy's goal, 
which consists of a sort 
of basket suspended 
about nine feet in the 
air. 

This game is often 
very exciting and near- 
ly every college and 
athletic association has 
a team. The game is 
very popular in wom- 
en's colleges, which 
have teams of great 
merit. 

WATER SPOUTS. 

Water sports con- 
tinue to be followed by 
athletes who live near 
bodies of water. -The 
great Henley sculling 
matches on the Thames 



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413 



river, of late years, Lave been par- 
ticipated in by American college teams, 
with victory frequently perching on the 
American banners. Swimming also is in 
great vogue, and many great contests are 



held in different places for speed and dis- 
tance. Water polo is a near adjunct of 
swimming. This game is played like ordi- 
nary polo, save that the ball is carried to 
the goal by men swimming in the water. 



UNCLE SAM'S "SPECIAL DELIVERY" BOY 



Almost everybody has seen the gray- 
uniformed messenger boys employed by the 
United States Post Office Department. Al- 
though it is not generally known, they are 
beset by the same trials and tribulations 
regarding wages, which vex those holding 
similar positions with business corporations. 

WAGES OF THE BOYS. 

Thirty dollars a month is all one of Uncle 
Sam's special delivery boys can earn, and 
this he must accumulate at the rate of eight 
cents for each letter delivered. Take, for 
instance, the Chicago post office. 

THEIR AGES. 

In that office the ages of the boys range 
from 14 to 19 years, the average being 
about 16. No examination is required to 
enter the service beyond the usual questions 
pertaining to character, etc. After a boy 
reaches the age of 18 he is permitted to 
take the examination for clerk, and scores 
of them are now filling such positions after 
having passed through the special delivery 
service. About 15 per cent of the boys em- 
ployed at present are colored. 

RULES GOVERNING THEIR WORK. 

They are governed by a military sounding 
set of rules, and it is expected of them that 
while on duty their conduct and manners 
shall be above reproach. The suspension 
system is employed for cases of derelictions, 



which are not serious enough to call for dis- 
charge. The training is considered excel- 
lent, especially by business men, by whom 
many of the boys are employed after they 
serve their apprenticeship) with the govern- 
ment. Several former messenger boys are 
now holding responsible positions in banks, 
others still are working for the government 
in more lucrative positions, while a great 
many special delivery boys are to be found 
in most of the large wholesale and retail 
houses of the downtown district. The op- 
portunity for making valuable friends is 
great, and where a boy takes advantage of 
it he is apt to profit. 

NUMBER <XF BOYS AND THEIR DELIVER- 
IES MONTHLY. 

Forty-five thousand special delivery let- 
ters are distributed over 190 square miles 
of Chicago territory every month. Twenty- 
five thousand of these go through the sta- 
tions and substations located in different 
parts of the city, and the remaining 20,000 
are sent out direct from the postoffice. The 
rapid distribution of this bulk of important 
mail rests largely with 144 boys, who wear 
the caps and uniforms of the special deliv- 
ery department. The work of these mes- 
sengers makes it possible for the government 
to deliver a specially stamped letter to an 
address four miles from the postoffice within 
forty minutes after it has been received, 



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414 



A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



and they are responsible in a large meas- 
ure for the success of the department. 
AREA COVERED AND METHOD 03? WORK. 

The government arranges that no mes- 
senger shall work more than his allotted 
* amount. Thus a sufficient number of boys 
is employed to keep the aggregate returns 
from the special delivery service adequately 
distributed. These messengers work in 
shifts from 7 a. m. to 11 p. m. One shift 
is on duty until 3 o'clock and another han- 
dles the letters until the hour of closing at 
night. Whenever it is convenient or there 
is any chance of saving time, special deliv- 
ery letters are sent out to substations, to 
be conveyed to their destinations from that 
point. At 4 o'clock the last dispatch to 
outlying stations is sent out. At 5 o'clock 
another leaves the postoffice for more cen- 
trally located points. Then between 5 and 
G o'clock the entire city is covered by mes- 
sengers. After 6 o'clock the delivery boys 
cover seventy-five square miles, and at 9 
o'clock the aggregate territory is reduced to 
twelve square miles. Between 6 and 11 
p, m. there are but thirty-five messengers 
on duty, and on an ordinary night they 
handle 350 letters. On Saturday night the 
number is increased to about 500. 

It makes no difference what the condi- 
tion of the weather may be, these young- 
sters must deliver letters to any address as 
late as 11 o'clock. Within a radius of ten 
miles they are expected to use bicycles for 
transportation purposes, one of the require- 
ments for entering the service being that 
a boy shall own a bicycle in good condition 
and a full uniform, costing $12. 



DELIVER 1,000 LETTERS A DAY. 

With more than 1,000 letters a day 
bearing special delivery stamps coming into 
the postoffice, it would be impossible to 
handle them if each boy were given but one 
on a trip. The result is that when a boy 
starts out he may have two, three or half 
a dozen letters to deliver and may make 
as much as 50 cents by traveling but a few 
blocks. But the aim of those in charge of 
the department is to make the earning ca- 
pacity of one boy no greater than that of 
another, and they endeavor to regulate dis- 
tances as best they can. 

Most special delivery letters are carried 
on bicycles, but in cases of extremely se- 
vere or unpleasant weather the boys are 
furnished with money for car fare on lines 
which do not recognize the government's 
messengers to the extent of giving them 
free transportation privileges. Thus in 
an average day's work a boy will ride 
many miles on his bicycle, and also take 
several lengthy jaunts on steam or street 
cars. 

The "first in first out" system is fol- 
lowed in the postoffice in sending out mes- 
. sengers. Each boy is supplied with a pad- 
dle bearing his number. When he comes 
in from a trip he surrenders this to the 
man in charge, and it is placed on the bot- 
tom of a pile representing the boys who 
are in ahead of him. As soon as there is 
a letter to deliver the clerk takes a paddle 
from the top and calls the number printed 
on it. In this way the trips are kept 
straight and no one boy has an advantage 
over another. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 415 



BATHING FOR HEALTH AND BEAUTY 



Hardly anything is more beneficial to 
the human body than the right kind of a 
bath at the right time. There are at least 
a dozen different kinds of baths, and there 
are conditions of the body when eleven of 
them may be either of doubtful benefit or 
positive injury. 

HOT BATE FOB CLEANLINESS, COLD 
BATH FOB TONIC. 

Many persons who are physically strong 
and of regular habits go through life health- 
fully, taking just two kinds of baths — the 
hot bath at night for cleanliness and the 
cold morning plunge for a tonic. Such 
persons need no advice about bathing. 

In the case of children and the majority 
of adults the other eight or ten varieties 
of bath should be thoroughly understood. 
There is hardly any remedial agent so 
speedy and favorable in its action as the 
cold, tepid, warm, hot, plunge, shower, 
sponge, pack, foot, or site bath intelligently 
applied. 

TEMPEBATTJBE OF THE BATH. 

It is mainly a question of temperature — 
temperature of the body and temperature 
of the bath. When the temperature of the 
body is normal and the general health is 
good, one may safely suit his fancy in the 
matter of baths, provided he keeps his skin 
clean and the pores unclogged. Most peo- 
ple know that a cold plunge is injurious 
only when it overtaxes the resisting power 
of the bather so that exhilarating reaction 
does not follow the otherwise beneficial 
shock. Anyone, however, healthy and 
strong, may remain in cold water so long 



that fatigue and even severe prostration 
result. 

THE SHOWEB BATH.. 

Respecting the shower bath, the douche 
and other baths in which the nude body 
is exposed to currents of water, there seems 
to be much popular misinformation. All 
these baths are exaggerations of the cold 
plunge and should be used with caution. 

THE HOT AND WARM: BATHS. 

The warm bath is relaxing, as there is 
no reaction. If prolonged it is enervating, 
and the same is true of the hot bath. A 
bath of a temperature above 110 degrees 
can be borne only a short time without in- 
juriously exciting the heart 

CHILDREN'S BATHS. 

Systematic cold bathing is frequently 
beneficial to children who have a 
sluggish circulation, with a poor appetite 
and feeble digestion and who are addicted 
to colds, but these baths should not be show- 
ers or douches except when prescribed in 
specific instances by a physician. There 
will be sufficient shock and tonic effect if 
the child is sponged with cool water in a 
warm Toom for not more than five minutes 
at a time and then dried and gently 
rubbed. 

For children warm baths are valuable to 
bring blood to the surface when there are 
spasms, colic or congestion of some inner 
organ. If there is congestion in the brain, 
indicated by headache, warm or hot bath- 
ing of the extremities of the body will tend 
to relieve the pain and promote sleep. 

When the temperature of the body is 



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416 A THOUSAND THINGS 

normal, hot or cold baths will neither 
heighten nor lower it. But when the tem- 
perature is abnormally high — when there 
is fever — it may be brought back toward 
the normal point by cold bathing. In the 
absence of medical advice, however, such 
treatment should be limited to a sponging 
of the entire body in water whoae tempera- 
ture is not lower than 70 degrees. 

THE COLD PACK. 

The cold pack is more efficacious in 
cases of fever than cold sponging, but un- 
less ordered by a physician it should be 
used seldom, and then with caution. A 
folded sheet is dipped in water not colder 
than 85 degrees, and in this the body is 
wrapped from armpits to ankles, with a 



WELL WORTH KNOWING 

blanket for outer covering, and then loft 
undisturbed for ten minutes. Then the 
patient is taken out of the wet sheet and 
enveloped in a blanket and allowed to re- 
main quiet. 

THE TEPID BATH. 

In bathing children no mistake is made 
in using the tepid bath, of about 95 degrees, 
which, after the child has been placed in 
it, may be cooled down to 90 or 85 degrees. 
On being taken from the bath the child 
should not be dressed at once, but wrapped 
in a bath blanket and left there for twenty 
minutes. This will prevent chilling. 

Proper bathing, according to the condi- 
tion of the body, is almost a fine art, and 
its value is so great as to make that art 
well worth intelligent study. 



OUR SCHOOLBOY SOLDIERS 



The American boy may or may not be a 
born soldier, but it is certainly true that 
he is being made into one on a large scale. 
Most of our privately endowed schools for 
boys throughout the United States include 
more or less of military life and discipline 
in their daily routine, and the system is 
steadily growing. 

NUMBER OP MILITARY INSTITUTES 
FOR JUVENILES. 

At present there are about 60 public 
and chartered military schools in this coun- 
try, and more than 100 private institutions 
of this kind. Some of the school military 
corps have actually become miniature ar- 
mies, proficient in the tactics of every 
branch of the service. 

MINIATURE MILITARY POSTS. 

Their headquarters are military posts, 
where the stars and stripes are raised at 



the boom of the sunrise gun. TVom the 
day when he dons his uniform until the 
final inspection at graduation time, the boy 
who goes to a military school leads a life of 
soldierly discipline. He learns the vocabu- 
lary of the army. He has his quarters in 
the barracks. He eats in a "mess-hall." 
The drum-beat displaces the morning bell, 
and "reveille" is the rising signal. "Tattoo" 
warns him to prepare for the night, and at 
"taps" the day's routine is officially closed. 
THE CADET'S FIRST LESSON. 
The cadet's first lesson is how to carry 
himself, and he spends many hours in the 
awkward squad before he stands "toes out," 
"head up" and "eyes front" to the satisfac- 
tion of the drill corporal. His fatigue and 
dress suits are made to fit without a 
wrinkle, and he must wear them so. His cap 
must be cocked at a right angle. His room 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



417 



is regularly inspected, and any untidiness 
means a demerit mark in his superior's re- 
port. 

THE MANUAL OF ASMS. 

Taught how to stand, how to walk and 



how to wear his clothing, he goes into an- 
other awkward squad to learn the manual 
of arms. Then, after he has got a numher he 
is ready for real work. He is then required 
to spend two hours each day in drilling. 



HEALTH AND MUSCLE 



Well-developed men are to he envied. 
They invariably enjoy splendid health. 
There are many ways of exercise which do 
much to make the physically perfect man. 

Too often the abdominal muscles are neg- 
lected or exercised only perfunctorily. As 
a result, the blood in the abdominal region 
becomes sluggish, for blood does not flow 
with health-giving quickness unless it re- 
ceives aid from working muscles. Muscles 
that are dormant retard the blood's flow, 
and slowly moving blood does not properly 
purify the body. Therefore, when the blood 
in the abdominal region becomes sluggish, 
indigestion, constipation, biliousness and 
other and more serious abdominal compli- 
cations are the result. 

All of these ailments are more or less 
pronounced demands of the abdomen on its 
possessor to take proper care of it, and 
proper care means nothing more nor less 
than a few minutes' exercise of the abdom- 
inal muscles after getting up mornings, and 
before going to bed. The man who will give 
attention to his abdomen will be amply re- 
warded. Instead of suffering from indi- 
gestion, he will be blessed with a digestion 
that will compare favorably with that of an 
ostrich. He will forget what stomachache 
is like, his liver will refuse to make him 
bilious, and, in short, all the organs in the 
lower half of the trunk will perform their 
functions happily, as nature intended. 



Then, too, sturdy abdominal muscles 
contribute largely to the correct carriage of 
the body. If these muscles are not strong, 
the abdomen cannot be held in, and a pro- 
truding abdomen has a marked tendency 
to cave in the chest and twist the spine out 
of shape. In brief, a man who permits his 
abdomen to protrude, cannot stand erect, 
no matter how hard and long he may try. 
Every sane person admits that proper poise 
is absolutely and unequivocally necessary 
to good health; therefore, every well-bal- 
anced mind cannot disregard the necessity 
that the abdominal muscles, so necessary 
for correct carriage, . should be sedulously 
exercised. 

Healthy abdominal muscles also help to 
develop the chest. When breathing, the 
further one can pull in the abdomen the 
greater will be the lung expansion. The 
stronger the abdominal muscles, the fur- 
ther in goes the stomach, the bungs drink in 
greater quantities of fresh air, and the 
blood is furnished with enlarged supplies 
of purifying oxygen. And everyone knows 
what oxygen does when it gets into the hu- 
man system. 

A man who exercises his abdominal mus- 
cles need not fear that, as he gets along in 
life, he will annex a "bay window." Fat 
cannot accumulate in this region if daily 
exercise is indulged in. On the other hand, 
exercise will remove fat and restore to men 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



with abnormal abdomens their natural out- 
lines and proportions. 

Again, strong abdominal muscles are the 
best and safest protection against unex- 
pected blows "below the belt." And last, 
but by no means least, he who gives dili- 
gent concern to the muscles under consid- 
eration will not become nervous under busi- 
ness stress or from other causes. 

EXERCISE I. 

Starting with the correct standing posi- 
tion, head up, shoulders back, chest out, ab- 
domen in, arms straight and at the sides 
of the body, knees and heels' touching and 
toes at an angle of 60 degrees, grasp the 
left hand with the right, interlocking 
thumbs and placing the left fingers above 
the right. Raise the arms above the head, 
and while doing the exercise, keep them 
continually by the aides of the head. Bend 
the body at the hips and endeavor to reach 
the floor with the fingers. Exhale as yon 
go down, inhale deeply as you come up 
slowly, and bend back as far as possible. 
Repeat until tired, then take up another 
exercise. As the body is bent downward, 
the lower front muscles of the abdomen and 
the muscles of the back are developed. As 
the body is bent backward, the muscles of 
the back of the abdomen are brought into 
play. 

EXERCISE TX 

Raise the arms over the head as before. 
Turn the upper part of the body noticeably 
to the right, and then bend the upper part 
of the body sidewise and down as low as 
possible. Alternate by doing this exercise 
to the left. The muscles in the sides of the 
abdomen are tlms developed. 

EXERCISE III. 

This exercise is splendid for the solar 
plexus and the upper part of the abdomen. 



It quiets the nerves and strengthens the 
diaphragm and its muscles. Lie down on 
your back on the floor, bend the legs at the 
knees and draw them up, getting the heels 
as close to the hips as possible. Fold the 
arms over the chest, and then raise the 
head, shoulders and chest from the floor 
as high as you possibly can, striving hard 
and ever harder. When at the highest point, 
hold them thus for a moment, and then lie 
down and repeat. 

EXERCISE IV. 

Lie flat on your back on the floor. Put 
the hands flat under the hips and have the 
whole upper part of the body relaxed. Then 
kick with one leg as high as possible and 
then kick with the other. Alternately kick 
the legs, keeping both off the floor, and kick 
rapidly. Be sure to keep the legs straight 
When the legs descend from the highest 
point toward the floor, they should stop 
about six inches above the floor. This ex- 
ercise is unexcelled for the muscles in the 
central and lower portions of the abdomen. 
TWO SPLENDID EXERCISES. 

And now for two splendid exercises that 
will prevent varicose veins and build up 
legs capable of properly carrying the body. 
Sturdy legs are as necessary to a body as 
flawless wheels to a locomotive. Don't ne- 
glect your legs and thereby put yourself in 
the way of dangers that may wreck both 
your legs and your good health. 

No. 1 — Assume the correct standing po- 
sition. Relax the legs below the knees. Then 
alternately and rapidly, with the leg as- 
cending, bent at the knee, kick the knee up 
toward the chest, keeping the lower part of 
the leg well forward. Try hard to hit the 
knees against the chest. This exercise is 
beneficial for the so-called kicking muscles, 
the muscles of the upper leg and thigh. 



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No. 2 — This is excellent for the lower 
part of the upper leg. Start from the cor- 
rect standing position. Grasp a stick in the 
hands, and keep the arms straight and well 
in front of the body. "With the knees and 
heels together and heels and toes touching 
the floor, sit down as low as you can. Do 
this part of the exercise as quickly as you 
like, but rise up slowly, keeping the upper 
part of the body erect, as in the correct 
standing position. 

A GENERAL EXERCISER. 

For a general exerciser of the entire 
front of the body — legs, abdomen, chest, 
arms, wrists and shoulders — lie flat on the 
abdomen, on the floor, face down. Be sure 



that the body is perfectly straight, the toes 
touching the floor and the feet close together. 
Then, with the palms of the hands flat on 
the floor and the elbows at the sides of the 
body, fully straighten the arms, and sup- 
port the body on hands and toes. The body 
must not be permitted to bend ; beep it 
solid and straight. Hold it thus for a mo- 
ment, and then bend the arms and let the 
chest touch the floor. Repeat this until 
tired. 

These exercises, like many others, do 
much to make the physically perfect man 
and maintain general good health. 

The foregoing observations and instruc- 
tions are from the pen of Prof. Hamlin 
Barber, of Boston, Massachusetts. 



LIME IN AGRICULTURE 



The effects of lime, when applied to the 
soil, are partly mechanical and partly chem- 
ical. Upon deep alluvial clay soil it in- 
creases the crop of potatoes and renders 
them less waxy. Sprinkled over potatoes 
in a store heap it preserves them, and when 
scattered over the cut sets, it wonderfully 
increases their fertility. 

ERADICATES DISEASE IN TURNIPS. 

Lime eradicates the finger and toe dis- 
ease in turnips, and gives greater soundness 
to the bulbs. It gives when applied to 
meadow lands a larger produce of more mi- 
tritious grasses. It also exterminates coarse 
and sour grasses, destroys couch grass 
and acts powerfully upon rye grasses. 
Upon arable land it destroys weeds of 
various binds. 

• DECOMPOSES VEGETABLE MATTER AND 
PRODUCES CARBONIC ACID GAS. 

It rapidly decomposes vegetable matter, 
producing a large amount of food for plants 



in the shape of carbonic acid gas. It de- 
stroys or neutralizes the acids in the soils : 
hence its adaptability to sour soils. It acts 
powerfully upon some of the inorganic 
parts of the soil, especially on the sulphate 
of iron found in pasty soils, and the sul- 
phate of magnesia and alumina. 

IS FATAL TO WORMS, SLUGS AND DAN- 
GEROUS LARVAE. 

It proves fatal to worms and slugs and 
the larvae of injurious insects, though fav- 
orable to the growth of shell bearers. 

SLAKED LIME FREES NITROGEN PROM 
VEGETABLE MATTER AND FEEDS 
PLANTS WITH AMMONIA. 

Slaked lime added to vegetable matter 
causes it to give off its nitrogen in the form 
of ammonia. Upon soils in which ammonia 
is combined with acids, it sets free the am- 
monia, which is seized upon by the plants. 
Its solubility in water causes it to sink into 
and ameliorate the subsoil. 



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DECOMPOSES GRANITE FRAGMENTS, OB 
TRAP ROCKS IN THE SOIL. 

When the soil contains fragments of 
granite.or trap rocks, lime hastens their de- 
composition and liberates the silicates. 

PRODUCES POTASH AND SODA IN THE 
SOIL. 

Its combination with the acids in the 
soil produces saline compounds, such as pot- 



ash and soda, etc. Strewn over plants, it 
destroys or drives away the turnip fly. 
Worked in with grass feeds, the beneficial 
effects of lime, chalk, marl and shell sand 
have long been visible. 

DESTROYS THE SEEDS OP WEEDS. 

Applied to the rot heap, lime effectually 
destroys the seeds of weeds. 



IN THE MINE WITH THE MINER 

A HAZARDOUS OCCUPATION. 



The life of the American miner is one of 
hazardous undertaking and constant dan- 
ger. When he bids his wife and children 
good-bye in the morning or at night, or 
whenever he starts for the mine, he knows 
not whether he shall ever see them again. 

INADEQUATE WAGES. 

The miner of the average mine is over- 
worked and underpaid. The miner in the 
bituminous coal fields is paid from 20 to 
40 per cent higher wages than those doing 
similar work in the anthracite fields. The 
fact is that the minimum wage received by 
any class of adult mine workers in the soft 
coal mines is 26 1-4 cents per hour, while 
the minimum wage paid to boys is 12 1-2 
cents per hour. In the anthracite coal 
mines, men performing precisely the same 
labor receive from 13 to 20 cents per hour, 
while boys are paid as low as 5 cents per 
hour, and rarely receive more than 8 cents 
per hour. The bituminous miner works a 
maximum of eight hours per day, which is 
two hours less than the men in the anthra- 
cite mines are required to work. More- 
over, the anthracite mine worker labors un- 
der the further disadvantage of being more 



liable to be killed or injured, the casualties 
being 50 per cent greater in anthracite than 
in the bituminous mines." 

AMOUNT MINED BY EACH MINER IN 
1897, 1898, 1899 AND 1901. 

The average miner, whether he be in the 
anthracite or bituminous coal mine, is a 
hard worker. Statistics for the year 1897 
show that 1,271 tons were mined by each 
miner, with an increase of 22 tons for 1898 
and 98 tons for 1899. The increase was 
steady until 1901, when the average man 
mined 1,585 tons of coal. 

For this amount of coal the miner is 
paid in the neighborhood of $1.85 per day, 
or for the number of working days in 1901, 
$368 per employe, or an average of $7.05 
per week. Divide this among a family of 
from three to six people and what is the 
result? Poorly clad children and empty 
stomachs about two-thirds of the time. 

THE MINER'S HOME, CLOTHING AND 
POOD. 

The miner who is thus paid is compelled 
to live in small, squalid hovels, which, in 
many instances, have but two rooms' and 
not infrequently but one large room, in 



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which are housed a family of six or seven 
people. The clothing worn by these miners 
and their families is of the poorest quality 
imaginable, and very coarse. Their food 
consists of corn bread, with pork and corned 
beef for meat. Butter is never heard of, 
and the poorest grade of oleomargarine is 
used by them. 

THE "BBEAKEBBOY." 

The "breakerboy" is the stepping stone 
to a full-fledged miner. Hardly has the 
boy reached the age of nine years before he 
is set to work in the big "breakers." This 



is made necessary by the large families and 
the cost of living. The average wages paid 
the "breakerboy" will not exceed 60 cents 
per day, and are frequently less. 

The number of days lost by the miners 
during 1902, when a strike was on, was 
20,000,000, as compared with 733,802 in 
1901, 4,878,102 in 1900, and 2,124,154 in 
1899. The value of the output of coal for 
1902 was in the neighborhood of $348,910,- 
469. 

The foregoing article is the expression 
of John Mitchell, president of the United 
Mine Workers of America. 



A DAY ON THE FARM WITH THE FARMER 



The economical and successful manage- 
ment of a 160-acre tract of farming land 
requires less business ability than manual 
labor, but to conduct upon a paying basis 



are numerous farm ranches of large extent, 
whose owners are modern captains of in- 
dustry. These men are solving problems 
and carrying on enterprises upon their 




CRADLING GRAIN. 
The method of harvesting prior to the invention of the reaper. 



farms containing several thousand acres, 
the requirement is changed from muscular 
power to brain work. In the middle west 



farms worthy of the brains of great trust 
builders. And in many instances their in- 
come is quite as large. Those who have 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



spent a lifetime in one community in try- 
ing to get a fortune out of soil-tilling would 
be astonished at the magnitude of farming 
upon the plains of the southwest. 

AVERAGE SIZE OF FARMS IN THE UNIT- 
ED STATES. 

The average size of each of the five mil- 
lion farms in the United States is 146 
acres. This small average is due to the 
160-acre and 80-aere farms in New Eng- 
land and the south. 



region west of the Missouri river is no more 
like its predecessor^ the ranch of a score of 
years ago, than is it similar to -an old New 
England homestead. But the principal dif- 
ference is in the management. The west 
is rapidly filling in with homeseekers, who 
are in turn taking all the government lands 
open for homestead entry. Indian reserva- 
tions, formerly nothing but vast cattle 
ranches, are being thrown open to white set- 
tlement. 




By courtesy of the McCormick Division, International Harvester Co. 
WHEAT IN THE STACK. 



AVERAGE SIZE OF FARMS IN THE 
SOUTHWEST. 

In the western division there are larger 
farms than in any other portion of the 
United States, the average size being 1,000 
acres in Oklahoma, western Kansas and 
Texas. In the Indian Territory the aver- 
age size of each Indian's holdings is 500 
acres. The western division also shows a 
larger increase in the prices of land than 
in any other section. 

NEW METHODS OF FARM AND RANCH 
MANAGEMENT. 

Farming and ranching have changed 
greatly within recent years. The modern 
farm in Kansas, Oklahoma or any prairie 



FARMS BELONGING TO INDIANS. 

The Indians are given farms of their 
own and told to go to work. Fifteen thou- 
sand Indians were placed on their individ- 
ual allotments in 1901, and 1,300 farms 
were given away to white settlers. This 
rapid settlement of the "West means a con- 
centration of farming and ranching inter- 
ests. The 1,000-aere farms are not being 
reduced in acreage, but are being turned 
over to expert managers. 

In the eastern and middle west states the 
farmer of to-day has anywhere from 100 to 
300 acres of land under cultivation. To 
spend a day on an American farm "is to 
learn much about where the enormous pro- 



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duct comes from which goes to feed the 
80,000,000 inhabitants of the United 
States, in addition to furnishing a consid- 
erable part of the food product for the use 
of foreign nations. 

AVERAGE AMERICAN FARMER IN EAST 
CIRCUMSTANCES. 

The American farmer of to-day, while 
in many instances not wealthy, is still com- 
fortably well off, and does not have to worry 
about where the next meal is coming from. 
He has a few cattle, owns several horses, 
and can go to town with as fine a turnout 
as any man of moderate means would de- 
sire. 

The farmer is quite an independent per- 
son, and when his work is done for the day, 
he goes into the house, gets out his country 
paper and enjoys its contents for an hour 
or two, smokes his pipe, and when it is 
time, goes to bed. In the morning he rises 
early, cares for his stock before breakfast, 
and when daylight comes, goes forth to 
work. 

WAGES OF FARM LABORERS. 

There was a time when the wages of the 
farm laborer were considerably more than 
they are at present In olden days farm 
hands were paid $30 and $40 per month 
and "found." To-day the wages average 



from $20 to $30, although in many of the 
western states, during harvest time, the pay 
for a short period ranges from $2 to $2.50 
per day. 

TO-DAY'S METHODS OF FARMING. 

The farmer of to-day uses all of the mod- 
ern methods which a few years ago were 
unknown. He has the latest style of thresh- 
ing machine ; his crops are cut by machin- 
ery, and, in fact, it has almost come to pass 
that his stock is fed by machinery. 

IMPROVEMENT IN ROADS. 

Roads that in former years were made 
by hand are to-day "cut" and "graded" by 
machinery, and so quickly is the work done 
that really bad roads are fast passing out 
of mind. 

IMPROVEMENT IN MAIL AND TELE- 
PHONE FACILITIES. 

Another innovation, the rural mail route 
service, enables the farmer to have his mail 
delivered at his house once or twice a day. 
The farming districts have also been con- 
nected with the city by telephone, which 
brings the American farmer in touch with 
all the world. These changes are doing 
much toward keeping the young men upon 
the farm instead of flocking to the city. 



BUGS COSTLIER THAN BATTLESHIPS 



HOW "UNCLE SAM" LOSES $358,000,000 EVERY YEAR BY INSECT 
PLAGUES THAT INFEST HIS GROWING CROPS. 



The magnificent warships constructed 
within the last decade by the United States 
government and designed to protect our flag 
against enemies from without, have im- 
posed an enormous burden of expense upon 



the nation. But our people are ever con- 
fronted by insidious- foes within, which in- 
flict upon the agricultural interests of the 
country losses aggregating far more in a 
single year than the cost of all the battle- 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



ships built by "Uncle Sam" from time im- 
memorial. These foes and these losses are 
thus specified: 

Cabbage worm $ 5,000,000 

Potato bug 8,000,000 

San Jose scale 10,000,000 

Grain weevil 10,000,000 

Apple worm 10,000,000 



Cotton worm 15,000,000 

Army worm 15,000,000 

Boll weevil (cotton) 20,000,000 

Boll worm (cotton) •. . 25,000,000 

Hessian fly 50,000,000" 

Grasshopper 90,000,000 

Chinch bug ~ 100,000,000 

Total $358,000,000 



A DAY WITH THE STOKER ON SHIP-BOARD 



The man who feeds the furnace of the 
marine boiler is summoned to his task at 
eight bells. 

A SLAVE OF TEE TOWERING BOILERS. 

Hurriedly donning his working outfit, 
he descends many rungs of iron ladders un- 
til he reaches an iron platform on the bot- 
tom of the hold, where for four hours he 
must strive as the slave of the two or three 
towering boilers in front of him. Above 
.him, through a circular opening, comes a 
current of fresh air, sent down by the big 
ventilator on deck. 

FEEDING THE ROARING FURNACE. 

With feet stretched wide apart on the 
sloppy platform, he seizes a shovel and 
throws wide open the doors of the roaring 
furnaces in turn, the vessel sometimes 
pitching violently. With tense muscles and 
a desperate sort of energy, he shovels in 
coal in great quantities, and occasionally 
rakes the surface of his fires. At intervals 
he pokes them with "slice" and "devil" to 
prevent clogging of the bars, until the fur- 
naces are in a fierce, white glow. 

CLEANING THE FIRES. 

When the stoker finds it necessary to 
"clean the fires," he throws open the door 



of one furnace, while the others, at their ut- 
most blast, are supplying the needed motive 
power. Laboriously working' his "slice" 
and "devil" into the innermost vitals of the 
raging mass, he pulls out a quantity of 
clinkers, blistering hot. This "he at once 
dampens, causing a choking smoke. After 
repeating the process several times, until 
the furnace bars are clear of obstruction 
and the upward draught is perfect, he re- 
plenishes the somewhat enfeebled fire with 
more fuel, and applies himself to the other 
furnaces likewise. 

All this requires incessant and intense 
exertion in the face of roasting heat, and 
involves an exhaustive strain upon the 
stoker. Instances have occurred in tropical 
climates where he was totally unable, when 
relieved, to climb on deck, but fell on the 
reeking floor, limp as a heap of wet rags. 

A DOUBLE BELIEF AND EXTRA RATION. 

On account of the severe requirements 
of his task the stoker has eight hours off, 
instead of the four hours which compose 
the sailors' relief period. It is not uncom- 
mon, -also, for him to be favored with a bet- 
ter ration than the sailors get, in the shape 
of a mess from the galley called the "black 



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pot," composed of remnants from the sa- 
loon passengers' fare. 

TEE COAL BUNKERS AND THE " TRIM- 
MER." 

The coal supply of the ship is stored in 
high bunkers, with water-tight doors open- 
ing into the stokehole. Out of these maga- 
zines the trimmer, also under a fearful 
strain, throws the coal to a point convenient 



for the stoker. Although not exposed to 
fiery heat, he has no cooling air-current 
from overhead, but must work in a close 
place, and with the aid of a safety lamp. 

COAL CONSUMED ON A SINGLE PASSAGE. 

Some ships use 3,000 tons of coal in a 
single passage, consuming from 20 to 30 
tons per hour. 



A DAY WITH THE BRAfCEMAN ON THE TRAIN 



On every freight train are two or more 
brakernen. The disagreeable features of 
their experience result mainly from severe 
weather, although they have much trouble 
with tramps. 

THE FREIGHT BRAKEMAN MUST BE "ON 
TOP." 

In running on ascending grades or at a 
slow speed, the brakeman can ride under 
cover, but in descending grades or when 
running fast, he must be on top, ready to 
apply the brakes instantly. 

THE RED FLAG. 

When a train is unexpectedly stopped on 
the road, the rear-end brakeman takes his 
red flag or lantern and hurries back half a 
mile to give the stop signal to any train 
which may be following. 

COUPLING THE CARS. 

Another duty of the brakeman is to 
couple the cars, the uncoupling being gen- 
erally devolved on the freight conductors. 
Both these tasks are dangerous and result 
in the loss of many lives. 
ASSEMBLING AND CHANGING THE CARS. 

The brakeman is on hand promptly at 
the hour of preparation for departure, and 



has a brief period of lively work in assem- 
bling the cars from different tracks, chang- 
ing cars from the front to the rear or mid- 
dle of the train, and setting aside those 
that are broken or disabled. 

GETS GOOD THINGS TO EAT. 

During much of his trip-time in the 
pleasant months of the year, the freight 
brakeman has an opportunity to get ac- 
quainted with the farmers, from whom he 
buys good things at low prices and lives on 
fine fruits, vegetables, etc. 

THE PASSENGER BRAKEMAN. 

The passenger brakeman has to deal more 
or less with the public, and his chief duties 
are those of a porter. On the modern "lim- 
ited" trains his day's work consists of a 
three hours' run without stop. 

FLAGGING AND FLIRTING. 

Occasionally the passenger brakeman 
must go back to "flag." In former days he 
was credited with much flirting along the 
run, and he has not altogether outgrown it. 
If he does well he will become a con- 
ductor. 



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A DAY IN THE CIGAR FACTORY 



Havana and Manila tobaccos only are 
used exclusively for cigars, although great 
quantities raised elsewhere are devoted to 
this purpose. 

BEGINNING AND DEVELOPMENT 07 THE 
MANUFACTURE. 

The manufacture of cigars in the United 
States began in a small way in 1801 ; the 
first factory was 
built nine years later. 
Before the civil war 
this country produced 
less than 200,000,- 
000 cigars; in 1875, 
2,000,000,000; in 
18 9 2, 4,500,000,- 
000. 

MACHINES TOR 

CIGAR MAKING. 

In America ma- 
chinery is used for 
manufacturing c i - 
gars wherever possi- 
ble,, and the molds 
for shaping them are 
made of hard wood, - 
sometimes partially lined with tin, and of 
every conceivable size and form. 

PROCESS OP MAKING CIGARS BY HAND. 

Cigars are composed of three parts, the 
cone, or filler, the binder and the wrapper. 
All of the very best cigars are probably 
made by hand. The maker rolls together, 



somewhat loosely, pieces of leaf placed lon- 
gitudinally, and on this he places the bin- 
der, around which he carefully winds the 
wrapper. 

THE CIGARMAXER'S TOOLS. 
The only tools used by the cigarmaker 
are a short-bladed sharp knife, a vessel con- 
taining an emulsion of gum, and a square 




TYPICAL SCENE IN A CIGAR FACTORY. 

wooden disk, or cutting board. The maker, 
after molding his bunch of fillers inside the 
binder, shapes a portion of perfect leaf to 
form the wrapper. When he has rolled this 
around the binder he deftly trims the thick 
end with his knife, secures the taper end by 
gumming and the cigar is ready for sorting 
and packing. 




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A DAY WITH THE CHAUFFEUR 



Good chauffeurs are at a premium. They 
can name their own salaries and almost reg- 
ulate the hours they desire to work. The 
salaries of good chauffeurs run from $40 to 
$150 a month, which includes "find," 

ABOVE THE COACHMAN, 

The position of the chauffeur is a pleas- 
ant one. He is so many degrees above the 
average coachman in the social scale that 
he is not to be considered in the same cate- 
gory. The coachman may become a chauf- 
feur, but it is not likely that the chauffeur 
ever will take the coachman's place. 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE WORK. 

The position of chauffeur is one young 
men will find worth having. Their salaries 
depend upon their abilities. It does not 
require a machinist to operate an automo- 
bile, but the man who undertakes it must be 
practical. He must understand every piece 
of machinery connected, with it, so that 
when anything goes wrong, he can deter- 
mine, by a quick examination, where the 
break has occurred. Then he can apply the 
necessary remedies and proceed as if noth- 
ing had happened. The position of chauf- 
feur at present is largely that of an "extra 
engineer," when his employer is along. He 
sits beside the driver and watches him op- 
erate the brake, and when anything hap- 
pens, leaves his place to make the required 
examination. 

PROMOTIONS IN AUTOMOBILE FACTO- 
RIES. 

There are scores of positions awaiting 
the bright, active young man in the agen- 
cies of the automobile factories, where by 



close application to work he can push him- 
self into a foremost place. 

In one of the agencies in Chicago is a 
young colored man, a graduate of an eastern 
college and of a pharmaceutical institute, 
who concluded he wanted to try something 
more enticing than mixing drugs. He en- 
tered the local agency at $12 per week, 
studied the machines for six months with 
an energy that soon made him their master, 
and was advanced steadily until he is now 
getting $80 per month, in a position where 
work is a pleasure. 

CHAUFFEUR MUST BE A YOUNG MAN. 

The chauffeur, to be successful, must be - 
a young man ; not too young, or he will lack 
discretion, but young enough to guarantee 
that every effort he makes will be felt, and 
that his employer will know he intends to 
make the business his for life. In the agen- 
cies he is employed to watch over the ma- 
chines, much as a mechanic goes over the 
parts of an engine. Whenever a purchaser 
calls, he may be sent out to "show off" the 
machine. 

CLERK SELLING THE MACHINE IS HIRED 
TO RUN IT. 

This occurs occasionally, but may hap- 
pen a dozen times a day. Then, when a 
machine is sold, the purchaser, if he intends 
to employ a chauffeur, usually requests the 
agent to direct him to a competent man to 
act in that capacity. Frequently it happens 
that the purchaser makes the offer directly 
to the young man handling the machine at 
the time, and he can name the terms or re- 
fuse, just as he pleases. 



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429 



This course is declared by agents to be 
the best for a young man to pursue if he 
can get into an agency, because it affords 
him the opportunity to study his machine. 
The agents prefer it themselves, because it 
insures a measure of protection to them, as 
they have the satisfaction of knowing a man 
is going out with the machine who under- 
stands and has faith in it. Hardly a day 
passes that does not bring an application or 
two to each agency for an experienced 
chauffeur. Many of these are left unfilled, 
because the agent will not recommend men 
who are not in touch with the business and 
have some ambition to succeed in it. 

Still another course is offered, however, 
although not conceded to be satisfactory. 
Young men enter the employ of firms op- 
erating automobiles for purposes of trans- 
portation. In working for such firms, how- 
ever, it is held he does not learn the ma- 
chine as he should, and when it breaks 
down, ia more likely to call for help than 
he is to get down and find out the trouble 
for himself. In connection with these firms, 
the union with which the drivers are affil- 
iated has established a wage scale ranging 
from $12 to $15 per week. 

A WHOLESOME OUTDOOR LIFE. 

In addition to considering the material 
phase of the chauffeur's situation, the life 
itself is not to be overlooked. It is largely 
outdoors in the open air that he spends his 
time. He sees the best parts of the city, the 
brightest side of life, as it were, as he 
speeds along the boulevards. In the coun- 
try he enjoys the best roads, although he 
may occasionally get stuck in a mudhole, 
and feel like saying what the golfer does 
when he finds his ball "bunkered." He 



dresses for business, not like the dandified 
coachman, who gets his horses in readiness 
and then dons his best livery to make a 
good appearance. His livery is a good work- 
ing suit and a serviceable cap, with heavy 
visor, and a pair of goggles to shield his 
eyes from the wind and dust. His face is 
flushed with the roses of health and his life, 
if he takes interest in his work, is one to 
be envied. 

GOOD CHAUFFEURS SCARCE— SALARIES 
AMPLE. 

With all these inducements to the young 
American in this new occupation, automo- 
bile managers cannot understand why it is 
that first-class young men are so hard to get. 
They observe with considerable regret that 
Frenchmen are coming into the country and 
securing the best positions, in which they 
are paid salaries that the average business 
man would consider ample remuneration 
for one of his head clerks. These salaries 
await the young man who is toiling his life 
away indoors, over a desk, and for a paltry 
sum. Then, the field is broadening each 
year. 

DEMAND FOR "AUTOS" EXCEEDS SUP- 
PLY. 

The majority of the factories have ceased 
taking orders for this year, because they 
cannot fill them. Next year there will be 
hundreds of machines put on the streets 
and a larger number of chauffeurs will be 
required. The number in the city of Chi- 
cago alone has increased 1,700 per cent in 
three years, and the popularity of the ma- 
chines has become so great that it is be- 
lieved to be only a question of a short time 
when the number will be reckoned by thou- 
sands instead of hundreds. 



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430 A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



A DAY IN THE TELEGRAPH OFFICE WITH THE OPERATOR 



THE FARM BOY'S FOND AMBITION. 

It is the ambition of most young men 
who reside upon the farm to become tele- 
graph operators. This desire usually has 
its inception soon after the farmer boy be- 
gins to make daily visits to the little rail- 
way depot, wherein is a young man who 
grasps a brass key and sends strange signs 
upon the wire, which, reaching a given 
point, take the form of messages and are 
delivered to the person or persons to whom 
they are addressed. 

As, day after day, the farmer boy watches 
the "city chap" handling the key, the more 
firm is his determination to learn telegraph- 
ing. After his courage has reached a cer- 
tain pitch, the young fellow approaches the 
regular operator, and, if things are favor- 
able, the young man is soon installed as 
"baggage master," or "switeh-light tender," 
and given charge of a few other things 
about the depot. This work is done in re- 
turn for instruction in telegraphy. 

AS A STUDENT IN THE OPERATOR'S OF- 
FICE. 

If the young student, as is not an infre- 
quent occurrence, is quite apt, he learns 
readily, and within a few months is able 
to accept a small position at some "way- 
station," where he earns a salary that 
ranges anywhere from $20 to $45 per 
month, but, more usually, from $25 to $35 
per month. The ambition of the majority 
of telegraph operators is to become, some 
day, train dispatchers and handle railroad 
"divisions." 

A QUICK EAR ESSENTIAL. 

In learning telegraphy it is quite essen- 
tial that the student be young and have a 



quick ear for different sounds. When he 
first takes up telegraphy, he is given a sheet 
of paper, on which are written all of the 
characters of the Morse alphabet. In addi- 
tion to the letters, there are certain punctu- 
ation marks and numbers from one to nine, 
with a "naught," which, with a figure one, 
makes ten. 

THE BEGINNER'S PROGRESS IN STUDY. 

Then the student begins to study the dots 
and dashes that have been placed before 
him. Upon investigation he finds that the 
letter "A" is composed of one dot and a 
dash, the dot being placed before tbe dash. 
Reverse this by placing the dash before the 
dot and you change the characters, making 
the letter "N." In a similar manner, "Z" 
is three dots, space, one dot, while reversed, 
is one dot, space, three dots, making the 
character "&." After the beginner has 
learned the telegraph alphabet by heart, he 
begins to practice making them upon the 
key. 

The tendency of all beginners is to grasp 
the key with too firm a hand, and they are 
wont to imagine within a very short time 
that they know more, and are better opera- 
tors, than those who are teaching them. 
In this the wise student soon finds out his 
mistake, and then he begins to learn much 
more than he ever did before about tele- 
graphing. 

EXPERT OPERATORS BORN, NOT MADE. 

Some operators — in fact, the most ex- 
pert press operators — are born, not made. 
It is as natural for some men to be tele- 
graph operators as it is for others "to be 
great musicians. 



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431 



A FULL- FLEDGED TELEGRAPHER. 

Having mastered the alphabet, the stu- 
dent is set to practicing how to send differ- 
ent forms of messages, figures, etc. In the 
first stages he usually wants the message 
before him in order to be able to send it. 
After a time he is able to send from his 
head, and a little later, he is a full-fledged 
operator. Theusual time required to learn 
to send and receive by sound is from six 
months to a year, according to the aptness 
of the student. Then it is that constant 
practice goes far toward making the suc- 
cessful operator. Once the art is learned, 
it can never pass from you, although your 
fingers get what old-time telegraphers term 
"a little rusty," still, they soon limber up 
and get back into their old-time speed. 

In telegraphing it is harder to learn to 
receive than to send. Perfect sending is 
only possible with long and constant prac- 
tice. If a person is nervous it will be 
shown in the work, for the sending will be 
"jerky." 

TELEGRAPHY AND TYPEWRITING. 

' In this day of telegraphy, typewriters 
are as essential as were the pencil and pen 
a half century ago. In fact, it is almost 
compulsory in most offices that the person 
applying for a position as telegraph opera- 
tor must be able to use a typewriter. In the 
studying of telegraphy many students seek 
the telegraph school. This is a mistake, 
for it is a delusion and a snare. In many 
eases, the "professor" barely knows the 
Morse alphabet. 

To properly learn telegraphy, the best 
place for a student is in an office where he 
can get real "main line" practice. This, 
and this alone, helps to make the successful 
operator. In commercial offices, messenger 
boys are often permitted to learn, and they 



frequently make excellent operators. The 
salaries of messengers range from $10 to 
20 per month. In the city department of a 
big commercial office, which is known to the 
profession as the "Met," the salaries range 
from $25 to $60. In other .branches and 
on heavy, first-class wires, the average sal- 
ary earned is from $70 to $85 for nine 
hours' work. 

The salaries of railroad operators range v 
from $25 to $60; that of the train dis- 
patcher from $75 to $100. The latter work 
in eight-hour shifts, and theirs is one of 
the most responsible tasks on the road. In 
handling the passenger trains, especially 
on a single track, the lives of the engineer, 
train crew and passengers are constantly 
in their hands. If a young man, or young 
woman, wishes to beqpme a telegraph op- 
erator, let him or her get into a telegraph 
office where the before-mentioned "main 
line" practice can be secured. Telegraph- 
ing, while it offers many novelties, is a 
very trying position, and one that is hard to 
fill with satisfaction, for a petty error may 
often cause considerable trouble. 

FUTURE OF TYPEWRITING. 

The typewriter, as above stated, has be- 
come a necessity. Business and newspaper 
offices cannot do without this instrument. 
It is only a matter of time when type- 
writers will be in common and constant 
use in our schools and many residences. 
A prediction was made not long ago by a 
distinguished writer on social questions to 
this effect: "It is tolerably certain that 
the typewriter will soon be found in as com- 
mon use in families as are sewing machines 
now." The bread and butter problem will 
naturally bring about tihis condition of do- 
mestic industry. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



A DAY ON AN OCEAN LINER WITH THE STEWARD 



The steward of an ocean liner has a big 
job on his hands when he provisions the 
great ship for its round trip between the 
United States and Europe. This journey 
generally takes about twelve days, and with 
its great cargo of human freight, the vessel 
is nothing short of a floating city. The 
amount of edibles and drinkables, to say 
nothing of other provisions for the passen- 
gers' comfort, gives the steward food for 
thought. 

A CREW OF 450 AND A PASSENGER LIST 
OF 8,000. 

In the first place, the ship carries about 
2,000 passengers, to say nothing of its big 
crew, 450 in number. 

ASSISTANTS NUMBER 150. 

To give an idea of the amount of work 
upon the steward's shoulders, it may be 
stated that he requires 150 assistants. He 
must care for the needs of the passengers, 
and one of the principal needs is the pas- 
sengers' stomach supply. 

TRIP REQUIRES 200 BARRELS OF FLOUR. 

The amount of bread consumed on board, 
which the steward has to provide, is in itself 
startling. Over 200 barrels of flour are 
stored away to help supply the bread and 
pastry. Next to bread, of course, comes 
meat. In the old days the steward must 
needs carry his livestock along and kill it 
on board. This, however, is all done away 
with now, for, with the modern improve- 
ments have come excellent refrigerating 
plants, and each ship is equipped with a 
big one, where tons of meats can be stored 
away conveniently. 



PASSENGERS EAT 54,000 FOUNDS OF 
FRESH HEAT. 

Into these compartments, the day before 
the ship sails away, the steward must pack 
20,000 pounds of beef, 14,000 pounds of 
lamb, 10,000 pounds of mutton, 500 pounds 
of veal and 500 pounds of pork. 

FIVE THOUSAND PIECES OF GAME 
NEEDED. 

Game also is in demand, especially 
among the first-cabin passengers, and Mr. 
Steward must see that all his people's wants 
are gratified. Therefore he packs away a 
stock that exceeds by far the supply of the 
greatest hotels in the country. Here also 
he stores over 5,000 pieces of game, includ- 
ing 500 spring chickens, 500 capons, 200 
roasting chickens, 300 fowls, 500 duck- 
lings, 50 goslings, 120 turkeys, 200 pheas- 
ants, 300 partridges, 800 squabs and. 600 
quails. 

FRESH FISH, 3,000 POUNDS— SALT FISH, 
2,500 POUNDS. 

Altogether, the steward must pack away 
in the refrigerators about 3,000 pounds of 
fresh fish and 2,500 pounds of salt fish. 
About 30 barrels of herring, something like 
15,000 in number, are also put away in the 
refrigerators. Besides these come 50 boxes 
of smoked fish, 500 pounds of lobsters, 400 
tins of sardines, 500 pounds of turtles, 20,- 
000 oysters and 10,000 clams. 

TRIP REQUIRES TOTAL ANNUAL EGG 
PRODUCT OF 277 HENS. 

Nor does this suffice. Eggs must be had 
in great numbers. The total annual prod- 
uct of 277 hens is consumed each trip. 



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433 



Nearly a ton and a half of oatmeal must be 
provided, most of which goes to the steer- 
age passengers. 

TWO TONS OP HAM— 5,000 POUNDS OP 
BUTTER. 

About two tons of ham and bacon are 
Used. Butter, jams, jellies and marma- 
lades are shipped in enormous quantities. 
About 5,000 pounds of butter are used, 
; and as much of jams and such sweets. 

SUGAR, 10,000 POUNDS— TEA, ONE TON— 
A TON AND A HALE OE COFPEE. 

Of sugar, 10,000 pounds are packed 
away. Almost a ton of tea and about a ton 
and a half of coffee are taken on board by 
the steward and his assistants. 

POTATOES NEEDED, 46 TONS. 

Enormous tanks of milk are filled and 
carried over to supply the passengers. Veg- 
etables in great amount add to the stores. 



Of this latter commodity, 46 tons of pota- 
toes are shipped. 

DISHES ALMOST INNUMERABLE. 

Besides taking care of all this produce, 
the steward must see to the china and the 
utensils used to cook and serve the food in. 
There are 250 coffee pots and tea pots, 200 
sugar bowls, 250 vegetable dishes, 100 but- 
ter dishes, besides 10,000 pieces of china 
for first and second cabin use, and 3,600 
plates and 1,500 cups for third-class pas- 
sengers. 

YEAR'S CONSUMPTION OP POOD ABOARD. 

In the course of a year, the steward 
makes about ten round trips, and in that 
time he has ordered and served 540,000 
pounds of meat, 50,700 head of poultry 
and game, 200,000 oysters, 25,000 eggs, 
15,000 pounds of tea, 25,000 pounds of 
coffee, 50,000 pounds of butter, 200,000 
oranges, and 2,000 barrels of flour. 



A DAY ON THE TROLLEY CAR, WITH ITS CREW 



To wear a uniform is the sole ambition 
of many young men. There are two uni- 
formed men on electric trolley cars. One 
is the conductor ; the other, the motorman. 
In olden times, there were no conductors or 
motormen as separate individuals; both 
were one and the same, in the person of the 
driver. The time was when there was no 
electricity, and the old familiar "bob- 
tailed" horse car wobbled along the public 
streets at an uncertain pace. 

To-day the modern trolley car bowls 
along our thoroughfares, and the ancient 
horse car has been relegated to the "bone- 
yard " or cut up for scrap iron and kin- 
dling wood. 



LONG HOURS AND "SPLIT" RUNS. 

In cities like Chicago, the working hours 
of motormen are long and tedious. They 
are compelled to get out very early in the 
morning, and are frequently obliged to 
work "split" runs, which have a tendency 
to deprive them of their natural amount of 
rest. This, of course, applies to the large 
cities, where the men are at their posts, on 
an average, ten hours each day. 

In order to give the reader an idea of 
what the duties of a conductor and motor- 
man are, we shall attempt only an outline ; 
brief it must necessarily be, but sufficiently 
comprehensive to enable the casual reader 
to understand their daily routine. 



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434 A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



THE CONDUCTOR. 

To secure the position of conductor, the 
applicant first visits the office of the street 
car company, where he fills out an applica- 
tion blank. This done, the applicant is 
placed on the "extra" list. In the mean- 
time, if his references have been found sat- 
isfactory, the "caller" is notified, and very 
soon the applicant is told to report for duty. 

When he puts in an appearance at the 
barns, he is placed in charge of a car and 
for several days makes trips under the di- 
rection of, or with, a "pilot." The duty 
of the pilot is to instruct the new conductor 
how to collect and ring up fares, issue trans- 
fers, and learn the various streets on which 
the line runs. 

HIS SALARY. 

When the pilot is satisfied that the new 
man understands the work he is expected 
to do, he so Teports to the superintendent 
and is relieved from further duty with the 
new conductor, who then makes his first trip 
alone. The salary of electric car conduct- 
ors ranges from 19 to 28 cents per hour. 
This scale only applies to cities where their 
organization is perfect, and where the men 
stand together. The conductor must have 
$50 in cash to deposit before he makes his 
first trip. This is remitted when he leaves 
the service of the company. 

HIS WORE AND LENGTH OP SERVICE. 

The life of a conductor is anything but 
a pleasant one, as he is compelled to take 
considerable abuse which is heaped upon 
him by a class of passengers who are con- 
stantly on the alert to quarrel. Conductors 
do not, as a rule, remain more than four 



or six years with a street car company. 
They become dissatisfied and resign. 

THE MOTORMAN'S VEXING TASK. 

The motorman, who is so often held 
responsible for accidents, has even a harder 
row to hoe than the conductor, for it is his 
duty to keep his car running on time, and 
in order to do so he often loses his temper 
on account of drivers of heavy truck wag- 
ons, who insist on holding the right of way, 
despite the fact that the motorman has sig- 
naled several times with the gong. 

The motorman must ever be on the alert 
to prevent accidents. The car may be mov- 
ing along at a moderate rate of speed, when, 
without warning, a man runs directly across 
the track, and if the motorman does not. 
act quickly, the man may be injured or 
killed. Again, a reckless driver of some 
vehicle may attempt to cut off the car, 
which sometimes results in a collision, and 
is the cause of heavy damages suits against 
the company. 

AN APPRENTICESHIP IN THE SHOPS — 
TEE "PIDOT." 

Nervous, excitable men do not make good 
motormen. A steady man, with nerves 
that can withstand sudden and unexpected 
shocks, is the one who lasts longest in this 
capacity. In order to become competent 
for the position, one must generally serve 
an apprenticeship in the shops. Even in 
that case, a pilot is sent along for several 
days, as in the case of the new conductor. 
WAGES OF MOTORMEN. 

The wages of motormen at present are 
from 24 to 29 cents per hour. The work 
is hard, and therefore competent motormen 
are almost always in demand. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 435 
A DAY IN THE FIELD WITH WOMEN WORKERS 

FEMALE FIELD TOILERS NUMBER 450,000. 



- Four hundred and fifty thousand women 
toil in the fields of this country. This 
large number of women laborers is distrib- 
uted over the United States, but the ma- 
jority are to be found in the East. 

In the vicinity of Jamaica, Long Island, 
the women in the fields are so numerous as 
to remind one of Austria or Italy. Every- 
where in the East are to be seen the brown- 
eyed women, busily working out in the sun, 
in the level fields. 

A SCENE AT EVENING TIME. 

At evening time, when the sun has sunk 
behind the trees of Woodhaven, the tourist 
may see before him many a scene suggested 
by Millet's "Angelus," the women with the 
hoe being much in evidence. 

LONG ISLAND'S WOMEN FARM HANDS — 
HOW THEY ARE HIRED. 

Long Island's women farm hands are 
mainly Poles, from Russian Poland. They 
work for American, Irish and German 
truck farmers, who hire them by the day. 
In harvest time, when a farmer needs 
women laborers, he lays in a stock of $1 
bills, and passes the word to one of his 
men. The man stops the first Pole he 
meets, and points to a field. Few Poles 
speak English, but the sign is enough. The 
man's work is done. Next morning, at the 
farm gate, 50 women may be waiting. 
WHAT THEY DO. 

Women are employed for planting on- 
ions, for harvesting crops that are picked 
by hand, such as green peas, string beans, 
lima beans and tomatoes ; for bunching rhu- 



barb and for weeding tender crops, like on- 
ions and young carrots, that cannot stand 
a cultivator. 

PLANTING AND PICKING TIME. 

In planting time, and in June and Sep- 
tember, when the first and second crops of 
peas are gathered, the outflocking of women 
is sudden. One may see as many as 50 
at work in a plot of a few acres, where, the 
day before, there was not one. 

JUNE PEAS AND BABY CARRIAGES. 

In June, when green peas must be rushed 
to market, and every day's delay means 
monetary loss, the larger farmers need all 
the help they can get, and so even women 
with babies are set picking. Up and down 
the fields, between long, straight, green 
rows of vines, stand baby carriages, cov- 
ered with mosquito netting. While the 
mothers work, the babies sleep or take in 
the sunshine. 

CHILDREN PULLING PODS. 

As soon as children are old enough to 
pull a pod they, too, are called into service, 
and at noon, when work stops, and the 
luncheon of rye bread, cheese and onions is 
eaten, the scene is festive. Groups gather 
by families under trees or shelters thatched 
with green bows. Sometimes, among Itali- 
ans or French laborers, there is singing. 

FARM WOMEN'S WAGES. 

The wages received by women farm hands 
are better than might be supposed. For 
filling a . two-bushel bag of peas a picker gets 
25 cents ; for beans, half as much. At these 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



rates a good hand earns $1.50 per day. 
One reason for comparatively high earnings 
is curious. The old two-busheled bag has 
gradually shrunk in size, until now it holds 
only a bushel and a half. 



The farmers have tried to substitute the 
bushel as the unit of measure, but the 
women object, and the bag measure is still 
customary. 



A DAY AT THE THROTTLE WITH THE ENGINEER 



The locomotive engineer and the train 
dispatcher hold the two most responsible po- 
sitions on the railroad. The former clings 
to the throttle, while the latter sits before 
a train sheet in the dispatcher's office and 
regulates the running of the train on which 
the engineer sits in the cab, with his eye 
straight ahead. 

THE ENGINEER'S APPRENTICESHIP. 

To become an engineer, one must pre- 
viously pass through a regular course of 
instruction. First, the apprentice who 
seeks to become an engineer goes to the mas- 
ter mechanic of the "division" and makes 
application for work. 

FIRST A WIPER IN THE ROUNDHOUSE. 

He is then placed in the roundhouse as a 
wiper. This duty consists in cleaning the 
engines as tbey come in. His salary ranges 
from $1.10 to $1.25 per day. 

"FIRING ENGINES" IN THE "YARD." 

If the applicant shows ability, he is soon 
promoted to the task of "firing" engines. 
The next step is when the young "stoker," 
as he is sometimes called, is placed on a 
switch engine in the yard, to act as extra 
fireman. In this capacity he may remain 
for several months ; in fact, some serve from 
one to three years in the yard before they 
are permitted to run upon the road. 

After a time, however, the novice be- 



comes proficient enough to be given a trial 
on the road, under the watchful eye of a 
pilot. 

THE FIREMAN'S DUTY UN THE "RUN." 

When one or two trips have been made in 
this way the fireman becomes a full-fledged 
knight of the scoop, and begins to draw a 
fireman's pay, which averages about $3.25 
per hundred miles. The duty of a fireman, 
is to keep up sufficient steam with which to 
run the engine, to keep a sharp lookout, 
when not otherwise engaged, for all track 
obstructions, and to ring the bell and take 
signals from the train crew. In addition 
to this, he is expected to keep his locomotive 
in splendid condition, and not infrequently 
does he clean the entire "jacket" every trip, 

A HARD AND HAZARDOUS TASK. 

The work is hard and hazardous. A 
broken rail may, without warning, cause a 
wreck and kill the fireman. Despite the 
dangers attached to this position, hundreds 
of applicants are ready to accept it when 
offered. 

STATIONARY ENGINEERS. 

In cities, stationary engineers are usually 
paid by the day, their salaries ranging from 
$3.25 to $4.50 per day. There are schools 
where engineering is taught, but the most 
successful engineers are those who -have 
learned their trade by active service under 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



437 



an old fireman or engineer. The stationary 
engineer also serves as fireman, unless it be 
where the engine and boiler are too large, 
in which case a fireman and an engineer are 
employed. 

PROMOTED TO SWITCH ENGINEER. 

When the fireman has run upon the road 
a certain length of time, he is promoted to 
be engineer of a switch engine, doing duty 
in the "yards." - Here he remains for, at 
least, one or two years before he is placed 
upon the road in charge of an engine. 

FIRST TRIPS AS ROAD ENGINEER, WITH 
PILOT. 

His first trips as engineer are under the 
direction of an old engineer, who acts as 
his pilot, and who teaches him the roa<l in 



order that he may know the grades, the 
crossings where whistles are to be blown, 
and obtain any information that is neces- 
sary. 

EREIGHT ENGINEER, 

Then comes the time when he makes his 
first trip alone. That is a happy moment to 
the ambitious engineer. With his promo- 
tion comes a nice increase in salary he 
draws "freight-engineer" rates, which are 
about $4 per hundred miles. 

RUNS A PASSENGER ENGINE. 

After a time, he is placed upon a passen- 
ger train, where, also, he gets an increase 
in salary, but at the same time, incurs more 
responsibility and more danger. A success- 
ful engineer averages about $160 per 
mouth. 



A DAY ON THE LOCOMOTIVE WITH THE FIREMAN 

HOW THE FIREMAN BEGINS. 

he is in course of time placed on the extra- 
fireman list. If he continues to make him- 
self useful, heMs, after awhile, promoted to 
be a regular fireman. 

A PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION. 

Many railroad companies require, on the 
part of their firemen, a good common-school 
education, and subject them to an examina- 
tion in certain branches. 

DETAILS OP THE FIREMAN'S WORE. 

When the fireman is about to make his 
regular trip, he reports at the roundhouse, 
draws the necessary supplies, and sees that 
the lubricators, lamps, oil cans, tank and 
sand boxes are filled. If he uses soft coal, 
he sees that it is broken and wet down ; that 




THE FIRST LOCOMOTIVE— 1830. 

The locomotive fireman usually serves an 
apprenticeship as an engine wiper in the 
roundhouse. Sometimes he also empties 
the clinker pits and performs other kinds 
of drudgery. If his work is satisfactory, 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



the cab and its fittings are wiped, the ash- 
pan cleaned, and that the grates are 
straight to keep the coal from dropping 
through. He then compares his watch with 
that of the engineer. 

TWO SYSTEMS OF FIRING. 

There are two systems of firing. In the 
banking system, used with coal having few 
clinkers, a large quantity of coal is placed 
in the rear of the firebox, so that the gases 
and hydro-carbons may be expelled and the 
coal may become coke. This is little used. 
The spreading system requires that the coal 
be broken into pieces about the size of a 
large apple. 

THE COAL WELL IGNITED. 

In starting, the fireman sees that the coal 
is well ignited, so that he need not open 
the firebox door until the train has gained 
considerable headway, and the lever has 
been hooked up, with consequent lighter 
pull from the exhaust. 



IN APPROACHING A STOPPING POINT. 

In approaching a stopping point, he 
shuts down the dampers, and if fresh coal 
has been recently applied he opens the 
blower and leaves the firebox door slightly 
ajar, to prevent the escape of smoke and 
gases. 

THE ENGINEER'S ASSISTANT. 

The fireman is the engineer's assistant, 
and is liable in an emergency to assume the 
latter's duties, or to take charge of another 
engine. To a considerable extent, it has 
been the usage among railway systems to 
allow engineers to select their own firemen, 
as it is important that these two trainmen 
shall be on the best of terms. The selection 
is subject, however, in a general way, to the 
assent of the master mechanic. 

DIFFICULT AND DANGEROUS. 

The work of an engineer and fireman is 
difficult and dangerous, and requires keen 
vigilance, close assiduity and iron nerve. 



TRAVEL BY NIGHT 



In the leisurely days of old, armies went 
into winter quarters as the autumn waned 
and active operations were postponed until 
the next spring. Modern warfare is not reg- 
ulated by the almanac. Travel is, likewise, 
now continuous where once it was broken by 
the alternation of day and night. When 
men journeyed to or from London, by road 
wagons, they often spent days upon the 
road. 

THE OLD-TIME INN. 

Early or late in the evening, as conve- 
nience dictated, the traveler arrived at the 
door of his inn and was heartily welcomed. 
Boniface took him in, supplied him with 




Chicago & Alton Railroad Company. 
SLEEPING CAR. 



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439 




PULLMAN SLEEPING CAR OP "PIONEER 
LIMITED" — CHICAGO & NORTH-WESTERN H. R. 



good meat and drink, put him to bed in a 
f our-poster, heavily curtained and valanced, 
aroused and breakfasted him in the morn- 
ing, and sent him on his way rejoicing in 
being able to travel in a civilized manner in 
a civilized country. 

A JOURNEY FROM EDINBURGH TO LON- 
DON. 

A journey from Edinburgh to London 
meant spending a week or more on the road, 
while travelers from near points often slept 
one night on the way. In this country trips 
from New York to Chicago were almost 
unheard of, and even then they consumed 
weeks. 

Dwellers in the country and town alike 
were not all stay-at-home people, and even 
if travelers on pleasure or business were 
comparatively few, the necessities of com- 
merce kept the roads busy. 

INTRODUCTION OF THE MAIL COACH. 

The first great encroachment of travel 
on the hours of night came with the intro- 
duction of the mail-coach system. Then 
innkeepers of the old school had good rea- 
son to shake their heads and wonder what 



the world was coming to, as guests who 
once alighted and passed the night under 
their hospitable roofs refreshed themselves 
only during a brief interval, and then clam- 
bered into their uncomfortable seats to rat- 
tle through the livelong night. Night trav- 
eling by stage coach had its many charms, 
and the poetry of motion of the old English 
stage-coach was something everybody, or 
nearly everybody, hoped to enjoy. 

EXIT OF THE MAIL COACH. 

With the exit of the mail-coach and the 
entrance of the train, night traveling en- 
tered upon a new development ; but for a 
very long time there was very little im- 
provement in the conditions of traveL save 
in the one item of speed. 

NIGHT EXPRESSES. 

Night expresses, rare at first, became nu- 
merous, and passengers many of whom 




By courtesy of Lawrence Co. 
MODERN PRIVATE APARTMENT RAILROAD CAR. 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway System, 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



could remember the old methods of road 
travel, became accustomed to the idea of be- 
ing whirled from London to Edinburgh, or 
from London to Penzance, during the brief 
hours of a single night. Although an im- 
mensely increased speed was gained, little 
was done to provide in any special way for 
the comfort of passengers at night. They 
crowded themselves into their corners and 
slumbered uneasily through the weary 
hours, as the train thundered and roared 
through the sleeping country. 



ADVENT OF SLEEPING CABS. 

But at last, imported from America, 
where the great distances to be traversed 
acted as a stimulant to the ingenuity of in- 
ventors, there dawned upon railway man- 
agers the idea of sleeping berths, and sleep- 
ing cars have worked almost as a great a 
revolution in night travel for those who can 
afford them, as the coming of the railway 
has in the conditions of travel generally. 
Night travel need no longer be a thorn in 




THE FIRST RAILWAY MOTOR IN ENGLAND. 



The London and Southwestern Railway 
is experimenting with motor-coaches for 
the lighter suburban traffic. The coaches 
are fifty-six feet long, and are divided into 
two compartments, accommodating ten 
first-class and thirty-two third-class passen- 
gers, and one ton of luggage. The engine 
can attain a velocity of thirty miles an hour 
in thirty seconds. 



the flesh of the traveler who can engage a 
berth in a sleeper, and even for the much 
larger number who know nothing of sleep- 
ing berths, the immense improvements 
which recent years have brought in the con- 
struction and fittings of railway carriages, 
and in their smoothness and rapidity of 
motion, have robbed night travel of much 
of its old discomfort and wearing fatigue. 



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A THOUSAND THINGS WELL WORTH KNOWING 



A NEW TYPE OF PASSENGER LOCOMOTIVE 



The accompanying cut shows a simple 
passenger locomotive, which is especially 
interesting as being of about the normal 
size attained by tbe eight-wheel engine be- 
fore it developed into the Atlantic type. 
The following are its dimensions and dis- 
tinguishing features : Cylinders, 19 by 28 
inches; the boiler pressure is 200 pounds, 
and the driving wheels, 79 inches in diame- 
ter, give a tractive effort of 21,751 pounds. 
With these dimensions the eight-wheel en- 
gine would have had. a grate area of about 
29.16 square feet and a total heating sur- 
face of about 2352.8 square feet, of which 
180 square feet would have been in the 
firebox and 2172 in the tubes. 

EFFECT OF ADOPTING THE TRAILER. 

By adopting the trailer, the grate area 
has been increased to 45.1 square feet, and 
the total heating surface to 2878.75 square 
feet, of which the tubes contain 2716.75 
square feet and the fire-box 162 square 
feet, or, in other words, the increases have 
been 525.9 square feet in total heating sur- 
faces, and 15.94 square feet in grate area. 

The result, however, is a locomotive with 
much greater boiler capacity than could 
have been supplied to an eight-wheel engine 
with the same weight per driving axle. The 
main driving axle, by the way, is of nickel 
steel, the others being of iron. 

Cylinders 19 by 28 inches 

Boiler, diameter 62 inches 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Fire-box, length 100 inches 

Fire-box, width 6414 inches 

Heating surface, fire-box 162 sq. ft. 

Total 2878.75 sq. ft. 




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Tubes 2716.75 sq. ft. 

Grate area 45.1 sq. ft. 

Driving wheel, diameter, outside .... 79 in. 



Engine truck wheels, diameter 36 in. 

Weight on driving wheels 85,790 lbs. 

Total engine and tender, about.289,000 lbs. 



THE CANADIAN LUMBER INDUSTRY 



In early times the forests of Canada ex- 
tended in an almost unbroken stretch from 
the Atlantic ocean to the head of Lake Su- 
perior, a distance of 2,000 miles. 

LUMBERING NEXT TO AGRICULTURE. 

Next to agricultural pursuits, in which 
56 per cent of the population are engaged, 
lumber is the most important industry of 
the Dominion. The capital invested in it 
represents $100,000,000, the annual out- 
put amounts to $100,000,000, and the an- 
nual wage list is more than $30,000,000. 

A "WOODEN - COUNTRY." 

The reputation of Canada as a "wooden 
country" rests primarily on the fame of 
its white pine in the province of Ontario. 



THE TIMBER OP QUEBEC. 

The chief lumber riches in the province 
of Quebec consist of spruce, with some 
pine and birch timber, and cover an area 
of 48,000 square miles. 

NEW BRUNSWICK'S TIMBER LAND. 

In New Brunswick the area of timber 
land under license is 6,000 miles. 

EORESTS OP BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

To British Columbia, however, be